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"Der Maximalarbeitstag in technisch-beruflicher Beleuchtung." Ibid. 1891.
"Nationale Production und nationale Berufsgliederung." Pp. 324. Leipzig, 1892.
"Die länlichen Arbeiterverhältnisse in Württemberg, Baden und in den Reichslanden." Pp. 233-440. Schriften des Vereins für Sozialpolitik. Bd. liii.
Die Berufsgenossenschaften als Träger einer nationalen Lohnstatistik. Schmoller's Jahrbuch. 1883.
The first named of the above works secured for the author a prize offered by the faculty of political science at the University of Tübingen.
Leyden. The eminent Dutch publicist, Dr. Jan Theodor Buijs (or Buys), Professor of Public Law at the University of Leyden, died May 15, 1893. He was born at Amsterdam, January 26, 1828, received his early education in the Latin School of that city, and attended the Faculty of Law of the University of Amsterdam from 1845 to 1850. On the seventeenth of April, 1850, he obtained the degree of Doctor of Law after presentation of a dissertation, entitled "De jure cogitata communicandi ex juris communis principiis regendo." From July 1, 1851, to January, 1857, he was attached to the legal department of the province of South Holland. In the latter year he became Secretary of "Rhynland," a large public corporation controlling 100,000 hectares, for the protection against the sea and rivers and for the regulation of water-ways. In the same year he became Secretary of the official Commission for Marine Fisheries, a position which he held until 1890. In 1862 he severed his connection with the Rhynland to become Professor of Public Law at the University of Amsterdam. In 1863 he assumed the editorship of the review De Gijds, which he retained until his death. In 1864 he became Professor of Public Law at the University of Leyden. In 1883 he was a member of the official commission to formulate reforms of the Constitution and was made vice-president of the Commission. Professor Buijs was a member of the Academy of Sciences at Amsterdam. His contributions from 1864 to 1893 on questions of politics to the review De Gijds were very numerous, as were also his contributions to Bijdragen tot de kennis von het Staats, Provincie en Gemeende Bestuur in Nederland. In addition to the dissertation already named, Professor Buijs published:
Verordening op de veer en beurtschepen." 1852.
"De Nederlandsche Staatsschuld." 1856.
"De circulatiebanken." 1857.
"Het wezen van den Constitutionelen Regieringsvorm." 1862. "Het moderne Staatsbegrip." 1864.
"De zelfstandigheid van het Staatsrecht." 1876. "De Grondwet." 3 vols. 1883-1888.
Basle.-Professor George Adler,* previously of Freiburg, has accepted a call as Extraordinary Professor of Political Economy at the University of Basle. The list of Professor Adler's publications given in an earlier volume of the ANNALS must be supplemented by the following:
"Die Sozialreform und der Kaufmannsstand.' Pp. 60. 1891. "Die Sozialreform und das Theater." Pp. 48. 1891.
"Die Entwickelung des sozialistischen Programs in Deutschland." (1863-90). Conrad's Jahrbuch, 1891; and also in the Economic Journal, December, 1891.
"Die Fleisch-Teuerungspolitik der deutschen Städte beim Ausgang des Mittlealters." Pp. 125. 1893.
Articles in the Handwörterbuch of Professor Conrad as follows: “Enfantin,” “Fourier," "Fleischergewerbe," Handelsgehilfe,” “Internationale," "Recht auf Arbeit," "Saint-Simon und Saint-Simonismus."
Lausanne.-Professor Léon Walras resigned the Professorship of Political Economy, because of failing health, in July, 1892. He was born December 16, 1834, at Evreux, Department of the Eure in France, and entered the collège † of Caen in 1844, and later the lycée of Douai in 1850, receiving his diploma of bachelier ès lettres in 1851, and after two years, spent chiefly in mathematical studies, that of bachelier ès sciences in 1853. The succeeding year was spent mainly in the study of mathematics, and in 1854 Walras entered the École des Mines at Paris. Having but little taste for technical studies, he gradually abandoned the work of the school.
In 1858 he began his career as a publicist, devoting himself to political economy. In 1859 he published a refutation of Proudhon. In writing this work he first conceived the idea of pure economics to be created in mathematical forms. In July, 1860, he took part in the International Tax Congress at Lausanne, and competed for the prize offered by the Canton of Vaud upon the Tax question. His work received a fourth place only, but he was honored by the authorities
See ANNALS, Vol. i. p. 301. October, 1890.
t After 1848 the colleges were called lycées.
of Canton by a proposition that Walras be invited to teach political economy at Lausanne. No action however, was taken.
Walras had been connected with the Journal des Economistes since 1859, and entered into connection with La Presse in 1860, but radical differences of opinion with the editors in both cases led him soon to abandon this occupation. Failing in an effort to secure permission to establish a paper of his own, Walras entered, in 1862, the administration of the Northern Railroad. (Chemin du fer du Nord.) From 1865 to 1868 he was largely occupied with the subject of cooperation, himself contributing by his pen, his bank account, and his time to the movement. But the efforts were unsuccessful. The bank, in aid of co-operative societies, of which he had become a director, ceased its operations, and at the end of 1868, Walras entered a private banking house at Paris, and remained there nearly two years.
In 1870 he was appointed Professor of Political Economy at LauSince that date he has been occupied in developing his principles of mathematical economics. In a series of works he has laid down the principles of his theory, and in some cases has made instructive applications of them to practical questions. He has been gratified to see his work receive a cordial acknowledgment in Italy, Belgium, Holland, Russia, Austria and America, though in the land of his birth, in France, his theories have not made the same progress as elsewhere.
Professor Walras is a member of the International Statistical Institute, the American Academy of Political and Social Science, a corresponding member of the Société royale des sciences de Liège, and honorary member of the American Economic Association.
His principal works are :
"L'Économie politique et la Justice," examen critique et réfutation des doctrines économiques de M. P.-J. Proudhon, précédés d'une "Introduction à l'étude de la question sociale.” Pp. LXIV-258. Paris, 1860.
Théorie critique de l'impôt” précédés de “Souvenirs du Congrès de Lausanne." Pp. XXXVI-124. Paris, 1861.
"De l'impôt dans le Canton de Vaud." Mémoire auquel un quatrième accessit a été décerné ensuite du concours ouvert par le Conseil d'État du Canton de Vaud sur les questions relatives a l'impôt. Pp. 160. Lausanne, 1861.
"Principes de la théorie des richesses par M. Cournot." L'Indépendant de la Moselle, 13 Juillet, 1863.
"De la constitution de la propriété en Algèrie.” Ibid., 2 et 21 Septembre et 12 Octobre, 1863.
“Les associations populaires de consommation de production et de crédit." Leçons publiques faites a Paris en janvier et février, 1865. Pp. XXIV-228. Paris, 1865.
"Des opérations de la Caisse d'escompte des associations populaires." Leçon publique faite a Paris en Mars, 1866.
"Le Travail," organe international des intérets de la classe laborieuse; revue du mouvement co-operatif. I. (1866-67), 388 colonnes. II. (1867-68), 388 colonnes. (Divers articles parmi lesquels le Programme économique et politique.)
Recherches de l'idéal social." Leçons publiques faites a Paris. Première Série 1867-68. "Théorie générale de la Société." Pp. XXXII-192.
"Discours d'installation" prononcé a la Séance académique du 20 Octobre, 1871.
Sur la théorie mathématique de l'échange." Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences naturelles. Vol. xii. Pp. 4S4.
"Le Cadastre et l'impôt foncier." Bibliothèque universelle. Novembre et Décembre, 1873.
"De l'influence de la communication des marchés sur la situation des populations agricoles." Journal de la Société Vaudoise d'utilité publique. Mai et Juin, 1874.
“Éléments d'économie politique pure ou théorie de la Richesse sociale." ire édition. Lausanne, 1874-77. Pp. VIII-408. 2eme édition. Lausanne, 1889. Pp. XXIV-524.
“Un nuovo ramo della matematica. Dell' applicazione delle matematiche all' economio politica." Giornale degli Economisti. Aprile, 1876.
"De la culture et de l'enseignement des Sciences morales et politiques." Bibliothèque universelle. Juillet et Août, 1879.
"La Bourse, la spéculation et l'agiotage." Bibliothèque universelle, Mars et Avril, 1880.
"De la propriété intellectuelle." Gazette de Lausanne, 10, 11 et 12 Juin, 1880.
“Théorie mathèmatique de la richesse sociale." Lausanne, 1883. Pp. 256. (Reproduction of seven essays, as follows: "Principe d'une théorie mathèmatique de l'échange" (1873); "Equations de l'échange" (1875); Equations de la production" (1876); “Equations de la capitalisation" (1877); "Théorie mathématique du bimétallisme" (1876-1881-1882); “Théorie mathématique du billet de banque" (1879); "Théorie mathématique du prix des terres et de leur rachat par l'Etat" (1880). The first four essays have been translated into Italian and German.)
"Monnaie d'or avec billon d'argent regulateur." Revue de Droit international, Décembre, 1884.
"Un économiste inconnu: H. H. Gossen." Journal des Economistes, Avril et Mai, 1885.
"D'une méthode de régularisation de la variation de Valeur de la monnaie." Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences naturelles, Vol. xxi. pp. 71.
Contribution a l'étude des Variations de prix depuis la suspension de la frappe des écus d'argent." Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences naturelles, Vol. xxi. pp. 93.
"Théorie de la monnaie." Pp. XII. 124. Lausanne, 1886.
"On the Solution of the Anglo-Indian Monetary Problem." British Association for the Advancement of Science. Meeting of 1887. (Has appeared in French in Revue d'économie politique of Novembre-Decembre, 1887.)
"Observations sur le principe de la théorie du prix de MM. Auspitz et Lieben." Revue d'économie politique. Mai-Juin, 1890.
'De l'échange de plusieurs marchandises entre elles." Bulletin de la Société des ingénieurs civils, Janvier, 1891.
"Théorie géométrique de la détermination des prix." Recueil inaugural de l'Université de Lausanne, 1892. The last two articles, consolidated into one, have appeared in English with the title “ The Geometrical Theory of the Determination of Prices," ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY, July, 1892.
Lausanne. The chair of Political Economy, vacated by Professor Walras, has been filled by the election of one of his pupils, Marquis Vilfredo Pareto. He was born July 15, 1878, at Paris, and pursued his studies in the Mathematical Faculty of the University of Turin, where on the fourteenth of January, 1870, he received the diploma of Licentiate in Mathematics and of Civil Engineering. Shortly afterward he was employed as engineer in the Roman railroads, and in 1874 he became director of the foundries of San Giovanni di Val d'Arno, and later director general of the Société des Forges italiennes, from which he withdrew in 1890. Professor Pareto has traveled and lived in France and England. He is a member of the Société d'Economie politique of Paris, the Cobden Club of London, and l'Academia dei Geor gofili of Florence. His contributions to the proceedings of the latter body, and to economic journals in Italy, France and England, have been very frequent.