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escorts the new president to his home in the White House. These ceremonies are called the inauguration of the president.

15. The Vice-President. If the president should die before the four years of his term should be ended, it would leave the federal administration without a head. To have another election so soon would be troublesome and expensive. So the Constitution provides that the electors, at the same time they elect a president, shall also choose another man as vice-president of the United States. The vicepresident must not live in the same state as the president. His duty is merely to be chairman of the senate. But in case the president dies, or in any other way there should be no president, the vice-president at once ceases to preside in the senate and performs the duties of president.

16. Four times in our history a president has died in office, and the vice-president has succeeded to the chief place. In 1841 William Henry Harrison became president. General Harrison was an old man who had made a brilliant record as a leader of the American armies in war against the Indians, and in the second war with Great Britain, in 1812. Only one month after the inauguration President Harrison died. The vice-president was John Tyler, of Virginia, who thus became president.

17. The second president to die was Zachary Taylor, who also had been a gallant soldier. General Taylor was inaugurated in 1849, and died in 1850. He was succeeded by Vice-President Millard Fillmore, of New York.

18. Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois, became president in March, 1861. Almost immediately after his inaugura



U. S. Grant was born in Ohio in 1822. He was educated at West Point, and served several years in the army as lieutenant and captain. In 1854 he resigned his commission to engage in business. When the civil war broke out, in 1861, he was made colonel of an Illinois regiment. He soon proved an able commander, winning many victories, and was promoted repeatedly, until in 1864 he was made commander of all the armies of the United States. It was to him that General Lee surrendered in 1865. In 1868 General Grant was elected president of the United States, and he was reëlected in 1872. He died in 1885. A fine monument has been erected to his memory in the City of New York.

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great civil war. Ten states, dissatisfied with the Union, withdrew and formed a new republic of their own. But President Lin

coln, supported by the rest of the states, denied the right of any

state to leave the Union. Armies were formed on both sides, and, as was said, a terrible war resulted-a war which lasted for four years. Before it was ended Mr. Lincoln was elected for a second term, and was inaugurated in March,

1865. Within a few

weeks the war came to an end by the victory of the national armies. And amid the excitement a fanatical sympathizer with the losing side assassinated

the president. The vice-president was Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee, who then became president.

19. A second president to be murdered, and the fourth to die while in office, was James A. Garfield.

Mr. Garfield

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was inaugurated as president in March, 1881. A few months afterwards he was shot by a half-crazy officeseeker. The president lingered for some weeks. As soon as he died, the vice-president, Chester A. Arthur, of New York, took the oath of office as president.

20. Thus four times in our history a president has died, twice, sad to say, by the hand of an assassin. So four times a vice-president has become president.

21. If the president and vice-president should both die, the laws provide that the secretary of state (p. 137) should


General Lee was born in Virginia in 1807. He was an officer in the United States army, but when Vir

ginia seceded he resigned his commission and cast in

his fortunes with his native state and the South. Through most of the civil war he commanded the

succeed to the office.

If he also should die, the secretary of the treasury acts as president, and thus the office would pass on through the president's cabinet in case of successive deaths (p. 139). 22. The Battle of Gettysburg. One of the greatest battles of the civil

war was that at Gettysburg, in the state of Pennsylvania, in


Confederate armies, winning high fame as an able July, 1863. The

general and as a man of pure and earnest character. After the war he became president of Washington College, at Lexington, Virginia. Here he died in 1870.

eral Robert E. Lee, had crossed the was invading the northern states.

Confederate army,

commanded by GenPotomac River and The Union army,

under General George G. Meade, followed close after, and at Gettysburg Lee turned on his enemy and attempted to destroy him. The battle raged fiercely for three days,

being fought on both sides with determined courage. The Confederates failed in their attack, and were compelled to retreat to Virginia. The many thousands of Union soldiers who were killed were buried in a national cemetery on the field of battle, and in November, 1863, this cemetery was formally dedicated to its sacred purpose. A part of the ceremonies was an address by the president of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. This brief but most eloquent speech of the great war president follows in full:

Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, November 19, 1863

FOURSCORE and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But in a larger sense we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it far above our power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us, the living, rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us, that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave

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