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drainage which should meet all sanitary requirements. In the management of these departments we find the same principles realized as in the case of street cleaning. No debate, no difference of opinion existed as to the proper method of meeting the problem. Officials whose scientific training and administrative capacity were generally recognized were placed in charge. With each it was made a lifework, and the public expected in return the continual improvement of the service in conformity with the latest advances in engineering and sanitation.

The result has been a gas and water supply and drainage system which are the envy of American tourists. With an excellent water supply, to which the reduction of mortality from 31.2 to 21.57 in ten years is in no small measure due, the department has, nevertheless, continually shown a surplus of receipts over expenditures, which in 1892, amounted to over one million dollars.

In the city gas works, where the same methods prevail, the surplus was more than one and a half millions, although the price of gas was thirty per cent less than at Philadelphia, and its lighting power at least twenty-five per cent greater. The city markets and slaughter-house, which are models of business-like administration, also yield a surplus of nearly half a million. The profits are very much reduced by the fact that of late years the desire to extend all municipal services to all classes of the population has led to a reduction of their cost to the citizens.

Perhaps the most interesting chapter in the history of the municipal government of Berlin is the relation of the city to its street railway companies. Not only did it require certain payments for the original franchise, not only does it hold the companies to the strict fulfillment of their contract obligations as regards street cleaning and paving, but it has assured to itself annual payments, which increase with the growth of the city. It did not hamper the companies through an enormous license tax on each car, as Paris has done, but

stipulated that the company should pay a certain percentage of its gross receipts into the city treasury, ranging from four per cent when such total receipts are less than $1,500,000, to eight per cent when they exceed $4,000,000. Last year the income from this source amounted to $300,000. The franchises were only granted for a period of forty years, at the end of which (1911) all street-car lines become the property of the city. The rolling-stock must be sold to the city by the company at a reasonable figure or else suffer expropriation.

We have in these departments under consideration a few of the instances where the intense municipal life of Berlin finds its expression in efficient services at a low cost. The feeling of solidarity which is the direct product of the keen general interest in municipal affairs has given birth to a mass of municipal institutions which have enormously increased the field of municipal usefulness. We have instances of this in the "Municipal Fire Insurance Institute," through which the city protects property owners at very low rates, the "Municipal Mortgage Loan Institute," which has been productive of much good in loaning money on mortgage security, the " Municipal Collateral Loan Institute," which has made pawnbroking abuses a thing of the past, and has relieved untold suffering. At every turn the study of Berlin life shows us this active interest of the citizen in public affairs and the consequent appreciation of the unlimited possibilities of municipal life.

This is the great lesson Berlin has to teach us. It is to the general recognition of the same principles that we must look for any radical and permanent changes in our methods of city government. The attitude of our urban population toward municipal institutions must change, as well as that of our State governments. The citizens must be made to see and feel what their city can do, if they only choose to make it what it should be. When we see the magnificent results accomplished by Berlin can we any longer doubt as

to our own possibilities? With political education more highly developed, with superior business capacities and wellbeing more generally diffused, there is no reason why we should not develop a municipal life and city government which shall outrank in its achievements all European cities. Berlin experience points to the principles we must first recognize. In the discussion of the paper Professor Falkner said: "The paper has commended in the municipal government of Berlin on the one hand the mechanism of its administration, on the other the extent and excellence of municipal services. The budgets of Berlin and Philadelphia are nearly equal. Berlin is truly the larger city in population, but not in area. In 1880 Berlin had 36,000 dwelling places, Philadelphia, 142,000. That means for Philadelphia a much larger area to be supplied with water, gas and electricity, of streets to be paved and streets to be cleaned, and a much vaster extent of the sewage system. If we always bear in mind the system of construction in America as compared with European cities, I feel sure that we shall find municipal services in the former by no means so extravagantly costly as they are often represented to be."

Mr. J. G. Rosengarten said: "Mr. Chairman, Dr. Rowe's paper is one of great value and interest. I wish he had put more stress on Stein's organization of the German municipalities, as part of his preparation for that popular uprising against Napoleon, which has culminated in our own day in the establishment of the German Empire as the great factor of modern Europe. Gneist did good work in the charter of Berlin, but it was only part and parcel of the reorganization which followed the making of the Germany of to-day by Bismarck and Moltke. It must always be borne in mind that the military spirit governs both Berlin and Prussia, as parts of the Empire, which is itself based on military strength. It is the strong hand of the army that controls the City of Berlin and makes its administration to-day such a shining example of what municipal government can do.

The Mayor of Berlin is practically chosen by the Emperor, not by popular suffrage, and he is selected for capacity shown and tested in other cities, and not on party grounds. The legislative body of Berlin is practically composed of paid experts, trained by long years of study for their work. The universities of Germany teach administration, kameralwissenschaft is one of the branches of liberal education, and admission to the bureaucracy is made by the test of successive examinations, and not by a 'boss' or by a political pull. The imperial purse is drawn on liberally for those great improvements that have made Berlin in fact as well as in name, the capital of Germany. With such aid it is not surprising that Berlin is to-day the best administered city of the world. It draws strength from the co-operation of its best citizens, not by popular votes, but as representatives of its leading guilds. It is as though the College of Physicians, the Board of Trade and similar bodies here were to select their best men to represent in the city government those matters of which they have special cognizance. The people have little as a body to do with the choice of those who govern them. There is no such anomaly as schools controlled by local boards chosen by the people and a central board chosen by the judges, but the Department of Education, under a minister of State, assisted by experts who have made a lifelong study of pedagogy, absolutely control the schools. The only popular representation in their affairs is in the visitors nominated by the government from those really qualified to test the work done in the schools-university professors, medical men, clergymen, lawyers, merchants, all experts in their special subjects, and all they can do is to give advice, based upon actual personal observation of methods and results. They have nothing to do with the choice of the teachers, for that is part and parcel of that personal and paternal government which still holds good of every part of the German Empire. The dissatisfaction of the body of the people with militarism and bureaucracy is

shown in the selection of socialists and advanced liberals and others in opposition to the existing party in power and its methods, but they can do little harm and less good in the actual administration of either city or State. Berlin has undoubtedly been transformed in the last twenty years, but this has been done by men and methods that can never be secured here. We can, however, learn from its technical administration to abolish our slums, to mend our ways, to secure a good water supply, to reform our finances, to introduce a larger share of unpaid supervision, and to make that 'New Philadelphia' for which we are all heartily hoping.

"Let me commend to your attention Mr. Pollard's capital little book on the 'Municipal Administration of Berlin.' He speaks with the authority and experience gained in working for reform in Glasgow, and what has been done there has been done too in Birmingham and Manchester, and in other large English towns. We are all indebted to Dr. Rowe for his exhaustive study of the theory upon which the work has been done in Berlin, and it is applied with equally good results in Hamburg and Magdeburg and other German towns. It cannot, however, be introduced here, and we must work out our own difficulties for ourselves, helped on perhaps by the example of German and English experience, but relying on our own mother wit for a relief from the recognized evils of our own municipal administration and of that which weighs so heavily on other American cities, nearly all in need of thoroughgoing reform.

"The Bullitt Bill has done much for Philadelphia, but much more remains to be done. It is very gratifying to find the good work of the graduating class of the Wharton School in their careful study of our city government in the volume of essays lately printed. Some member of some future graduating class profiting by the instruction there received, may yet hit upon a plan for such reforms as will secure for Philadelphia that administration of its needs and its resources that will best meet the question that has as yet

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