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In Conrad's Handwörterbuch, the articles, "Fawcett," gesetzgebung in Grossbritannien," "Konsumtionsbudget der Haushaltung." In the Dictionary of Political Economy, edited by R. H. Inglis Palgrave, "Arbuthnot," "Arithmetic political," "Arm"" Arnd," 99 66 strong," Arnould," Atkinson," "Balance of Trade," "Barbon," "Barrington," "Bell," "Bernard," "Block." "Boecler," "Boucerf," Boulainvilliers," "Bray, C.," "Bray, J. F.," "Brewster," "Brissot de Warville," "Butel-Dumont," "Cantillon," Dangeul," ," "De la Jonchère,” and “ Diderot." Furthermore, contributions to industrial and labor questions and statistics in the publications of the Chamber of Commerce of Brünn, numerous reviews in scientific periodicals, and shorter articles in the weekly press.

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Graz.-Dr. Ernest Mischler,* formerly Extraordinary Professor at Prague, has been appointed Ordinary Professor of Statistics and Political Economy at the University of Graz, and entered upon his duties in November, 1893. At the same time he was appointed Director of the Statistical Office of Styria, and is at present engaged in the organization of bureau. In conjunction with Professor J. Ulbrich, of Prague, Professor Mischler has begun the publication of an "Oesterreichisches Staatswörterbuch," an encyclopædia of public law in Austria, which will probably, when completed, consist of over 2000 large pages. In this comprehensive work as many as seventy scholars throughout Austria are co-operating. To the list of Professor Mischler's publications noted in a previous number of the ANNALS should be added the following:

"Handbuch der Verwaltungsstatistik.”

I Band. "Die Grund

lagen der Verwaltungsstatistik." Pp. 323. Stuttgart, 1893. "Amtliche Statistik in den einzelnen Staaten." Conrad's Handwörterbuch.

"Die österreichische Gewerbe-Inspektion." Gesetzgebung.

Archiv für soziale

"Internationale Statistische Uebersichten" (conjointly with G. v. Mayr). Allgemeines statistisches Archiv.

Further, a number of briefer articles in the Handelsmuseum, Blätter für soziale Praxis and Sozialpolitisches Centralblatt.


Paris. One of the leaders of earlier Socialism, Victor Considerant, died at an advanced age at Paris, Dec. 27, 1893. M. Considerant was born at Salino, Jura, on October 12, 1808. Early in life he became a convert to the Socialistic doctrines of Saint Simon and Fourier. After Fourier's death he edited Fourier's journal, La Phalange. *See ANNALS, vol. ii, p. 541, January, 1892.

After the February revolution he sat in the Constituent and Legislative Assemblies. In 1849 he went to Belgium, and thence sailed for America, where he purposed preaching the Socialism of Fourier. He did not return to Paris until 1869. Since then he had lived in the French capital. He published many works on Socialism. Among them are:

L'apocalypse, ou la prochaine rénovation démocratique et sociale de l'Europe." 1849.

Considérations sur l'architectonique." Paris, 1835. "La conversion, c'est l'impôt." Paris, 1837.

"Contre M. Arago; réclamation adressée à la chambre des députés par les rédacteurs du feuilleton de la Phalange." Paris, 1840.

"Les quatre crédits, ou 60 millions à 11⁄2 p. 100. Crédit de l'immeuble. Crédit du meuble engagé. Crédit du meuble libre ou du produit. Crédit du travail." Paris, 1851.

"Débâcle de la politique." Paris, 1836.

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‘Déraison et dangers de l'engouement pour les chemins de fer." Paris, 1836, libr. sociétaire; 1838, au bureau de la Phalange.

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'Description du phalanstère et considérations sociales sur l'architéctonique." Paris, libr. phalanst, 1848; 3 édition, libr. sociétaire, 1848.

"Destinées sociales, exposition élémentaire complète de la théorie sociétaire" (dédié au roi). 2 vols. Paris, 1836. Nouv. édition, 1851. "Exposition du système phalanstérien de Fourier." 3 édition, Paris, 1848.

“Exposition abrégée du système phalanstérien de Fourier." Paris, 1845. "Exposition abrégée du système phalanstérien de Ch. Fourier suivi d'études sur quelques problèmes fondamentaux de la destinée sociale." 3 édition, 1872.

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'La dernière guerre et la paix definitive de l'Europe." Bruxelles, 1850.

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Manifeste de l'école sociétaire fondée par Fourier, ou bases de la politique positive." 1841.

"De la politique générale et du rôle de la France en Europe, suivi d'une appréciation de la marche du gouvernement depuis juillet, 1830." Paris, 1840.

"De la politique nouvelle convenant aux intérêts actuels de la société et des conditions de développement par le publicité." 1843

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Principes du socialisme. Manifeste de la démocratie au XIX siècle. Suivi de Procès de la Démocratie pacifique." Paris, 1847.

"Le socialisme devant le vieux monde, ou le vivant devant les morts, suivi de Jésus-Christ devant les conseils de guerre par Victor Meunier." Paris, 1849.

"La solution, ou le gouvernement direct du peuple." Paris, 1851. "De la souveraineté et de la régence." Paris, 1842.

"Au Texas." (École sociétaire, année XXIII.) Paris, 1854. "Théorie du droit de propriété et du droit au travail." 3 édition. Paris, 1848.

"Théorie de l'éducation naturelle et attrayante." Paris, 1845.


Marburg. Dr. Carl Bergbohm was appointed in 1893 Ordinary Professor of Public and International Law and the Philosophy of Law at the University of Marburg. He was born in Riga, Russia, and attended the Municipal Gymnasium of that city, 1862-67. Entering, in 1867, the University of Dorpat, he devoted himself for two years mainly to mathematics and then turned his attention to jurisprudence and political science. He secured, in 1874, the degree of candidatus juris, and spent the years 1875 and 1876 in traveling in Germany and Austria. In the latter year he became magister juris, and privat dozent at the University of Dorpat. The following year he was made salaried docent (professor adjunct). Later, 1880-81, he spent two years in Western Europe, while in 1884, he became doctor juris, and professor ad interim at Dorpat, and a year later secured the title of Russian Councillor of State. In 1893 he was called as Extraordinary Professor to Marburg, where his promotion to Ordinary Professor soon followed.

Professor Bergbohm is an associate of the Institut de droit international, a member of the Gelehrter Estnischen Gesellschaft in Dorpat, and of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. His published works include:

“Staatsverträge und Gesetze als Quellen des Völkerrechts." Pp. 110. Dorpat, 1876. Leipzig, 1877.

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Die bewaffnete Neutralität 1780-1783, eine Entwickelungsphase des Völkerrechts in Seekriege." Pp. 290. Berlin, 1884.

German edition of F. v. Marten's " 'International Law." Berlin. 2 vols., 1883 and 1886.

"Jurisprudenz und Rechtsphilosophie." I Band. "Das Naturrecht der Gegenwart." Pp. 566. Leipzig, 1892.

Münster.-Dr. Magnus Biermer was appointed October, 1893, Extraordinary Professor of the Political Sciences at the Academy of Münster, in Westphalia. He was born at Berne, Switzerland, November, 22, 1861, and received his early education in the schools of Zürich and the gymnasium of Breslau. He entered the University of Breslau, devoting himself mainly to legal studies, which he afterward pursued at Munich (1883), Berlin (1884) and Göttingen (1885). In 1887 he became Doctor of Laws at the University of Jena. After completing his legal

studies he devoted himself to economic studies, being for two years member of the Seminaries of Professors Schmoller, Wagner and Meitzen in Berlin, and for further two years a member of those of Professors Nasse, Gothein and Dietzel in Bonn. In the summer semester, 1891, he was appointed by the ministry docent at the Technical High School at Aix-la-Chapelle. In the fall of the same year he became Syndic of the Chamber of Commerce at Münster, a post which he still holds. Professor Biermer's publications include:

"Ueber Frist und Verjahrung." Berlin, 1877.

"Ueber die Organisation und Aufgaben der Handelskammer.” Bonn, 1890.

"Die preussiche Steurreform in Staat und Gemeinde." Münster, 1892.

"Die gesetzliche Regelung der Abzahlungsgeschäfte." Münster. 1892.

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Die gleitende Lohnskala." Conrad's Handwörterbuch, vol. iv. ‘Jahresbericht der Handelskammer f. d. Reg. Bezirk. Münster,


Ibid. for 1892.


Dorpat.-Mr. Wladimir Hrabar was appointed July 1, 1893, Docent in International Law at the University of Dorpat. He was born January 22, 1865, at Vienna, and received his early education at gymnasia in Eperjes (Hungary) and Tegorjewsk (Russia). After four years at the Collège Paul Galagane at Kiew, he studied law, 1884-88, at the University of Moscow, where he acquired the degree of candidatus juris (magistrandus) and received a Faculty prize for an essay upon international rivers. The year 1888-89 he spent at Paris, where he attended several courses at the Sorbonne and the École de droit. In 1890 he was connected with the Commercial Court at Moscow, and in 1891 became an instructor at the Institut Constantin at Moscow. His inaugural lecture on "War and International Law," has been published in the Acta et commentationes Academiae Dorpatensis, 1893, No. 4

St. Petersburg. Dr. Nicolas Karychew was appointed September, 1893, Professor of Statistics at the Imperial Lyceum of St. Petersburg. Professor Karychew was born December 6, 1855, in the district of Alexandrowsk, government Jekaterinoslaw, in southern Russia. Educated in the classical gymnasium of Charkow, he afterward pursued legal studies, 1874-78, at the University of Moscow, where in the latter year he received the degree of candidatus juris. From 1881-1885 he was Docent of Political Economy and Statistics at the Forestry Institute of St. Petersburg. During this time (1883-84) he made a trip through

Western Europe and pursued scientific studies in Italy, Austria, Switzerland and Holland, but specially with Professors de Laveleye at Liège, Helferich at Munich and Hanssen at Göttingen. In 1885 he became master of Political Economy and Statistics, and in 1887 docent of these subjects at the University of Moscow. Four years later he was Extraordinary Professor at Dorpat, while in 1892 he acquired the degree of doctor and became Ordinary Professor. Professor Karychew is Councillor of State, a contributor to numerous scientific periodicals, and a member of the Juridical Society of Moscow and the Historical Society of St. Petersburg. Besides his contributions to periodicals Professor Karychew has published a number of works of which we give the titles in English translation:

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Perpetual Leases of Land in Eastern Europe." St. Petersburg, 1885. Pp. iii, 330 and 1xxii.

"Atlas of Forestry Statistics." St. Petersburg, 1885.

"The Tenancy of the Peasants in Russia." Dorpat, 1892. Pp. xix, 402 and lxviii with atlas.


Economic Studies." Moscow, 1st ed. 1888; 2d, 1891; 3d, 1893. Pp.

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