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argument in particular, has suffered
wrong; the application of the argument
needs a broad and honest mind-a mind
not so much allured by certain prettinesses
and fanciful resemblances, as able to group
and to grasp its comparisons, and so rise
from them to independent judgment and
generalization. Thus it is that analogy
has been in so many and quite countless
instances, the prompter and the guide of
life; this is the translation of Butler's
very modest and most pregnant starting-
point in reasoning, this is his point of
view, the likelihood of the truth of the
Christian system. He started from this
singularly modest beginning-"It is not
so clear that there is nothing in it." The
character of modern infidelity has quite
changed since Butler's day. His book
was written in reply to the elegant deism
of his times. A course of nature was
granted, an author of nature was admit-
ted; the form of modern sophistry has
changed-a course of nature is admitted,
but not an author. How is the modern
dream of pantheism to be broken? Will
analogy serve for the waking? If we
think, then, we should think in order;
the greatest danger in modern thought is
its inconsecutive and scattered and in-
formative character; but, alas! that which
is inconsecutive in thought, is not there-
fore inconsequential. Thus, analogy itself
may be like any other law of thought, a
dangerous guide. The use of analogy is
not to be denied; it is invaluable, invalu-
able as speech. It is the inner speech of
the soul, it is the power by which the
soul realizes and expresses itself. All the
discoveries in the world-in mechanics,
in science-seem to have been happy
guesses, reasonings from analogy: Har-
vey, and the circulation of the blood;
Columbus, and the discovery of America;
Newton, and his system of the universe;
Stephenson, and the principle of the loco-ible things of Him are clearly seen, even
motives. Biography is full of such in- his eternal power and Godhead." Thus
stances. "It may
"It may almost be said, without the sin of idolatry is condemned. Foras-
qualification," said Archbishop Whately, much then as "we are the offspring of
"that wisdom consists in the ready and God, we ought not to think that the God-
accurate perception of analogies." And head is like unto gold or silver, or stone
Archbishop Thompson says, "This power graven by art and man's device." Dr.
of divination, this sagacity which is the Whately has very directly traced our
mother of all science, we may call antici- knowledge of the properties of man to
pation. The intellect, with a dog-like in- our knowledge of the perfections of God
stinct, will not hunt until it has found the showing that the proof of a being
the scent; it must have some presage of possessed of them is, in fact, the very
the result before it will turn its energies same evidence on which we believe in the
to its attainment." This analogy is an in- existence of one another.
How do we

"Thought leapt out to wed with thought,
Ere thought leapt out to wed with speech."
And the other says: "An idea which, con-
sidered in itself, is particular, becomes
general by being made to represent or
stand for all other particular ideas of the
same sort," this, in fact, analogy and the
statement of the law of analogy. Now,
how is this power in man to be used by
the religious teacher, man being unable to
think or act intelligently without the use
of analogy? Does it aid the entrance in-
to, and the dealing with, the higher facts
of the universe-the universe and its au-
thor; is it a light?-may it be made yet
more a light for the exploring the kingdom
of moral relations! It has been finely said
by Robert Boyle, " that revelation may
be to reason what the telescope is to the
eye; " but the telescope needs fixing,
needs some skill in using. God gives
nothing- neither a hand, foot, nor spade
that does not need education for useful
exercise. The very charm of analogy
may lead to its being misused. Experi-
ence is a powerful teacher, because ex-
perience is only another name for indue-
tion or moral analogy; hence man should
be taught to construct his moral science
for himself upon the basis of Scripture
and experience; and Dr. Buchanan well
says: "One or two instances clearly dis-
cerned and intelligently applied by the ex-
ercise of a man's own mind will be of
more practical avail than a hundred ex-
amples presented on paper, and read, but
not followed up by reflection." It is very
clear that Scripture, in the appeal it makes
to the understanding of man, rests strong-
ly on this instinct of analogy-" the invis


stinct of thought; the poet and the metaphysician, Tennyson and Bishop Berkeley, meet together in their statement of this, when the one says:

know that men exist—that is, not beings having a certain visible bodily form, for that is not what we chiefly imply by the word man, but rational agents such as we call men? Surely not by the immediate evidence of our senses, since mind is not an object of sight, but by observing the things performed-the manifest result of rational contrivance. If we land in a strange country doubting whether it be inhabited, as soon as we find, for instance, a boat or a house we are as perfectly certain that a man has been there as if he appeared before our eyes. Now, we are surrounded with similar proofs that there is a God. In the same manner of argument from analogy, we have recently read a paper by Professor Hitchcock, in the Bibliotheca Sacra, "On the Law of Nature's Constancy as Subordinate to the Higher Law of Change"-truly a most pregnant subject of thought-for if natural changes are consistent with fixed laws, they are no less consistent with perturbations which seem to shock and threaten the stability of the whole system. From the time of Paley to this, frequent references have been made to the ceaseless disturbances upon the regularity and permanency of the celestial motions; but so far from disturbing, they secure the permanence, perhaps, of a whole zodiac-the fallibility of a system secures eternal stability. What an endless lesson this reads us! The analogy of nature leads us through all her works to believe that the principle of change which has been hitherto mightier than any other, in the government and preservation of the universe, and in promoting its happiness, has its moral analogies, and that it may furnish some light as to the dealing of God, not only with the kingdoms of matter, but also with the kingdom of souls. It is the modern fashion to declare that this poor sort of argument is overlooked, that the apparent manifestation of design is no proof of "the manifold wisdom of God," that living infinite consciousness which we call God has been dethroned by the mighty modern thinkers.

"With deep intuition and mystic rite
We worship the Absolute Infinite;
The universe Ego, the Plenery void;
The subject-object identified;

The nothing something, the Being Thought,
That mouldeth the mass of chaotic thought;
Whose beginning unended and end unbegun
Is the One that is All, and the All that is One.

The great totality of every thing
That never is, but ever doth become."

Perhaps to attempt to shiver this pantheistic gibberish by any serious appeal to argument would be vain work. Mr. Mansell, in his effort to do this, has been thought to be not a very serviceable ally to the cause of faith. Perhaps "the great power of God" will never nerve with supreme and almighty force the arm wielding the brightest sword from the armory of the human understanding; but if the constitution of nature is to be augured from as a Divine intention, as well as existence, it will be by illustrations from the wide field of analogy; indeed, this form of argument might, we believe, be most successfully and triumphantly applied to the utterly wild and most baseless "absolutisms" of Hegel and Compt, and it would be very interesting to ask those gentlemen who look shudderingly and disdainfully on the doctrine of analogy, what they think of that lawless departure from it-that cheerless voyaging in the phantom ship of abstract timbers of the good ship Nothing, to the continent of Nowhere! No doubt the nature within the man determines the character of his moral analogies, as it has been well said "the wolf, when he was learning to read, could make nothing out of the letters but lamb, whatever other words they might form," and the clearest and purest light will burn but in certain atmospheres. The Scripture theory presumes an understanding purified and prepared for a clear, and holy, and correct judgment. The exercise of analogy is, indeed, to be prized as an inestimable weapon; it is valuable and available not only for the almost negative purposes we have indicated-important as these are-it is valuable in all the parts of the building of the Christian system and the Christian life. "Our Lord regarded all nature as a symbol, whose more literal meaning had a spiritual application. Hence, he spoke of knowledge, under the name of light; of spiritual renovation, as birth; of faith, as mental eyesight; of the Spirit's agency, as similar to the influence of the unseen wind." Visions and symbols, types and parables, symbolical objects and symbolical actions abound in the Scriptures of truth-a great scheme of representationalism opens to the eye. "These things were our examples." Hence, if Lord Bacon could say:


must observe resemblances and analogies, | literature of the question, and will, we they unite nature and lay the foundation believe, be very useful as a hone to sharpof the sciences," we may say, we must ob en intelligences, and to make more vivid, serve resemblances and analogies, they perceptions for the noting the system, unite nature and Scripture, and lay the natural and moral, beneath which we live. foundation, broad and unshakable, of It is almost useless, we fear, to hope for rational and faithful religion, and, in a such a book a very extended sale, but we higher sense than that which Newton may naturally hope, the industrious auwrought, the physics of the earth become thor will be cheered by another kind of the means of exploring and understanding remuneration-the awakening minds to the mysteries of the heavens. the study of the highest order of the Christian evidences, and the satisfactory persuasion of the human understanding, that there is not only no discrepancy, but wondrous harmony between the works and the Word of God, and that both are united in the essential divine reason of things.

We are glad therefore of any help to ward trimming this lamp, and making more bright, and pure, and clear, the teachings of analogy. And we thank Dr. Buchanan for his compendious and comprehensive volume; it does very much for the reader, in opening up the whole

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IN regard to the old nations of the world, when the light of history breaks upon them, we find that migrations and interminglings have already taken place. Every people is changing, or has already changed, its locality, and therefore is carrying with it into a new region a type which it has acquired in a previous one. Indeed, even if we were to grant the strange hypothesis of the American school of ethnologists, that races are indigenous to the soil, and were to regard every people as autochthons whom we find already settled when the light of history first breaks upon them, the concession would nevertheless be worthless as a proof of the dependence of national character and appearance simply upon the physical and climatic conditions. For even in the case of the ancient Egyptians-veritable autochthons in the estimation of Messrs. Nott and Gliddon-it can be shown that interminglings of population had taken place in the valley of the Nile, and that even if the earliest settlers there did not come from another country, they had at least been intermingled with others who


certainly did so. The history of mankind, if we trace it back even to the earliest times, exhibits a ceaseless succession of migrations and interminglings of peoples; and we witness the same process going on in full force at the present day. It is a vain task, therefore, to seek to divide mankind into sharply defined sections, whether as regards language, national character, or physical appearance. Nations are very composite bodies, however perfect they may be as political unities. And the interminglings of blood which so frequently affect the early condition of a nation are, in the later stages of national life (especially in modern times), succeeded by an intermingling of ideas and usages, which are hardly less potent in modifying the national character. As civilization matures and the means of locomotion increase, contiguous nations lose some of their individualizing characteristics and increase in mutual resemblance. They begin to suppress what is local, and to cultivate what is general. In the early times of the world, when locomotion was difficult, and nations were comparatively


in the later times, it produces harmony.
The explanation is simple. Civilization
beginning when nations are isolated, takes
the peculiar complexion of each people,
pure and simple; it brings out the mind
and develops the idiosyncracy of a people,
and increases their individuality by giving
them a formal religion, laws, government,
and historical traditions. In this way the
undeveloped idiosyncrasy of a barbarous
people becomes expanded, and takes
shape in many peculiar and settled forms;
even as the pebbles of the brook, however
externally alike, show striking differences
of structure when polished by the lapi-
dary. But in later times civilization ex-
erts an opposite influence, and begins to
soften and harmonize the differences ex-
isting among mankind. And this it does,
first, by bringing men into contact, and,
secondly, by teaching them to agree on
great points, and to agree to differ upon
small ones. Thus the variety which arises
in the world in early times is becoming
gradually subordinated, in the scheme of
Providence, to a grand and beautiful har-
mony, of which we of the present day be-
hold but the faint beginnings.

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isolated, civilization produced diversity; agriculture, and do not even possess a boat-a depth of misery which the lowest South - Sea Islanders have not reached. The same is true of the Portuguese on the coasts of eastern Africa: they have become as lazy and barbarous as the lowest native Negroes, and yet they were once one of the leading maritime peoples of Europe. It is said also that in Equador, in the province of Loxa, there are wild barbarous Spaniards, of entirely unThe mixed blood, who have lost every trace of historic tradition (Tschudi). Arabians were once the most powerful of the Semitic races, and stamped their influence on the civilization of the globe; yet in Socotra they are said to have become so degraded and inactive as not even to possess a boat. In Nubia they are thought to be more lazy, and less capable of invention and enterprise, than Negroes (Waitz), and they live in the greatest misery" (Brace, pp. 370-1). And in like manner, inferior nations sometimes produce individuals presenting the perfect type of the highest race. The superiority of some races to others is not so substantial as is generally supposed. The military qualities and the capacity for governing are the qualities which chiefly determine a nation's position in the world; but nations may excel in those which are deficient in many other not less valuable qualities. The Indo-European race has never produced so populous, well-organized, and enduring an empire as that of China, and it is only since the commencement of this century that even the foremost of European nations have begun to equal and surpass it in the arts of peaceful industry. The Turk, again, though of the same stock (so far as philology shows) as the Chinese, has excelled in the very opposite qualities, and has exhibited a capacity for governing other nations only second to the Roman, and perhaps to the Briton. It is in the realm of pure intellect alone, and latterly in the kindred sphere of mechanical invention, that the Indo-European nations can claim a distinctive and undisputed superiority. In point of physical appearance, though superior in the mass, they are equaled, indeed excelled, by some nations belonging to the other races. Physically, the finest people in Europe are, probably, the Magyars, who belong to the Turanian family of mankind; the upper classes of the Turks, who belong to the same stock, but

All races are fruitful with one another. All races seem to be able to perpetuate their line in any new country or climate. All of them, too, blend into one another, by gradations too subtle to be sharply marked off. And this is true not only of portions of races which are contiguous, but even of some which are far apart. The physical features of one race reäppear in another family of mankind, sometimes under the most different circumstances both of climate and civilization. The Fellatah and some other tribes of central Af rica have perfect European features and very handsome figures-the only difference is that they are black; yet they have had no connection whatever with the Other instances of Indo-European race. a similar kind exist. Moreover, almost every large nation contains within itself individual types which (except as regards color) correspond to almost every national type in existence. Physical degeneration, it is well known, produces types in small numbers from a given nation which resemble the types of degraded nations elsewhere. "On one of the Fernando Islands," says Webster, "is a Portuguese penal colony. The men have become so degenerated that they have abandoned

who have been improved by inter-mar riages, are equal to any Europeans in handsomeness of face and figure; and the Arabs of north Africa, who belong to the Semitic race, are second to no nation in physical appearance.* The Arabs of north Africa, says Mr. Brace, are "a strongly-built race, as tall as the Scotch Highlanders. Their face is usually sunburnt, with white and handsome teeth, and black eyes of a proud and fearless expression, a short beard and moustache; their deportment is daring and commanding. Many travelers consider them the handsomest race in the world." Of the Magyars he says: "Though not a tall people, they show almost the perfection of muscular form; the features are regular, and their faces are often remarkably handsome; the hair and eyes are dark, with usually a harsh complexion, though occasionally slight, and the beard is generally full and dark. There is no finer race, physically, in Europe." And of the moral and mental qualities of this Turanian nation, he justly says that "the practical talent which they have manifested, and their political skill during so many centuries, together with the sound morality and unshaken patriotism displayed in their individual and national misfortunes, is an evidence that the high qualities of the Aryan races are shared by some of the other families of man." Ŏf the capacities of the Asiatic peoples we can speak with an approximation to certainty, for their native talents and tendencies have been displayed in their civilizations; but of the future of the African nations we can predicate little or nothing; for they are still in a wholly undeveloped condition, and the only section of them with whom we are well acquainted are the enslaved Negroes of Congou, who are known to belong to the lowest of the great divisions of African population.

It is obvious, then, that neither physical appearance nor psychological development can be accepted as adequate tests of race. Judged only by these tests, it is difficult to establish any resemblance between the Chinese on the one hand and the Turk and Magyar on the other; between the Dutchman and the Hindoo;

*We have seen many of these noblemen of our race along the shores of Africa, and in southern Spain-the finest specimens of humanity we have seen in any land.-ED ECLECTIC.

or even between the Semite of Arabia and his stalwart kinsman of some parts of north Africa. Accordingly, of late years ethnologists have preferred to dis criminate between the various families of mankind by means of language. Language is a species of fossilized history. By observing what words the members of each group of nations have in common, we can in an approximate degree ascer tain the relative epochs at which each of these nations diverged from the parent stock, and the stage of development which they had attained at that epoch. The words which they have in common show what was the mode of life, whether pastoral or agricultural, or both; how far they had advanced in the arts of life; whether or not they had beheld the sea and engaged in navigation; and how far their intellectual development had proceeded before each parted company with the other. Thus, by means of compara tive philology, we can obtain a dim but interesting view of early times, which but for this new science must have remained hid from our sight. The inflexions of grammar also-the modes in which each people put together their words and construct their sentences-is another means of discovering early relationships. Nevertheless it must be admitted that language also is but an imperfect test in ethnography. Its great advantage is, that it presents a means of establishing much wider ethnological relationships than is afforded by any other test, and is therefore valuable as simplifying the classification of the varieties of mankind. But it has its weak points; and some eminent authorities, as Mr. Crawfurd and M. Agassiz, do not hesitate to deny altogether its validity as an ethnological test. Both of these authorities carry their skepticism too far; but unquestionably there is much truth in the lesser form of objection stated by Professor Pott, of Germany. Both Mr. Crawfurd and Professor Agassiz deny the original unity of mankind; but it is the hypothesis of the unity of mankind that really affords the strongest argument against the validity of language as a test of race. Since all mankind had a common origin and nature, it is not unreasonable to suppose that tribes of peoples, in a similar stage of development, however widely apart, will express themselves in similar or analogous forms. This consid

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