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PLATEA. A. C. 427. Olymp. 88. 2.

5 “ εἰκὸς ἦν προθύμως. ἃ δὲ ἑκάτεροι ἐξηγεῖσθε τοῖς ξυμμά

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χοις, οὐχ οἱ ἑπόμενοι αἴτιοι εἴ τι μὴ καλῶς ἐδρᾶτε, ἀλλ ̓ οἱ “ ἄγοντες ἐπὶ τὰ μὴ ὀρθῶς ἔχοντα.

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And because we will

LVI. Θηβαῖοι δὲ

“ πολλὰ μὲν καὶ ἄλλα ἡμᾶς ἠδίκησαν, τὸ δὲ

not abandon her now, 66 τελευταῖον αὐτοὶ ξύνιστε δι ̓ ἅπερ καὶ τάδε;

the Thebans urge you

2 to destroy us, and your

3

you too ready to listen

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to them. But the 66 friendship of Thebes

πάσχομεν. πόλιν γὰρ αὐτοὺς τὴν ἡμετέραν present interest makes σε καταλαμβάνοντας ἐν σπονδαῖς καὶ προσέτι · ἱερομηνία ὀρθῶς ἐτιμωρησάμεθα κατὰ τὸν cannot be more vulu- “ πᾶσι νόμον καθεστῶτα τὸν ἐπιόντα πολέμιον ὅσιον εἶναι ἀμύνεσθαι· καὶ νῦν οὐκ ἂν εἰς το invasion; and σε κότως δι ̓ αὐτοὺς βλαπτοίμεθα. εἰ γὰρ τῷ preference of honour “ αὐτίκα χρησίμῳ ὑμῶν τε καὶ ἐκείνων πολεμίῳ τὸ δίκαιον λήψεσθε, τοῦ μὲν ὀρθοῦ

able to you now than

ours was in the Per

sian

that same courageous

to interest which you then admired, when it

was exerted for you, ought even now to command your respect, although

it

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φανεῖσθε οὐκ ἀληθεῖς κριταὶ ὄντες, τὸ δὲ ξυμφέρον μᾶλλον θεραπεύοντες. καίτοι εἰτ; “ νῦν ὑμῖν ὠφέλιμοι δοκοῦσιν εἶναι, πολὺ καὶ ἡμεῖς καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι Ἕλληνες μᾶλλον τότε 5“ ὅτε ἐν μείζονι κινδύνῳ ἦτε. νῦν μὲν γὰρ ἑτέροις ὑμεῖς

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1. συμμάχοις Ε. 2. τι μὴ] μή τι M.b. τε μὴ g. 4. nμâs] om. I. 8. ὀρθῶς ἐτιμωρησάμεθα Α.Β.E.F.G.H.M.N.V.b.g.h. Poppo. Goell. Bekk. vulgo ὀρθῶς τε ἐτιμωρησάμεθα. 12. τε] om. C.c.e. 17. ol] om. M.P.Q.g.

were, according to Hellanicus, made Platæans; that is, were freed, and enjoyed the private rights of citizens, but not the political ones. See the Scholiast on Aristophanes, Frogs, 706. The political and religious rights of citizenship, except only eligibility to the office of archon, and to certain priesthoods hereditary in particular families, were conferred on the surviving Platæans immediately after the tragical fate of those whose trial Thucydides is here describing. See the Pseudo Demosthenes against Neæra, pag. 138o. ed. Reiske.

8. ἱερομηνία] “A holy time of the σε moon or month." The term is applied sometimes to a whole month, as

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V. 54, 2. if it were occupied either entirely or mostly with the celebration of religious holydays; and sometimes to particular days in the month. See the Scholiast on Pindar, Nemean Odes, III. 4. ἱερομηνίαι δὲ λέγονται αἱ ἐν τῷ μηνὶ ἱεραὶ ἡμέραι, οἱαιδήποτε θεοῖς ἀνει· μέναι. See also Duker's note on Thucyd. V. 54, 2.

9. τὸν ἐπιόντα πολέμιον ὅσιον κ. τ. λ.] Compare VII. 68, 1.

ΙΙ. τῷ αὐτίκα χρησίμῳ ὑμῶν τε κ. τ. λ.] That is, τῷ τε αὐτίκα χρησίμῳ ὑμῶν καὶ ἐκείνων πολεμίῳ, for the τe is again transposed, as in I. 49, 6. οἱ Κορίνθιοι ἡσσῶντό τε, where see the note. See other instances quoted by Poppo, Prolegom. I. p. 300.

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PLATIA. A. C. 427. Olymp. 88. 2.

ἐπέρχεσθε δεινοί· ἐν ἐκείνῳ δὲ τῷ καιρῷ, ὅτε πᾶσι δου “ λείαν ἐπέφερεν ὁ βάρβαρος, οἵδε μετ ̓ αὐτοῦ ἦσαν. καὶ6 σε δίκαιον ἡμῶν τῆς νῦν ἁμαρτίας, εἰ ἄρα ἡμάρτηται, ἀντισε θεῖναι τὴν τότε προθυμίαν· καὶ μείζω τε πρὸς ἐλάσσω 56 εὑρήσετε, καὶ ἐν καιροῖς οἷς σπάνιον ἦν τῶν Ἑλλήνων “ τινὰ ἀρετὴν τῇ Ξέρξου δυνάμει ἀντιτάξασθαι, ἐπῃνοῦντό “ τε μᾶλλον οἱ μὴ τὰ ξύμφορα πρὸς τὴν ἔφοδον αὑτοῖς ἀσφαλείᾳ πράσσοντες, ἐθέλοντες δὲ τολμᾷν μετὰ κινδύνων “ τὰ βέλτιστα. ὧν ἡμεῖς γενόμενοι καὶ τιμηθέντες ἐς τὰη

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1. ὑπέρχεσθε Ρ.

3. ἡμάρτηται ἀντιθείναι Α.Β.Ε.Ε.Η.Κ.Μ. Ν. V. c. f. g.h.i. Haack. Poppo. Goell. Bekk. G. et vulgo ἡμάρτηταί τι ἀντιθεῖναι. 5. τινα ἀρετὴν τῶν ἑλλήνων c.f. 7. μάλιστα L.Ο.Ρ. αὑτοῖς Bekk. 9. βέλτιστα] μέγιστα ε.

6. τῇ τοῦ ξέρξου ε.

ed. 1832. vulgo αὐτοῖς. 8. ἀσφαλίαι Ε.

5. ἐν καιροῖς οἷς σπάνιον κ. τ. λ.] The order is, σπάνιον ἦν τῶν Ἑλλήνων τινὰ ἀντιτάξασθαι ἀρετὴν τῇ Ξέρξου δυνάμει. In what follows there is an antithesis between the several words of the two clauses: τὰ ξύμφορα — τὰ βέλτιστα. ἀσφαλεία—μετὰ κινδύνων. πράσσοντες (i. e. "practising," in the old sense of the word, equivalent to "intriguing,

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manœuvring.” See note on I. 56. 2.) ἐθέλοντες τολμᾶν. The dative case ασφαAeia seems to me to correspond to di' ἀσφαλείας, Ι. 17, I.i.e. “ without exposing « themselves to hazard, in security,” as opposed to μετὰ κινδύνων. others interpret it "for their safety," as if it were ἐς ἀσφαλείαν. The first sense would exactly correspond to the words, III. 82, 7. ἀσφαλείᾳ δὲ τὸ ἐπιβουλεύσασθαι, if we may read there the dative instead of the nominative, with Haack and Poppo. There is also a difficulty about avrois or αὐτοῖς, which does not seem to me to follow naturally after ἔφοδον, as Göller understands it, “ the attack made "upon them." I am rather inclined to take it with τὰ ξύμφορα, as Göller now does, in part at least, in his second edition, "what was for their own in"terest with respect to the invasion."

9. ὧν ἡμεῖς γενόμενοι κ. τ. λ.] “This " better part was ours also, and highly "were we honoured for it; yet now we "fear lest the very same conduct should "be our ruin, because we have again “ preferred our honour, which bound

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us fast to Athens, to our interest, "which tempted us to join you. And yet the same estimate should ever be "made of the same principles; and we "should hold it as our real interest to "retain an ever enduring sense of the "services of brave and faithful allies, "while we take care of whatever our "immediate advantage may seem to σε call for.” Such I believe to be the sense of this most obscurely expressed passage, nor do I think it necessary to adopt Heilman's ingenious conjecture ἔχουσι, the dative plural of the participle, instead of ἔχωσι. In the words τὸ παραυτίκα ὠφέλιμον there is a manifest allusion to τῷ αὐτίκα χρησίμῳ ὑμῶν in the earlier part of the chapter. The meaning is, that whereas the Lacedamonians were sacrificing every thing to their present interest, they ought to admit other considerations; and while they took care of their present advantage, they should not neglect those eternal principles of honour and gratitude which were in the long run the true interest of every body. Εχουσι, no doubt, would be far neater, but the same meaning is, I think, deducible from the text as it now stands. Tò παραυτίκα που ἡμῖν ὠφέλιμον seems to signify, " that which on any occasion

may be our immediate interest;" the particle mov expressing a sort of doubt, whether there could be an immediate interest opposed to the laws of duty.

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PLATEA. A. C. 427. Olymp. 88.2.

“ πρῶτα νῦν ἐπὶ τοῖς αὐτοῖς δέδιμεν μὴ διαφθαρῶμεν, ̓Αθη 86 ναίους ἑλόμενοι δικαίως μᾶλλον ἢ ὑμᾶς κερδαλέως. καίτοι χρὴ ταὐτὰ περὶ τῶν αὐτῶν ὁμοίως φαίνεσθαι γιγνώσκον

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But

consider how

must suffer, if you sa

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τας, καὶ τὸ ξυμφέρον μὴ ἄλλο τι νομίσαι ἢ τῶν ξυμμάχων τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς ὅταν ἀεὶ βέβαιον τὴν χάριν τῆς ἀρετῆς; ἔχωσι καὶ τὸ παραυτίκα που ἡμῖν ὠφέλιμον καθιστῆται. “ LVII. προσκέψασθέ τε ὅτι νῦν μὲν παράδειγμα τοῖς “ πολλοῖς τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἀνδραγαθίας νομίζεσθε· εἰ δὲ περὶ ἡμῶν γνώσεσθε μὴ τὰ εἰκότα (οὐ γὰρ ἀφανῆ greatly your own glory 66 κρινεῖτε τὴν δίκην τήνδε, ἐπαινούμενοι δὲ το περὶ οὐδ ̓ ἡμῶν μεμπτῶν, ὁρᾶτε ὅπως μὴ “ οὐκ ἀποδέξωνται ἀνδρῶν ἀγαθῶν πέρι αὐ “ τοὺς ἀμείνους ὄντας ἀπρεπές τι ἐπιγνῶναι, “ οὐδὲ πρὸς ἱεροῖς τοῖς κοινοῖς σκῦλα ἀπὸ ἡμῶν τῶν εὐεργετῶν τῆς Ἑλλάδος ἀνατεθῆναι. δεινὸν δὲ15 δόξει εἶναι Πλάταιαν Λακεδαιμονίους πορθῆσαι, καὶ τοὺς μὲν πατέρας αναγράψαι ἐς τὸν τρίποδα τὸν ἐν Δελφοῖς δι ἀρετὴν τὴν πόλιν, ὑμᾶς δὲ καὶ ἐκ παντὸς τοῦ Ἑλληνικοῦ 3“ πανοικησίᾳ διὰ Θηβαίους ἐξαλεῖψαι. ἐς τοῦτο γὰρ δὴ ξυμφορᾶς προκεχωρήκαμεν, οἵτινες Μήδων τε κρατησάντων 30

crifice us to the animosity of Thebes, after our devoted efforts in what was at once your cause and the cause of all Greece.

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3. ὁμοίους f. 6. vuiv A.B.C.E.V.d.e.f.g.h. Bekk. ed. 1832. I.K.L.M.O.V. καθίσταται P.Q. καθίστητε . οὐκ Κ. ἀφανεῖ d.i. 11. περὶ] παρὰ g. post ovras habet V. 14. πρὸς τοῖς ἱεροῖς g. καὶ] om. Κ. τοῦ] om. e.

7. τε] om. Β.Ο. 12. ἀποδέξονται C. 16. δείξει C.

19. πανοικεσία E.G.I.L.N.O.Q.

16. Λακεδαιμονίους-Θηβαίους] The names of nations are sometimes used in Greek without the article, when they are intended to convey the notion of some well known points in the national character, rather than the mere inhabitants of such a country. Thus Λακεδαιμονίους means, “you who are "Lacedæmonians," that is, "whose peculiar glory it is to be the perpetual assertors of Grecian liberty.” (Compare I. 69, 1. IV. 85. 86.) Θηβαίους means," such wretches as the Thebans;"

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καθίστηται 9. où yàp] 13. αὐτοὺς 18. ἀρετῆς L.P.

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PLATEA. A. C. 427. Olymp. 88. 2.

σε ἀπωλλύμεθα καὶ νῦν ἐν ὑμῖν τοῖς πρὶν φιλτάτοις Θηβαίων

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ἡσσώμεθα, καὶ δύο ἀγῶνας τοὺς μεγίστους ὑπέστημεν, τότε μὲν τὴν πόλιν εἰ μὴ παρέδομεν, λιμῷ διαφθαρῆναι, σε νῦν δὲ θανάτου κρίνεσθαι. καὶ περιεώσμεθα ἐκ πάντων 4 56 Πλαταιῆς οἱ παρὰ δύναμιν πρόθυμοι ἐς τοὺς Ἕλληνας ἔρημοι καὶ ἀτιμώρητοι· καὶ οὔτε τῶν τότε ξυμμάχων ὠφελεῖ οὐδεὶς, ὑμεῖς τε, ὦ Λακεδαιμόνιοι, ἡ μόνη ἐλπὶς, δέδιμεν μὴ οὐ βέβαιοι ἦτε. LVIII. καίτοι ἀξιοῦμέν γε “ καὶ θεῶν ἕνεκα τῶν ξυμμαχικῶν ποτὲ γενομένων καὶ τῆς ἀρετῆς τῆς ἐς τοὺς Ἕλληνας καμφθῆναι ὑμᾶς, καὶ μεταγνῶναι εἴ τι ὑπὸ tombs of your fathers, 66 Θηβαίων ἐπείσθητε, τήν τε δωρεὰν ἀντα

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We became your ene10 mies only by necessity ; we are now your supplants and the very

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1. ἀπωλλύμεθα Η. et corr. F. Haack. Poppo. et Bekk. in ed. 1832. Vulgo άπολλύμεθα. καὶἧσσώμεθα] om. Ε. 3. λιμῷ δὲ διαφθαρῆναι C.e. 4. θανάτου κρίνεσθαι B.g.h. Ρoppo. Goell. Bekk. δίκη uncis inclusit Haack. A.E.F.G. et ceteri θανάτου δίκῃ κρίνεσθαι. περιεσώμεθα Κ. 6. ἐρήμοι Bekk. Poppo. τότε] om. L.O. 7. ὠφελειται Κ. 8. δεδίαμεν Dionysius, p. 7. 9. ξυμμάχων Q. 11. καμφθῆναι Α.Β.E.F.I.c.d.e.g. " et libri tam scripti quam editi ad Duk. usque A collati, quantum scimus, omnes. Γναμφθῆναι ex marg. Stephan. a Wassio jussus recepit Dukerus, servavit Haack. sed jure expulit Bekker.” Poppo. κναμφθῆναι C.f. 12. Tε] dè V.

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it. Compare Euripides, Bacchæ, 612. τίς μοι φύλαξ ἦν, εἰ σὺ συμφορᾶς τύχοις; which Elmsley properly translates, “ Quis mihi dux futurus erat, si tibi “ aliquid mali accidisset ?” adding, “ ἦν “ enim pro ἔμελλεν ἔσεσθαι accipiendum "est." He then quotes Euripid. Heracl. 462. and Iphigen. Aul. 1405. to which may be added Thucyd. viii. 86, 4. ἐν ᾧ σαφέστατα Ἰωνίαν εἶχον οἱ πολέμιοι. and Herodotus, VII. 220, 2. μένοντι δὲ αὐτοῦ κλέος μέγα ελείπετο, καὶ ἡ Σπάρτης εὐδαιμονίη οὐκ ἐξηλείφετο.

3. τότε μὲν—λιμῷ διαφθαρῆναι] Compare c. 52, 1-4. and again c. 59, 4. eiλόμεθα γὰρ ἂν—λιμῷ τελευτῆσαι. Ι should not have thought it necessary to make these references, had not Poppo strangely imagined that the words related to a fancied danger of starvation during the Persian invasion, when the Platæans would have been blockaded and starved had they not abandoned their city. But Göller truly observes, that Thucydides says, εἰ μὴ παρέδομεν

τὴν πόλιν, which the Platæans never did to the Persians: and besides, it is truly absurd to suppose, that when the Platæans say δύο ἀγῶνας τοὺς μεγίστους ὑπέστημεν, they mean by one of these ἀγῶνες a danger wholly hypothetical, which they never had incurred, but might possibly under very different circumstances have incurred; although, as Göller well observes again, even had the Platans ever been besieged by the Persians, their danger would not have been chiefly from famine, for the multitude of the enemy would probably soon have scaled the walls of so small a town, destitute as it was of any natural advantages of situation.

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12. τήν τε δωρεάν χάριν] Αὐτοὺς means the Thebans. Ask back again "of them the gift of our lives, which

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we fear you have given to gratify “ their vengeance, that they kill not "those whose death will be your shame; “ and receive from us an honest grati« tude, instead of the disgraceful grati

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PLATEA. A. C. 427. Olymp. 88. 2.

which we duly honour, 66 παιτῆσαι αὐτοὺς μὴ κτείνειν οὓς μὴ ὑμῖν

of your fathers who fell

and were buried in our land, when Thebes fought against them

call upon you not to abandon them to the

care of Theban traitors.

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πρέπει, σώφρονά τε ἀντὶ αἰσχρᾶς κομίσασθαι χάριν, καὶ μὴ ἡδονὴν δόντας ἄλλοις κακίαν

and against Greece, 66 αὐτοὺς ἀντιλαβεῖν· βραχὺ γὰρ τὸ τὰ ἡμέτερα “ σώματα διαφθεῖραι, ἐπίπονον δὲ τὴν δύσ-5 σε κλειαν αὐτοῦ ἀφανίσαι.· οὐκ ἐχθροὺς γὰρ ἡμᾶς εἰκότως τιμωρήσεσθε, ἀλλ' εὔνους, κατ ̓ ἀνάγκην 3 πολεμήσαντας. ὥστε καὶ τῶν σωμάτων ἄδειαν ποιοῦντες “ ὅσια ἂν δικάζοιτε, καὶ προνοοῦντες ὅτι ἑκόντας τε ἐλάβετε καὶ χεῖρας προϊσχομένους (ὁ δὲ νόμος τοῖς Ἕλλησι μὴ το “ κτείνειν τούτους), ἔτι δὲ καὶ εὐεργέτας γεγενημένους διὰ “ παντός. ἀποβλέψατε γὰρ ἐς πατέρων τῶν ὑμετέρων θήκας, οὺς ἀποθανόντας ὑπὸ Μήδων καὶ ταφέντας ἐν τῇ ἡμετέρᾳ ἐτιμῶμεν κατὰ ἔτος ἕκαστον δημοσίᾳ ἐσθήμασί τε καὶ τοῖς

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"tude which you would purchase from "them by gratifying their evil pas“ sions.” In the words δωρεὰν ἀνταπαιτῆσαι there is an allusion to what had been said before, c. 53, 5. δέδιμεν μὴ ἄλλοις χάριν φέροντες, κ. τ. λ. By σώφρονα χάριν is meant the return of fair and honourable service which an act of true and honourable kindness claims; by αἰσχρὰν χάριν, that return of base compliances and serviceable villainy which is the natural and only recompense of those who make themselves the tools of their neighbours' crimes.

2. σώφρονά] Vid. Euripidem Androm. 778. WASS.

10. νόμος τοῖς Ἕλλησι] Vid. Feith. III. Antiquit. Homericar. 14. et infr. cap. 66, 2. 67, 5, 6. DUKER.

14. κατὰ ἔτος ἕκαστον] Hujus annui sacri totam rationem multis describit Plutarch. Aristid. p. 608. DUKER.

ἐσθήμασι] The practice of wrapping a body for burial in a rich and costly dress, mentioned by Plutarch, Alexander c. 21. and elsewhere, can have nothing to do with what is here mentioned as an annual offering of garments at the tombs of the dead. I believe that the

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clothing was offered in the same superstitious feeling which prompted offerings of meat and drink; as if the dead were cold in their disembodied state, and still required those reliefs to the necessities of human nature which they bad needed when alive. And from that wild story told by Herodotus, V. 92, 28-32, it appears that the clothing thus offered was not thought to be ser viceable to the departed unless it were burnt for which reason Periander took the richest clothing of all the women in Corinth, and threw it into a pit, and burnt it as an offering to his wife Me lissa, when her spirit had appeared to him and complained that she was cold and naked, because the clothing in which she had been buried was of no avail to her, as it had not been burnt to ashes. The confusion of ideas which blended together the notions of a surviving soul and a dead body, of the unseen world, and the cold grave in which the mortal remains are deposited, is described by Burke in a passage of remarkable beauty, in his Abridgement of English History, book I. chap. 2.

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