Imagens das páginas

indigent, 166, 167; from the case of
projectors, 167-173; from the case
of the simple and inexperienced, 173,
seq.; laws against usury only aggra-
vate the distress of the unfortunate,
178, seq.; compound interest, laws
and prejudices with respect to, are
equally ill-founded as those concern-
ing simple interest, 193-195; see

Interpolations from Notes, see Bridges.
Ireland, population of, i. 99, seq; 245;
on the diet of the Irish peasantry, 101;
rate of interest in, 415; neglected
education of the lower orders in, bad
effect of, ii. 334.

Irish, their rules as to the succession
of land, ii. 197.

Ivernois, (Sir Francis D',) on Pinto and
the public debt, ii. 218.

JEFFERSON, (Thomas,) quoted as to
Education in America, ii. 337; his
Notes on Virginia, quoted as to the
necessity of legislative checks, 433,

Jenkins, (Henry,) his testimony in re-

gard to the hospitality of the Catholic
clergy, ii. 259, 260.

Jenyns, (Mr. Soame,) quoted on the ne-
cessity of machinery and the consoli-
dation of farms, as effects of taxation,
i. 196, seq.

Jews, did they invent bills of exchange?
i. 41; in regard to their Usury, ii.
149, 150.

Johnson, (Dr. Samuel,) alleged as to the
meaning of the word Economy, i. 10;
his dogmatical assertion in regard to
education quoted, 52.

Jones, (Sir William,) quoted as to Me-

nu's, or the ancient Hindoo doctrine
touching usury, ii. 152, 153, 187; re-
ferred to in his Commentary upon
Isæus, 197.

Journals, influence of these periodical
publications in the enlightenment of
the people, ii. 343.
Judicial Power, ii. 351, 352.
Juvenal, quoted in regard to the luxury
of the Romans, i. 147; as to the love
of money increasing with the posses-
sion of money, 446.

KAEMPFER, quoted as to the proportion
of the sexes in Japan, but his fact
controverted, i. 90.

Kames, (Henry Home, Lord,) quoted as
to the pairing instinct of animals, i.
77; referred to as to the rise of the
lower orders in Europe after the fall
of the Roman Empire, 113; adduced
as to the history and policy of Entails,
ii. 203; against the English Law of
Settlement, as creating a great differ-
ence in the price of labour in different
parishes, 266; defended on this point
against certain English critics, 267,
268; adduced in reference to the
Scottish Poor-laws, 297; quoted as to
the kingdom of Siam, 392, 393.
Kent, state of its agriculture adduced in
reference to the influence of manufac-
tures, i. 168.

Kent, (Mr.,) quoted against large farms,
i. 125, seq.; adduced as to the quan-
tity of land necessary for the support
of a horse, 250.

Kidders, who are they? ii. 56.
King, (Mr. Edward,) adduced as to the

Utility of the National Debt, ii. 218.
King, (Mr. Gregory,) as a statistical
inquirer, i. 215-217; his estimate of
the numbers of the population in the
several ranks, professions, and occu-
pations, 240; as to the relative pro-
portion of wheat consumed about the
era of the Revolution, 368; referred
to in regard to the Corn Laws, ii. 84;
in regard to the proportion between
the price and produce of corn, 134,
seq., 138.

Kingdom, see Monarchy.

LABOUR: of slaves, i. 37; Productive and
Unproductive, on, in general, 253-332;
the relative doctrines of the Econo-
mists of the school of Quesnai con-
trasted with those of Smith, 255, seq.,
269, seq.; labour and land, these as
sources of wealth contrasted, 256,
seq; labour productive and unproduc-
tive, with special reference to the
Economists, 258, seq., 268, seq., 294,
297; apology for their use of these
terms, 290; human, can be employed
to increase the fund of natural produce
only in two ways,—by adding to the
quantity, or by altering the form of
this produce; the first, by Agricul-
ture the second, by Manufactures,
259, seq.; distinction of useful and of
productive, 264, seq.; of productive
and of stipendiary, 265; labour pro-

ductive, Smith's doctrine of, ib.; ad-
ditional illustrations of this distinc-
tion, 270, seq.; Smith at one with the
Economists with respect to the fact,
270; how far he agrees with, how far
he differs from, them as to doctrine,
271; barren or unproductive and pro-
ductive, distinction of, according to
Smith, 274, seq., 285, seq.; according
to the Economists, 274; according
to Grey, 275; according to the Au-
thor, 275, seq.; on the circumstances
which render it more effective, 309-
332; on the division of, 310-316; on
the use of machinery as a substitute
for, 316-332; division of, its moral
effects, 330, seq.; result of the rea-
sonings on its division, 331; correc-
tion of certain expressions in relation
to, 332; does the amount of labour
constitute the real measure of the
exchangeable value of commodities,
as held by Smith? 353, seq.; wages
of, the five circumstances, according
to Smith's doctrine, on which they
vary, ii. 11; a circumstance causing
great inequalities in the wages of
agricultural labourers, both in Eng-
land and Scotland, viz., the prejudices
and ignorance of this order of men,
268. See Wages.
Labour and Stock, three circumstances,
according to Smith, which ought
principally to be attended to in deter-
mining their distribution, ii. 12, seq.;
the first of these, ib.; the second, 20,
seq.; the third, 21.

Lagrange, on the proportion between
consumption and population, i. 219,
Land, free commerce of, naturally con-
ducive to Agriculture and Population,
i. 151; Land and Labour, as sources
of wealth, contrasted, 256, seq.; land-
ed property, peculiar circumstances
regulating its price, 423, seq.; com-
merce of, on the policy of subjecting
this to the regulation of law, 195-210;
free commerce in, expedient, 202;
impediments to, 202, seq.; in certain
circumstances, restraints may be ex-
pedient, 203; taxes upon, 225-247:
land-tax proportioned to the rent, of
two kinds: 1 according to a fixed
rule or canon, 225-234; Land-tax of
England, (falling under this head,)
origin and history of, 225 232; the
English land-tax affects all personal
estates, except property in the funds,

and stock necessary for agriculture,
228; method of rating this tax, ib.;
policy of this tax considered, 228-232;
defects of the English land-tax, 229,
seq.; advantages of the same tax,
231, 232; land-tax of Scotland, 232-
2° according to the actual
rent, 234-243; Venetian tax, of this
class, 234; advantages and disadvan-
tages of this kind of land-tax, 235,
seq.; exclusive land or territorial tax,
approved of by the Economists in ge-
neral, and in particular by Quesnai, by
Mirabeau the elder, by Dupont, by
Turgot, 237, (see also, i. 296, seq. ;) in
opposition to this project are arrayed
Necker, Pinto, Hume, Sir James
Steuart, Smith, and Arthur Young,
ib., (see also, i. 301;) land-tax pro-
portioned not to the rent, but to the
produce, 243-247; church-tithes, an
example of this, 243; other instances
in China, Bengal, and ancient Egypt,
246; all land-taxes fall ultimately upon
the landlord, 243; taxes on the pro-
duce of land may be drawn either in
kind or in money, 247. See Terri-
torial Tax.

Languages, the analogy of, explains
what is politically constitutional or
unconstitutional, ii. 423, 424.
Lauderdale, (Earl of,) adduced, i. 299,
301; as to the division of labour, 315;
Notes on the Bullion Report, ad-
dressed to, 431, seq.; his pamphlet
on the Irish Bank quoted, 434, 442;
his doctrine of Paper Currency criti-
cised, 452; adduced, ii. 217; his work
on Political Economy recommended
for study, 459.
Laverdi, (M. de,) referred to as emanci-

pating the French corn trade, ii. 63.
Lavoisier, on the proportion between
consumption and population, i. 219,
seq; adopted the fundamental prin-
ciples of the Economists, 289.
Law, (Mr. John, of Lauriston,) his opi-
nion as to the intrinsic value of gold
and silver, i. 341, seq.; Locke de-
fended against, ib.; seems to renounce
the doctrine for which he had con-
tended, 344; his doctrine of value,
355; touching the rate of interest,
398; vindicates a complete liberty in
regard to the interest of money, ii.
157, 158; was he the first to do this?

Laws,-1 as to their origin, 2°. as to
their tendency, i 22; positive laws,

two classes of, taken by Goguet, 57,

Leases of farms, history of, i. 114-118;

progress of, in England, 115, 116; in
Scotland, 116, 117; registers of, a
project of the Author for taxation, ii.
235, 239, 241.

Legislative Power, ii. 351, 352; advan.
tages of its division in the British
Constitution, 428-430; a secondary
advantage from this division, in that
it establishes a sort of balance in the
Constitution, 430, 431; division of the
legislature vindicated against foreign
political writers, 460, seq.
Leibnitz, alleged as calling the theory
of money a semi-mathematical specu-
lation, i. 14.

Letrosne, see Trosne.

Lewis, (John,) extract from his History
of the Translations of the Bible,
shewing the prevalence of Beggary
even under the Papacy, ii. 260, seq.
Liancourt, (M. de la Rochefoucauld,) his
Report on Beggary adduced, i. 199;
his recommendation of potatoes as a
cheap and nutritious diet, ii. 143.
Liberty, (Political,) contrasted with
Happiness, i. 23.

Libraries, effects of, in the cultivation of
the people, ii. 346, seq.
Life, expectation of, by what principles
regulated, i. 225, seq.; what circum-
stances to be attended to in its esti-
mation in reference to town and
country, sex, &c., 230, seq.
Liquors, (intoxicating,) their cheapness
encourages inebriety, ii. 317.
Liverpool, (Earl of,) referred to in his
Treatise on the Coins of this Realm,
i. 334; quoted as to gold being now
and here the measure of value, 347,
seq.; Author's doubts as to this opi-
nion, 348.

Livy, quoted as to the legislative power
in the Roman republic, ii. 435.
Locke, his notions as to political liberty,

i. 23; as to land and labour, in so
far as they are the sources of national
wealth, 256; quoted from his Consi-
derations on the Lowering of Interest,
&c., in regard to an exclusive terri-
torial tax, ii. 238, 298, seq.; his opi-
nion as to the imaginary value be-
stowed on the precious metals, fitting
them for the purposes of exchange,
341; his doctrine on this point de-
fended against Law, 341, seq.; as to
the precious metals constituting the

measure of value, 347; coincides with
our Author as to Corn constituting
the best measure of value, 362, seq.;
coincidence of his opinion with that
of Montesquieu in regard to the value
of the precious metals, 373, see also
362, seq., and 389; his doctrine
touching the rate of interest, 398;
on his theory touching the circum-
stances determining the price of
land, 424; strictures upon this doc-
trine, ib.; his opinion on interest and
usury, ii. 159; anti-usurious laws,
how far nugatory? 189, 190, seq.; a
Report of his in 1697, adduced in re-
gard to the relief of the poor, 270;
influence of his Treatise on Educa-
tion, 343.

Lolme, see De Lolme.

London, proportion of Births to Burials
in, i. 228, seq.; what is necessary to
be here attended to in our statistical
estimates, 229; population of, 244,

Lucretius, quoted as to the priority of
concubinage to marriage, i. 70.
Lycurgus, his political perspicacity
praised, ii. 414, 416.

M'CULLOCH, (Mr. J. R.,) his Literature
of Political Economy referred to by
the Editor, i. 333.

Machiavel, quoted as to the history of
all republics, ii. 372.
Machinery, as a substitute for human
labour, on its advantages and disad-
vantages, i. 188-198, 316-332; in
particular, its advantages, 193, seq.
Mackie, (Mr. William,) on the compa-
rative nutritious power of fertile land
in raising animal or vegetable food,
i. 109-111, 249; as to the average
quantity of land necessary for the
support of a horse, 250; adduced as
to the policy of bounties on the expor-
tation of corn, ii. 114, 115.
Macpherson, (David,) against the ba-

lance of trade, ii. 23, seq., 28, seq.
Males, their lives more brittle than those
of females, i. 90.

Malthus, (Rev. Mr.,) adduced as to the
progress of Population, i. 62; as to the
ratio of its progress, 64; as to the evil
effects of an injudicious legal provi-
sion for the poor, 202; his Essay on
the Principle of Population, adduced
and praised, 203; recommended for
study in the conclusion of the Course

of Political Economy, ii. 458; on
productive and unproductive labour,
283; adduced in relation to the Eco-
nomists against Smith, 290; in re-
gard to the policy of a bounty on the
exportation of corn, ii. 114; quoted
on the Corn Trade, 118-120; ad-
duced as to the price of corn, 137;
thinks it expedient to trust the relief
of the poor to voluntary charity, 276;
against a compulsory assessment for
this purpose, 278, seq.; proposes a
gradual abolition of the English
Poor-Laws, 280, 281; on Savings
Banks, 313; adduced, 333.
Man, by nature social, on this Aristotle
and the Pseudo-Pythagoreans, i. 18;
his rudest state not the most natural,
73, 86.

Mandeville, (Dr. Bernard,) referred to
in general on the effects of the divi-
sion of labour, i. 311; quoted parti-
cularly on the same subject, 323.
Mantuanus, (Baptista Spagnoli,) on the
dependence of civilisation (or the arts)
on labour, i. 309.

Manufactures, influence of, on Popula-
tion and Agriculture, i. 152-183;
may be injudiciously encouraged,
159, seq.; Manufactures and Agri-
culture, on their relative claims to
the attention of the statesman, 201,
seq.; progress of, during the eighteenth
century, 237, 238; dependence of,
upon Agriculture, 260.

Margites, (the Pseudo-Homeric,) quoted

as to the Division of Labour, i. 311.
Marino, Republic of, noticed, ii. 357.
Marriage, compared with Concubinage
in reference to Population, 67-82; is
it of natural or municipal law? 69,
seq.; is of natural law, 79; marriages
will take place where and when they
ought, 199; proportion of Marriages
to Births and Deaths, 220, seq.
Marsden, quoted in regard to the pro-
portion of the sexes born in Sumatra,
i. 91.

Marshall, (Mr. William,) referred to in
regard to the artificial fattening of
cattle, i. 111; quoted on the good
qualities of the Kentish yeomanry
resulting from Gavelkind, ii. 199,
200; adduced in regard to intem-
perance in the use of malt liquors,


Martial, referred to touching the facility
of divorce in Imperial Rome, i. 82.
Maryland, the various useful expedients

in this State to choose fitting sena-
tors, ii. 433.

Maseres, (Mr. Baron,) adduced as to
tithes, ii. 245.

Menu, in India sanctioned usury at a
date of indefinite antiquity, ii. 152,
seq., 187.

Merchants, Mercantile or Commercial
Interest, nature and effects of, i. 404,

Metals, precious, see Gold, Silver, &c.
Metayer, what kind of tenant in France?
i. 113, seq.

Métrologie, a work of M. Paucton, i.
217-219, &c.

Meunier, (M.,) adduced in regard to the
difficulty of a valuation, ii. 242.
Middleton, (Mr.,) quoted against tithes,
i. 123, seq.; referred to on the popu-
lation of England and Wales, 243;
on that of London, 244, 245.
Middleton, (Rev. Conyers,) quoted as to
the connexion of knowledge and
happiness, ii. 349.

Milk, as an economical article of food,
recommended, ii. 142.

Millar, (Prof. John,) of the varying in-
fluences of the Crown upon the House
of Commons, ii. 450.

Mirabeau, (Marquis de, the father,) ad-
duced as to population, i. 65, 209,
430; in favour of large farms, 127;
quoted in this respect, 129; adduced
as to productive and unproductive
labourers and their subdivisions, 274;
his writings praised, 289; referred to
in favour of a territorial tax, 301, ii.
237; his Ami des Hommes recom-
mended in the conclusion of the
Course on Political Economy, ii. 458.
Mirabeau, (Marquis de, the son,) quoted
as to the influence of Manufactures in
a political relation, i. 176, seq.
Moderation, the principle of aristocracy,
what does it mean in the language of
Montesquieu? ii. 379-382.

Modesty, in woman not factitious, i. 75.
Moheau, (M., author of Récherches,
&c.,) adduced as to the effect of cli-
mate on Population, i. 61; as to the
proportion of the Sexes born in
France, 88; on the average number
of inhabitants to a house in France,
217; as to the rate of the consump-
tion of bread in France, 218; as to
the proportion between consump-
tion and population, 219; as to
that between births and inhabitants
in France, 222, see 223; his work on

Population commemorated in the con-
clusion of the Course on Political
Economy, ii. 458.

Monarchy, on, simply and in general,
ii. 353; on, in special, 386-401; its
corruption Tyranny, or Despotism,
384; Absolute, the only form of go-
vernment for which there is a word
in the Persian language, 389; in
some absolute monarchies the prince
is viewed as proprietor of all lands,
and as heir to all his subjects, 391;
how tempered by a hereditary nobi-
lity, 407; or by different ranks, ib.
See Despotism.

Money, as the circulating medium, i.
333-425; on the origin and use of,
333-349; circumstances which re-
commend gold and silver as the fittest
materials for coin, 334, seq.; relation
of bullion or coined metals to a paper
currency, 346, seq.; prices, real and
nominal, 349-371; on what principle
shall the value of money, at different
times, be estimated? 352, seq.; does
the amount of labour afford the real
measure of the exchangeable value of
commodities, as held by Smith? 353;
this doctrine combated, 353, seq.; as
to the effect of a slow and rapid cir-
culation of, 379, seq.; as the standard
of value, 390-396; interest of, 396-
425; value of, employed in two dif
ferent senses, 408, seq.; Commerce of,
should it be regulated by law? on, in
general, ii.146-195. See Capital, Usury.
Monied Interest, what? i. 405, seq.
Monogamy, compared with Polygamy

in reference to Population, i. 82-92;
favoured by the near proportion of the
sexes, 90.

Monopoly, patents of, by Queen Eliza-
beth, ii. 17; in general withdrawn by
James I., but some granted, 17-19,
seq.; case of the London Company
for the Manufacture of Flour, Meal,
and Bread, 96-100.

Montesquieu, adduced in regard to the
advantages of political wealth, i. 35;
quoted as to the introduction of bills
of exchange by the Jews, 41; as to
the exceptional Polygamy of the
ancient Germans, 84; wrong in his
reliance on the authority of Kaempfer
that more females than males are
born at Bantam, 90, 91; quoted on
the effect of employing machinery as
a substitute for manual labour, 189;
his opinion controverted, 190; his

speculation in regard to the value of
the precious metals in different ages
and countries, 372, 376, seq.; his
doctrine touching the rate of interest,
398, 432, 445; alleged touching the
exaction of interest by the Jews, ii.
150; adduced as to the Roman laws
of succession, 197; holds that it would
be better to trust the relief of the poor
to voluntary charity, 275; on the
division and distribution of political
powers, 352; his discrimination of
the simple forms of government, in
general, 352-354; on the mode of
voting in republics, 358, 359; on the
distribution of property in republics,
359, 360; how he explains that the
Roman people had no disputes about
the executive authority, 369; how he
explains the result of a sudden and
exorbitant authority conferred upon
a citizen in a democracy, 369, 370;
as to the inconveniences of democra
cies and aristocracies, and how these
may be remedied, 373, 374; quoted
as to the nobility in an aristocratical
government, 377; what aristocracies
are the best, 378; what does Modera-
tion mean as the principle of aristo-
cracy, 379-381; that the nobles should
in an aristocracy be prohibited from
every kind of commerce, 383;
in fact,
all vain distinctions of birth (even pri-
mogeniture) should be there abolished,
383, 384; shows the necessity for a
Vizier in an Absolute Monarchy, 390;
quoted as to the savages of Louisiana
cutting down a tree for the sake of its
fruit, affording an emblem of despotic
government, 393; on Fear, his prin-
ciple of Despotism, 394, seq.; ad-
duced as to the impossibility of any
stable order of succession in a despot-
ism, 397; what he supposes a mon-
archical government to comprise, 407;
what he means by Honour as the
principle of Monarchy, 408; by Vir-
tue, as the principle of Democracy,
ib.; how he distinguishes Monarchy
from Despotism, 408, 409; indirectly
lauds the constitutional limitations of
the English Government, 409; quoted
in regard to Monarchy, 410, 411; an
apology for his inaccuracies, 410, 412;
on the division of the English Legis-
lature, 440.

Morals, are these improved by the in-
tellectual cultivation of a people? ii.
345, seq.

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