Imagens das páginas

More, (Professor,) obligations of the
editor to, i. xxii.
More, (Sir Thomas,) testimony shew-
ing that the Reformation was not a
cause of vagrancy, ii. 261.
Morellet, (Abbé,) praised, i. 289, et
alibi; employed to refute Galiani, ii.

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Morgan, (Mr. William,) on the average
population of London, i. 217; as to
the annual proportion of births to in-
habitants in a country, 222.
Moses, quoted as to manual labour
vious to the employment of corn-mills,
i. 191; as to Usury or Interest, ii.
149; his measure for preventing in-
equality in the appropriation of land
adduced, 196.

Muret, (M.,) referred to as to the propor-
tion of, Sexes born in the Pays de
Vaud, i. 88, 89; quoted against large
farms, 126.

Mushet, (Mr. Robert,) his misapplica-
tion of the word commodity to bank-
notes, i. 436, 437.

NAPLES, proportion of births to inhabi-
tants in that kingdom, i. 222.
National Revenue, what its meaning ac-
cording to the Economists, and to
Adam Smith, i. 293.

National Resources, equivalent to the
Population and to the Wealth of a
country, i. 59.

National Wealth, see Wealth, National.
Natural Law, vagueness of the phrase,
ii. 207, 208.

Nature: a state of nature not identical

with man's rudest state, i. 73, 86.
Navigation Act, on the policy of, ii. 24,
seq.; 40, seq.

Necker, (M.,) on the proportion of
population to the consumption of
wheat and salt, i. 219; adduced as to
the proportion of births to inhabitants
in France, 222; as against the pro-
ject of an exclusive territorial-tax,
301; ii. 237; as fettering the corn
trade in France, ii. 65, 66; his pre-
cautions, when in power, against a
scarcity of grain, 71; effect of, the
very opposite of what was intended,
72; of this Necker himself was ulti-
mately convinced, 73; adduced, 79;
his treatise On the Legislation and
Commerce of Grain, quoted, 82, 83;
quoted as to the Corn-laws, 84; apo-
logy for, by the author, and others, 86,

87; quoted as to Usury, 151; adduced
in favour of taxes on consumption, 252.
Nepos, (Cornelius,) quoted on Roman
expenditure, i. 382.

Nett produce, what, in the language of
the Economists, i. 295-297.
Nobility, as the body out of which a
privileged aristocracy is formed, may
be widely diversified, ii. 376, seq.; a
hereditary nobility, how it tempers
the rigour of monarchy, 407.
Nobleman and Gentilhomme, how they
differ in signification, 405.
Notes, Interpolations from, see Bridges.

ECONOMISTS, see Economists.
Economy, see Economy.
Ogilvie, (Prof.,) quoted against the impo-
litic burdens upon Agriculture, i. 121.
Oligarchy, the corruption of Aristocracy,
in the language of the ancient politi-
cians how defined, ii. 384.
Osterwald, (M.,) adduced, ii. 13, se7.
Oswald, (Mr., of Dunnikeir,) as suggest-

ing a doctrine to Adam Smith, ii. 6.
Ottoman Empire, no progressive im-
provement in, ii. 391.

Owen, (Mr. Robert,) referred to in re-
gard to the employment of children in
manufactures, i. 185.

PALEY, (Archdeacon,) quoted against
pasturage, i. 106, see 112; against
tithes, 122, seq.; on the advantages
of a division of the legislative autho-
rity in England, ii. 429, 430.
Park, (Mungo,) quoted as to the Poly-
gamy of the central Africans, i. 86;
adduced for the employment of cowries
as a circulating medium, 339; letter
of, to the Author, quoted, 340.
Parliament, see Legislative Power, Com-
mons, Peers.

Paucton, (Monsieur, author of Métro-
logie,) quoted as to the proportion of
the Sexes born in Germany, i. 87;
adduced touching the consumption of
food as indicating by its amount the
population of a town, 217, 219; of the
total population of the world, and of
its several quarters, 232; on the
superficial extents of the several
quarters of the globe, ib.; alleged as
to Usury and Interest in ancient
Rome, ii. 152.
Pawnbroking, indiscriminately con-
demned by the opinion of the English

2 H

House of Commons, ii. 154; a species
of usury allowed by law, 182, seq.
Peers, in ancient times formed not only
the nominal, but the real aristocracy
of the State, ii. 447; now frequently
of obscure origin and limited fortune,
448; House of, how its authority is
modified in modern times, 448, 449.
Pennsylvania, State of, ultimately re-
sorted to a division of the legislative
power, ii. 432.

Periodical publications, influence of, in
the enlightenment of the people, ii.


Persian Language, has no word for any

form of government but Absolute
Monarchy, ii. 389.

Personal Taille, a tax upon the profits
of stock employed in agriculture, ii.
250, 251.

Petty, (Sir William,) as to the popula-
tion of Ireland, i. 99; the oldest sta-
tistical author, 212, seq.; his Poli-
tical Arithmetic described, ib.; his
claim as founder of this branch of
Political Science, considered, 214; re-
ferred to on the division of labour and
its effects, 311; as to the precious
metals constituting the measure of
value, 347; as anticipating Adam
Smith, ii. 6.

Philips, (Erasmus,) quoted for the free-
dom of commerce, ii. 35.
Philosophy, not responsible for the false
political theories in vogue, i. 19.
Phocion, referred to for his opinion in
regard to the disadvantages of wealth,
i. 34.

Physical knowledge, uninteresting when
compared with the studies connected
with the improvement and happiness
of society, ii. 398.

Pinkerton, (Mr. John,) quoted as to

Scottish manufactures, interest of
money, &c., i. 402.

Pin-making, this manufacture taken in
illustration of the division of labour, i.
256, seq.

Pinto, (Isaac,) adduced as to the oppos-
ing systems of Political Economy, i.
46; as to the principle of Population,
203; the relative passage from his
Treatise on Circulation and Credit,
quoted, 429-431; as against the project
of an exclusive territorial tax, 301;
ii. 237; adduced in regard to the vary-
ing value of the precious metals, 375;
quoted as to the effect of a rapid cir-
culation on money, 378, 438, 439;

adduced as to the public debt of Great
Britain, ii. 218.

Pitt, (Mr. Morton,) alleged in reference
to the effect of charity-workhouses, ii.
301, 302.

Pitt, (Right Honourable William,) ad-
duced in regard to the payments of the
Bank of England, ii. 108; his Poor
Bill, 285.

Plato, referred to as a political theorist,
i. 32; his theory of a proposed com-
munity of wives and children, &c.,
adduced, 55, 68; as recommending a
conjugal union, 78, 79; his opinion
as to interest and trade in general, ii.
151, seq.

Pliny, (the elder,) quoted as to the esti-
mation of agriculture by the early
Romans, i. 140, 144.

Pliny, (the younger,) referred to in re-
gard to the legal discouragements of
celibacy among the Romans, i. 94;
quoted as to the true policy in regard
to celibacy, 96.

Plowden, (Mr., of the Middle Temple,)
on the morality of Usury or Interest,
ii. 150.

Plutarch, referred to in regard to the
disadvantages of wealth, i. 34.
Political Economy, an outline of its
contents, i. 3-6; of its objects and
province, in general, 9-58; meaning
of the title as used by the Author in an
unexclusive sense, to wit, as contain-
ing two parts, 1°. Political Economy
Proper, 2 Politics Proper, 9, seq., 16;
meaning of the phrase in its accepta-
tion proper or limited, 9, seq.; inti-
mate connexion of, with the philoso-
phy of the human mind, 17, seq.; the
Author does not exclude Politics
from Political Economy, 21; proposed
order in the distribution of the Lec-
tures on, 21, 29; Political Economy
proper as opposed to Politics, its con-
tents and distribution, 30-56; contains,
1o Population, 31, seq.; 2° National
Wealth, 33, seq.; 3°. the Poor, their
maintenance, 47, seq.; 4°. Education
and the repression of crime, 49, seq.;
merits of the Scottish Legislature re-
garding Political Economy Proper, ii.
331, 332; Politics Proper, opposed to
Political Economy strictly so called,
in other words, the Theory of Govern-
ment, 350-452; conclusion of the
course on Political Economy Proper,
with an enumeration of certain emin-
ent authors connected with, 458, 459.

Political Institutions, must be accommo-
dated to the circumstances of a people.
ii. 419-421.
Political science, has two branches;-the
Theory of Government (Politics Pro-
per), and Political Economy (Proper),
i. 24, 25, 29; study of Politics or
Political Philosophy conduces to pub-
lic spirit, and is otherwise of advan-
tage, 20; ii. 399, 400.

Politicians, Ancient, ignorant of mixed
monarchies, ii. 386.

Polybius, referred to as to the price of
wheat in antiquity, i. 381; that the
government of Rome resembled an
aristocracy, ii. 368; quoted as to the
three simple forms of government,
413, 415; that the government of
Rome resembled all the three forms,
414; in this respect defended against
Grotius, 415.
Polygamy compared with Monogamy,

in reference to Population, i. 82-92;
of two kinds-a plurality of Wives,
or a plurality of Husbands, 82; the
latter is passed over as a rare anomaly,


Poor, the, their maintenance, a branch
of Political Economy Proper, i. 47,
seq.; how their legal maintenance
may be detrimental, 202; great in-
crease of, in consequence of the sup-
pression of villanage, 210, 211; great
number of beggars in Scotland to-
wards the close of the seventeenth
century, 210; also in England during
the sixteenth century, ib.; circum-
stances affecting the comfort of the
labouring poor, 251; on, in general,
ii. 254-326; relief of, an important
subject of Political Economy, 255;
the transmutation throughout Europe
of slavery into villanage, and of vil-
lanage into freedom, how it compli-
cates the claims of the poor to relief,
256, seq.; emancipation of the lower
orders in England, 257; effect of the
Reformation in multiplying English
paupers, 259; amount of funds ex-
pended on the support of, in England,
273, 274; how their relief accom-
plished through Benefit Clubs or
Friendly Societies, 274, seq.; have
they a right to maintenance ? 275; is
it expedient to abandon their relief
to voluntary charity? 275, seq.; plan
of a limited assessment for the sup-
port of, 278; against such plan of a
limited relief, 278, seq.; subsidiary

measures for their relief, 300-326;
Charity Workhouses, 300-305; Bene-
fit Clubs, 306-313; on their distresses
as connected with their evil habits,
313-326; habits of economy, good
effects of, 321. See Poor-Laws.
Poor, Society for bettering the condi-
tion of," its Reports quoted, ii. 307-
309; referred to, 322, 323.
Poor-Laws, British, Historical Sketch
of, ii. 254-299; English, 254-286;
Parliamentary measures against
sturdy begging, 257, 258; for the re-
lief of the aged and impotent, 258;
Act for the relief of the poor, passed
in 1601, the 43d of Elizabeth, con-
stituting the foundation of our present
poor laws, 261, seq.; Law of Settle-
ment enacted 1662, and its effect,
265; its ambiguity, 265, 266; the
Scottish political economists de-
fended, or excused, on this point by
the Author against their English
critics, 267, 268; spirit of the English
Poor Laws praised, 281, 282; Scot-
tish, sketch of, 286-299; contrasted
with the English, in that the assess-
ments are not compulsory, 287; ear-
liest Scottish statutes for support of
the poor, 287, seq.

Population, a branch of Political Eco-
nomy Proper, i. 31, seq.; on, in gen-
eral, forming Book I. of Political
Economy Proper, 59-252; considered
as an article of Natural History, 60-
66; effect of climate on, 61; progress
of, in America, 61, seq.; in Flanders,
London, Hindostan, &c., 62, 63; con-
sidered as an article of Political Eco-
nomy, 67-252; as affected by the
Political institutions which regulate
the connexion between the Sexes, on,
in general, 67-92; Marriage and
Concubinage, 67-82; by Monogamy
and Polygamy, 82-92; by the state of
manners relative to the connexion
between the Sexes, 92-97; in relation
to celibacy and its counter regulations
in the states of antiquity, particularly
the Roman, 92-94; in relation to
celibacy in modern states, 95, seq.;
dependence of, on the means of sub-
sistence enjoyed by the people, 98-
211; as dependent on the Notion
held in regard to the competent sup-
port of a family, 98-112; in this rela-
tion comparative view of population
in England and in Ireland, 99, seq.;
as checked by poverty, 102, seq.; in

connexion with Agriculture, 113-152;
in connexion with Manufactures, 152-
183; is the density of, in proportion
to the extent of country, a certain
index of national prosperity? 198-
211; Author resolves this question
in the negative, 198, seq.; instances
of a mistaken policy of different coun-
tries in this respect, 199, seq.; on the
principle of, quoted various authors,
203, seq.; the Author holds less
gloomy views on this subject than
Mr. Malthus, and why, 207, seq.; on
the means which have been employed
to ascertain the state of population in
particular instances,-in general, 211-
252; this sought to be estimated from
the number of houses-from the
quantity of food consumed-and from
the amount of births, deaths, and
marriages, 212, seq.; statistical au-
thors who have attempted such an
estimate, adduced, ib.; as estimated
by the proportion of births, deaths,
and marriages, 220, seq.; comparative
value in this estimation of the Bills
of Mortality and Registers of Births,
223, 224, seq.; how the population of
a country is to be inferred, 225, seq.;
considerations to be attended to in
our calculations concerning, 227, seq.;
population in England and Wales,
242, seq.

Porteous, (Bishop,) quoted as to Educa-
tion, i. 50, 51.

Postlethwayt, (Malachi,) his Dictionary

adduced, i. 145; quoted as to the
effect of machinery in reference to
labour, 195; as to Sir William Petty's
Political Arithmetic, 215; as to rate
of interest in China, 421.
Potato, its nutritive qualities, i. 100,
101, 105; ii. 142, 143.
Poverty, though favourable to the pro-
duction of population, unfavourable to
its maintenance, i. 102, 103.
Powers, Legislative, Judicial, and Exe-
cutive, ii. 351, 352.
Press, see Printing.

Price, (Rev. Dr. Richard,) as to the
proportion of the Sexes born in Eng-
land, &c., i. 88-90; as to the amount
of population in England and Wales,
99, 242; quoted against large farms,
126; against Enclosures, 132, 134;
on the character of Dr. Davenant as
a political arithmetician, 215; as to
the average population of the houses
in London, 217; on what principles

the population of a country is to be
estimated, 225; his authority as a
Political Arithmetician of high ac-
count, 227; on the greater mortality
of towns compared with that of rural
districts, 231; on the actual popula-
tion of Great Britain, and its decline
before and after 1769, 233; this de-
cline controverted, but the opinion
excused, 237; on the progress and
decline of Agriculture in Great Britain,
238; on the population of London,
244; as to the right and the wrong
between him and his opponents, 250,
251; alleged touching the poor, ii.

Prices: Real and Nominal, i. 349-371;

difference between the relative doc-
trines of Smith and of our Author,
349, seq.; doctrine of Smith, 350,
seq., 357, 358; price and exchange-
able value, the doctrine of our Author
on, 360, 361; standard of, on our
Author's doctrine, 361; how affected
by the plenty or scarcity of the pre-
cious metals, 371-390; the cost of a
commodity, according to Smith, is
naturally made up of one or all of these
three parts the price of labour, the
rent of land, and the profits of stock
and wages, 391, seq.; ii. 5; other
circumstances which determine dif-
ferent prices, referred to three heads,
391, 392; market prices, principles
which determine their variation, ac-
cording to Smith, 392, seq.; ii. 6,
seq.; according to Sir James Steuart,
393; according to the Author, 393,
395; according to Mr. Boyd, 394;
according to Sir Francis Baring, 394,
395; natural, as distinguished from
the market, price, ii. 6, seq.; circum-
stances which determine the price of
commodities, 8, seq.

Primogeniture, effects of, referred to, i.

152; right of, in succession to land,
ii. 197, 198, 201; an obstacle to
agriculture, 201.

Printing, effect of, on political improve-
ment, i. 27, 28, 44; ii. 398.
Productive, to what kind of labour most
appropriately applied, i. 260; is this
epithet applicable to manufactured
produce? ib.

Profit, Taxes upon, ii. 249-251; these, on
profit in general, 249; on the profit of
particular employments, 250, 251.
Properties, (Estates,) size of, i. 138-152;
in France, 148, seq.; Agrarian Laws

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RANKS, established, how they temper
the rigour of monarchy, ii. 407.
Raynal, (Abbé,) quoted as to the advan-
tages of wealth, i. 35; referred to as
to the mutual influence of Manufac-
tures and Agriculture, 168; adduced
as to the kingdom of Siam, ii. 392.
References, marks of, explained, i. xxiii.
Regrators, laws against, i. 121; who?
ii. 55.

Reid, (Dr.,) vindicated Usury before
Bentham, ii. 157; quoted to this
effect, 185.

Rennel, (Major,) quoted as to the use of
cowries as coin, i. 339.
Republic or Commonwealth, its corrup-
tion Democracy, or more precisely,
Ochlocracy, ii. 384.

Respondentia, a species of virtual usury,
ii. 186.

Restraints on the commercial intercourse
of nations, ii. 22-47.
Retz, (Cardinal de,) quoted in reference
to a Republic, ii. 362.
Ricardo, (Mr.,) quoted, i. 444, 445.
Ricaut, (M.,) quoted as to the Ottoman
empire, ii. 391, 392.

Rice, in relation to the quantity of food
it yields, i. 104; rice countries those

alone in which the effects of a scarcity
of grain is to be apprehended, ii. 52.
Richelieu, (Cardinal,) his Political Testa-
ment referred to by Montesquieu, ii.
410, 411.

Rivière, (M. Mercier de la,) an Econo-
mist, adduced, as praised by Smith, i.
308; his work, On the Natural and
Essential Order of Political Societies,
recommended for study in the conclu-
sion of the Course on Political Eco-
nomy, ii. 459.

Robertson, (Mr., of Granton,) as to Scot-
tish Statistics, i. 246.

Robertson, (Principal,) adduced as to
the difference of ancient and modern
trade, i. 38, seq.; referred to as to the
rise of towns after the fall of the Ro-
man Empire, ii. 16; adduced as to the
origin of standing armies in modern
Europe, 421.

Robertson, (Rev. Dr. James,) adduced

in regard to the size of farms, i. 128;
in favour of large farms, 130; as to
the garden system of Roman Agri-
culture, 140; quoted as to the impor-
tation and exportation of corn, 247.
Roederer, (Herr,) noticed as a collector of
observations touching the proportion
between consumption and population,
i. 220.

Romans, policy of, in regard to Agricul-
ture, i. 138-140, 143, 144; instances
of the great wealth of individuals in
the Roman State, 147; Roman luxury,
ib.; anomalies of prices explained,
448; their laws of succession in land,
ii. 197; Roman Republic, on its legis-
lative power, 435.

Rose, (Right Honourable George,) ad-
duced touching taxes, ii. 217.
Rousseau, on the connexion of wants,
labour, and intellectual development,
i. 309; quoted against the freedom of
the English people, ii. 437.
Rudeness: Man's rudest state is not his
most natural, i. 73, 86.

Rumford, (Benjamin Thomson, Count,)
his experiments on nutrition referred
to, i. 112; ii. 145; referred to as to
the management of the poor in Mu-
nich, ii. 305.

SALLUST, on Contempt, as the aristocra-
tic feeling of the Roman nobility, ii.

Savings' Banks, (but not so called,) their
institution recommended, ii. 313.

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