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ing to the events narrated that have occurred within the limits of the United States and Mexico.

This book, though possessing the features of a so-called Reader, is not less a teaching manual. If history is to be taught in our schools, merely reading the story will not an. swer. It must be taught again and again just as other subjects are taught. If this course is not pursued and we look for satisfactory results, then are we unreasonable in our expectations.

To the Teacher.

HIS BEST WAY TO USE THIS BOOK. Two leading results you will certainly accomplish by the right use of this book. Your pupils will be thoroughly prepared for the examination ordeal and at the same time will be genuine lovers of history. The writer speaks from a long experience in his own class-room and from numerous tests that have passed under his observation in other class-rooms. He offers the following hints as guides to the use of the book.

ASSIGNING THE LESSON. 1. Assign a short lesson, one that may be mastered within a reasonable time. Recollect that the learner has other tasks, and, besides, should have time for recreation. A long lesson, too, is apt to discourage him. Do not load him down with pages to be committed to memory. Require not only that the historical facts shall be learned, but that the correct pronunciation of the proper names and the exact location of every place mentioned in the lesson shall be known. To make certain of the attainment of this last requirement, establish the rule that the drawing of maps such as are on pages 136, 143, and 156 shall be a part of every lesson preparation

2. Have the lesson read at once, or as soon as possible, and with the utmost care. This, if you so choose, may be your regular reading exercise, and thus the expense for another book may be avoided. Why should another, a so-called Reader, be used ? Does not this book, being a body of choice selections from our best writers, possess all the merits of the best Reader ? Be particular to have the proper names correctly pronounced. The habit of mispronouncing a word is not readily corrected, as we all regretfully know. Is it right to say gee-no'-a or jen'-o-a (Genoa, p. 19)? Should we say Pow-hat'-an or Pow-bat-an' (p. 54)? And now is the best time, good teacher, to make the lesson interesting. Mention its interesting details, relate such incidents and anecdotes as will help to bring it fully in view, and call attention to excellent accounts in other books. Advise your pupils to read the works of Bancroft, Palfrey, Prescott, Sparks, Irving, Parkman, and the other writers of note who have told the history of our country so well. Recommend biographies and biographical sketches. Do not get the idea that this preliminary help will leave your pupils with little or no inducement to study for themselves. Experience proves the contrary.

THE RECITATION. 3. Examine and criticise the little maps that have been drawn by the pupils. This duty, if performed by you alone, would be onerous and tedious, but you may be aided very much by a system of examination carried out by the pupils themselves, who will derive benefit in many respects by the exercise.

4. Bring out the facts with clearness, particularly the relation of causes with results. If a question has not been fully answered, put others to elicit what has been omitted; then ask the first question again, requiring it to be rightly answered. If you are satisfied with less than full and clear answers, “examination day” will find you in a very unhappy frame of mind. Never, for a moment, ose sight of the history's geography. It is the most essential part, not in itself, but in its relation to the other parts. Without it, history is little better than fiction. To remember the location of an event is to remember the event itself. In forgetting it, the event becomes vague and slips away. Outline wall-maps or maps drawn on the blackboard should be used at every recitation; and as places are mentioned by the reciter he should point out their location and state how they are situated.

REVIEWS.

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5. Review by topics and review often. As a rule the topical method of instruction is preferable; but with beginners in the study this is not feasible, if always desirable. At first the facts of history are best presented in outline in the order of their occurrence. These, afterward assorted, make topics. (For very full lists of topics, see pages 48, 49, 124, 181, 252, and 306.) Profitable reviews may also be made by epochs. Have frequent written exercises. Name a topic or epoch, and require it to be treated as shown on page 50, or according to the diagram or other written form.

Thus far the chronology has not been neglected, but now it demands special attention. To the teacher as well as the scholar dates are a great bugbear. Why? We undertake to master too many of them, no discrimination is made between the important and the unimportant, and they are regarded as isolated events rather than as parts of a great whole. The dates of about thirty of the most prominent events in the history of our country should be well fixed in the mind, the other dates standing to these in the relation of cause or effect (see p. 180). The table on page 124e, and the summaries (pp. 180, 251, 305) will help you to make a list of these prominent events. Require your pupils to copy it, to learn it thoroughly, and subject them to frequent drills on it in connection with the minor dates as causes and efforts,

SELECTIONS AND AUTHORS.

The Northmen's Discoveries. From "History of the Northmen," etc Wheaton....

15 Henry Wheaton.—This eminent scholar and statesman was born in Rhode Island in 1785. He held several important diplomatic positions in Europe, and while residing in Denmark published his “ History of the Northmen.” His coutributions to American periodicals were numerous and marked by great ability; but his fame rests mainly upon his “ Elements of International Law” and his History of the Laws of Nations.” The latter appeared originally in French at Leipsic. • No one, save Washington,” says Allibone, “bas done more to make the name of America respected by scholars and honored by statesmen.” His death occurred in 1848.

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Landing of Columbus. From “ The Life and Voyages of Columbus." Irring....

... 21 Washington Irving, one of the most distinguished of modern authors, was born in New York City in 1783. The production which first gave him a decided reputation was the famous “ History of New York, by Diedrich Knickerbocker,” published in 1809. This is a work of inimi. table humor, and was read with the greatest delight on both sides of the Atlantic. Sir Walter Scott enthusiastically admired it. The “ Sketch Book” was published in London, and greaily enhanced the author's reputation. He also published “Life and Voyages of Columbus," “ The Alhambra," Bracebridge Hall,” “Life of Washington,” and many other popular works. Irving's style is remarkable for its elegance and copiousness ; while the purity of his sentiments, his sympathy with mankind, his geniality and kindliness, his innocent and playful satire, mixed with the pathetic, make his writings an inexhaustible fountain of intellectual enjoyment. He died at his residence, Sunnyside, a charming spot on the banks of the Hudson, November 28, 1859, universally loved and esteemed for his artlessness and benevolence of character, and honored not only for his genius, but for the virtues by which it was adorned.

Return of Columbus to Spain. From “The History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella.” Prescott....

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William H. Prescott.—This eminent historian was born in Salem, Mass., in 1796, and was the grandson of Colonel Prescott, of Revolutionary fame. His principal works are the “ History of Ferdinand and Isabella,” “ The Conquest of Mexico,” “ The Conquest of Peru," and the

History of the Reign of Philip II.” The last-mentioned work he did not live to finish, dying in 1859. These various productions constitute a splendid contribution to English literature. The materials for their composition were collected with the most laborious research, and have been arranged with very great judgment and skill, while their style is a model for elegance and correctness. Though in affluent circumstances, and affected from early manhood with blindness, Mr. Prescott labored in his literary undertakings with indefatigable industry, and accomplished a task beyond the powers of most men in the enjoyment of every faculty. His high moral worth, amiable disposition, and geniality of manners won for him the esteem of a very large circle of friends.

The Indians. From “ The History of the United States.” Ramsay.. 25

David Ramsay, M.D., was born in Pennsylvania in 1749. After graduating at the College of New Jersey, he studied medicine, and commenced practice in Charleston, South Carolina, where he resided during the remainder of his life. He was for several years (1782–5) a member of Congress, and during one year its president. His death was caused by a pistol-shot wound, received in the streets of Charleston, in 1815. In 1785 he published his “ History of the Revolution in South Carolina ;" and five years afterward the “ History of the American Revolution,” which was received with universal coinmendation. His “Life of Wash. ington” appeared in 1807, and the “ History of South Carolina” in 1809. He was also the author of several other works. As a historian he was diligent in research, and his narrative is characterized by accuracy and impartiality, and is expressed in a simple and elegant style.

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The Mound Builders. From “The Popular History of the United States.". Bryant and Gay......

27 William C. Bryant, though pronounced “the foremost of American poets," was also distinguished as a prose writer. He was many years the editor of the New York Evening Post. He was born in Massachusetts in 1794. His death occurred in New York City in 1878. He was universally esteemed for his active beneficence, unbending integrity, and kindness of disposition. (The extract is probably from Gay's pen.)

Were the Indians the Monnd Builders? From "The Pre-Historic Races in the United States.” Foster......

29 John W. Foster, LL.D., an emineut geologist and archæologist, was Selections and Authors.

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born in Massachusetts in 1815. Besides the above work, he was the author of the “ Physical Geography of the Mississippi Valley.” His death occurred in 1873.

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The New Lands not India. From “ The Conquest of Peru.” Prescott. 30 De Soto's Expedition. From “The Pioneers of France in the New World.” Parkman.....

34 Francis Parkman, a native of Boston, was born in 1823. His various histories, The Conspiracy of Pontiac,” “The Pioneers, etc.," The Jesuits in North America,” and other works,“ exhibit a singular combination of the talents of the historian with those of the novelist.” They have been warmly commended by critics on both sides of the Atlantic. No historical course of reading can be complete that excludes these charming volumes.

Discovery of the Mississippi. From “ The Conquest of Florida.” T. Irving..

35 Theodore Irving, LL.D., nephew of Washington Irving, was born in New York in 1809. Besides “ The Conquest,” he has written “ The Fountain of Waters," and contributed numerous ai ticles to periodicals. His style is terse and graceful." His de:ath occurred in 1880.

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Burial of De Soto. A translation from the “ Knight of Elvas,” a Spanish

narrative. Smith...

Buckingham Smith was born in Georgia in 1810. He published a number of works, most of which were translations from the Spanish. “ Few American scholars have been so conversant with the materials of early American history as Mr. Smith.” He died in 1871.

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Drake's Voyage Around the World. From “ The History of Oregor and California.” Robert Greenhow.....

37 (See note, page 198.) Marquette on the Mississippi. From "The Discovery and Exploration of the Mississippi River.” Shea.....

41 John D. Gilmary Shea, LL.D., was born in New York in 1824. He is the author of a number of works of great merit, but is best known for those on American history.

La Salle descends the Mississippi. From “ The Discovery of the Great West.” Parkman..

43 Settlement of Jamestown. From “The History of the Colony and Ancient Dominion of Virginia.” Campbell...

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