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An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Volume 2
Visualização integral - 1869
advantage afford altogether ancient annual produce augmented balance of trade bank money bounty Britain bullion capital carried cattle cent circulating capital circulation coin colonies commerce commodities commonly consequence considerable consumed consumption corn coun cultivation dealers debt declension demand dities duce duties employed employment England equal established Europe exchange expense exportation farmer favour foreign trade France frequently gold and silver guilders home market importation improvement increase India industry inhabitants interest kind landlord less maintain manner manufactures ment merchants metals money price monopoly nations natural price naturally necessarily necessary neral never obliged occasion ordinary paid particular perhaps Peru Portugal pound weight pounds present prohibited proportion proprietors purchase raise regulations render rent revenue rude produce scarcity Scotland seems seignorage seldom sell shillings society sometimes sort sovereign Spain subsistence supposed tain tillage tion tivated tural wages of labour wealth whole
Página 276 - Consumption is the sole end and purpose of all production ; and the interest of the producer ought to be attended to, only so far as it may be necessary for promoting that of the consumer.
Página 185 - The statesman, who should attempt to direct private people in what manner they ought to employ their capitals, would not only load himself with a most unnecessary attention, but assume an authority which could safely be trusted, not only to no single person, but to no council or senate whatever, and which would nowhere be so dangerous as in the hands of a man who had folly and presumption enough to fancy himself fit to exercise it.
Página 329 - ... has no occasion to exert his understanding or to exercise his invention in finding out expedients for removing difficulties which never occur. He naturally loses, therefore, the habit of such exertion, and generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for a human creature to become.
Página 288 - Every man, as long as he does not violate the laws of justice, is left perfectly free to pursue his own interest his own way, and to bring both his industry and capital into competition with those of any other man, or order of men.
Página 185 - It is the maxim of every prudent master of a family, never to attempt to make at home what it will cost him more to make than to buy.
Página 223 - The natural effort of every individual to better his own condition, when suffered to exert itself with freedom and security, is so powerful a principle that it is alone and without any assistance, not only capable of carrying on the society to wealth and prosperity, but of surmounting a hundred impertinent obstructions with which the folly of human laws too often encumbers its operations...
Página 349 - The expense of government to the individuals of a great nation is like the expense of management to the joint tenants of a great estate, who are all obliged to contribute in proportion to their respective interests in the estate. In the observation or neglect of this maxim consists what is called the equality or inequality of taxation.
Página 349 - The subjects of every state ought to contribute towards the support of the government, as nearly as possible, in proportion to their respective abilities; that is, in proportion to the revenue which they respectively enjoy under the protection of the state.
Página 3 - Those ten persons, therefore could make among them upwards of forty-eight thousand pins in a day. Each person, therefore, making a tenth part of forty-eight thousand pins, might be considered as making four thousand eight hundred pins in a day. But if they had all wrought separately and independently, and without any of them having been educated to this peculiar business, they certainly could not each of them have made twenty, perhaps not one pin in a day...
Página 304 - ... the duty of erecting and maintaining certain public works and certain public institutions, which it can never be for the interest of any individual, or small number of individuals, to erect and maintain ; because the profit could never repay the expense to any individual or small number of individuals, though it may frequently do much more than repay it to a great society.