Imagens das páginas
PDF
ePub

BOOK III.

Of the different Progress of Opulence in

different Nations.

CHAP. I.

Of the natural Progress of Opulence

Page 73

CH A P. II.

Of the Discouragement of Agriculture in the

ancient State of Europe after the Fall of the
Roman Empire

81

CH A P. III.

Of the Rise and Progress of Cities and Towns,

after the Fall of the Roman Empire

99

CH A P. IV.

How the Commerce of the Towns contributed to

the Improvement of the Country

117

[merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

II,

II.

Of the Accumulation of Capital, or of productive and

unproductive Labour. HERE is one fort of labour which BOOK TH

adds to the value of the subject upon c H A P. which it is bestowed: there is another which has no such effect. The former, as it produces a value, may be called productive ; the latter, unproductive * labour. Thus the labour of a manufacturer adds, generally, to the value of the materials which he works upon, that of his own

• Some French authors of great learning and ingenuity have used those words in a different sense. In the last chapter of the fourth book, I shall endeavour to show that their sense is an improper one. Vol. II.

B

mainte

Il.

BO O K maintenance, and of his master's profit. The

labour of a menial servant, on the contrary, adds
to the value of nothing. Though the manufac-
turer has his wages advanced to him by his
master, he, in reality, costs him no expence, the
value of those wages being generally restored,
tog-ther with a profit, in the improved value of
the subject upon which his labour is bestowed.
But the maintenance of a menial servant never is
restored. A man grows rich by employing á
multitude of manufacturers : he grows poor, by
maintaining a multitude of menial servants. The
labour of the latter, however, has its value, and
deserves its reward as well as that of the former.
But the labour of ihe manufacturer fixes and re-
alizes itself in some particular subject or vendible
commodity, which lasts for some time at least
after that labour is paft. It is, as it were, a cer-
tain quantity of labour stocked and stored up to
be employed, if necessary, upon some other oc-
casion. That subject, or what is the same thing,
the price of that subject, can afterwards, if ne-
celiary, put into motion a quantity of labour .
equal to that which had originally produced it.
The labour of the menial servant, on the con-
trary, does not fix or realize itself in any parti-
cular subject or vendible commodity. His ser-
vices generally perish in the very instant of their
performance, and feldom leave any trace or value
behind them, for which an equal quantity of ser-
vice could afterwards be procured.

The labour of some of the most respectable orders in the society is, like that of menial ser

« AnteriorContinuar »