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Description of the Peloponnesian lines.

PLATEA. A. C. 428, 7. Olymp. 88.1.

πολλάκις ἀριθμοῦντες καὶ ἅμα οὐ πολὺ ἀπέχοντες, ἀλλὰ 4ῥᾳδίως καθορωμένου ἐς ὁ ἐβούλοντο τοῦ τείχους. τὴν μὲν οὖν ξυμμέτρησιν τῶν κλιμάκων οὕτως ἔλαβον, ἐκ τοῦ πάχους τῆς πλίνθου εἰκάσαντες τὸ μέτρον. ΧΧΙ. τὸ δὲ τεῖχος ἦν τῶν Πελοποννησίων τοιόνδε τῇ οἰκοδομήσει.5 εἶχε μὲν δύο τοὺς περιβόλους, πρός τε Πλαταιῶν καὶ εἴ τις ἔξωθεν ἀπ ̓ ̓Αθηνῶν ἐπίοι, διεῖχον δὲ οἱ 3 περίβολοι ἑκκαίδεκα πόδας μάλιστα ἀπ ̓ ἀλλήλων. τὸ οὖν μεταξὺ τοῦτο, οἱ ἑκκαίδεκα πόδες, τοῖς φύλαξιν οἰκήματα διανενεμημένα ᾠκοδόμητο, καὶ ἦν ξυνεχῆ ὥστε εν φαίνεσθαι το 4τεῖχος παχὺ ἐπάλξεις ἔχον ἀμφοτέρωθεν. διὰ δέκα δὲ ἐπάλξεων πύργοι ἦσαν μεγάλοι καὶ ἰσοπλατεῖς τῷ τείχει, διήκοντες ἔς τε τὸ ἔσω μέτωπον αὐτοῦ καὶ οἱ αὐτοὶ καὶ ἐς τὸ ἔξω, ὥστε πάροδον μὴ εἶναι παρὰ πύργον, ἀλλὰ δι' αὐτῶν

Ι. πολλοὶ d. δίωξις 2.

4. τὸ μέτρον εἰκάσαντες V. ἀθηναίων Κ. ἐπῄει g.h.

μάλιστα] om. B.h. 10. ξυνοχη e. ξυνοχὰ Ι. νεσθαι τὸ τεῖχος H.L.O.d.i.

om. d.i. ἔσω] μέσον d.i.

II. δὲ om. V. αὐτοῦ] om. L.O.

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13. διήκοντες δὲ ἔς Κ. τε] καὶ τὸ ἔξω Α.Β.C.Ε.F.G.K. τὸ] τὰ ξ.

L.N.O.P.V.c.d.e.f.g.h.i. Poppo. præpositionem uncis inclusit Haack. 14. περὶ g.

om. B.

16

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2. ἐς ὃ ἐβούλοντο] " For the purpose 6 that they wished.” “ They had easily a view of the wall for what they "wanted to see it for." Göller has quoted Livy, XXV. 23. where a Roman soldier is described as taking the height of one of the towers of Syracuse in a similar manner.

5· τῇ οἰκοδομήσει] Pro οἰκοδομία agnoscit Pollux, VII. 117. Vid. Thom. Mag. et Phrynichum in οἰκοδομή. WASS.

6. δύο τοὺς περιβόλους] Ut solebant, quum ab hoste exteriore metus erat. Åliter de circumvallatione Mitylenarum, cap. 18, 4. περιτειχίζουσι Μιτυλήνην ἐν κύκλῳ ἁπλῷ τείχει. Vid. Lips. II. Poliorcetic. I. et Casaubon. ad Polyb. pag. 181. apud quos multa sunt, quibus Thucydidea Platæarum circumvallationis descriptio pulchre inlustratur.—

DUKER.

8. τὸ οὖν μεταξὺ τοῦτο κ. τ. λ.] Can it be good Greek to say τὸ μεταξὺ τοῦτο οἰκήματα ᾠκοδόμητο, meaning, " this in"terval had been built upon to make

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quarters,” or “ had been built upon " for quarters?" And if this were the construction, must we not have had in the following clause ταῦτα δὲ ἦν ξυνεχή, instead of καὶ ἦν ξυνεχῆ ? It seems then more correct to say that the nominative τὸ μεταξὺ τοῦτο has no grammatical construction, whether it be that Thucydides intended at first to give the sentence a different form from what it now has, or whether it is merely an awkwardness of expression. And the passage in Herodotus, I. 180, 3. is an undoubted instance of a similar confusion or carelessness. τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ τούτου, αἱ ἐπικαμπαὶ παρὰ χεῖλος ἑκάτερον τοῦ ποταμοῦ, αἱμασιὴ πλίνθων ὀπτέων παρα

τείνει.

About 212 of the

design into execution:

PLATEA. A. C. 428, 7. Olymp. 88. 1.

μέσων διῄεσαν. τὰς οὖν νύκτας, ὁπότε χειμὼν εἴη νοτερος, 5 τὰς μὲν ἐπάλξεις ἀπέλειπον, ἐκ δὲ τῶν πύργων ὄντων δι ὀλίγου καὶ ἄνωθεν στεγανῶν τὴν φυλακὴν ἐποιοῦντο. τὸ μὲνο οὖν τεῖχος ᾧ περιεφρουροῦντο οἱ Πλαταιῆς τοιοῦτον ἦν. 5 ΧΧΙΙ. οἱ δ ̓, ἐπειδὴ παρεσκεύαστο αὐτοῖς, τηρήσαντες νύκτα χειμέριον ὕδατι καὶ ἀνέμῳ καὶ ἅμα ἀσέληνον ἐξῄεσαν· ἡγοῦντο δὲ οἵπερ καὶ τῆς πείρας αἴτιοι ἦσαν. Platmans carry their καὶ πρῶτον μὲν τὴν τάφρον διέβησαν ἢ περι- 2 they make their way είχεν αὐτοὺς, ἔπειτα προσέμιξαν τῷ τείχει τῶν IO enemy's lines, and ar- πολεμίων, λαθόντες τοὺς φύλακας, ἀνὰ τὸ with the lots of only σκοτεινὸν μὲν οὐ προϊδόντων αὐτῶν, ψόφῳ δὲ τῷ ἐκ τοῦ προσιέναι αὐτοὺς ἀντιπαταγοῦντος τοῦ ἀνέμου οὐ κατακουσάντων· ἅμα δὲ καὶ διέχοντες πολὺ ᾔεσαν, ὅπως τὰ ὅπλα μὴ κρουόμενα πρὸς 15 ἄλληλα αἴσθησιν παρέχοι. ἦσαν δὲ εὐσταλεῖς τε τῇ ὁπλίσει 3 καὶ τὸν ἀριστερὸν πόδα μόνον ὑποδεδεμένοι ἀσφαλείας ἕνεκα

over the walls of the

rive safely at Athens,

a single man.

(22-24.)

Ι. μέσων] om. e. δίεσαν Β.Ε.Γ. 2. ἀπέλιπον Β.Ε.Q.e.fg.h. κατέ λιπον d.i. ὄντων] om. b. 8. ἤπερ εἶχεν L.O.P. II. ψόφου d. 12. προσιέναι—τοῦ] om. Ε. 13. ἅμαᾔεσαν] om. Ε. 14. διαδέχοντες Ρ. πολλοί Α.Β.Γ.Η.g.h. 15. ἀλλήλων C.L.O. παρέχη Ο. 16. μόνον ante πόδα ponunt C.G.K.L.P.b.c.d.e.fi. om. Ο. εἵνεκα C.c.

1. χειμὼν νοτερὸς—νύκτα χειμέριον] Χειμὼν is applied to any rough or hard weather, and corresponds to our word “ storm,” in the sense in which it is used by the common people in some parts of England, e. g. in Nottinghamshire, to express not only wind, thunder and lightning, violent rain, or snow when falling, but the continuance of snow on the ground, as in long frosts, even when the weather in other respects is fair and calm. Χειμὼν νοτερός, then, is a storm of wind and rain, such as we have with a gale from the south-west, and which is emphatically called " dirty weather” by seamen: exactly the same thing as is called a few lines afterwards χειμέριον ὕδατι καὶ ἀνέμῳ, “ Stormy, with rain and wind.”

10. ἀνὰ τὸ σκοτεινὸν μὲν—οὐ κατακουσάντων] “The darkness preventing

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“ them from seeing them, and the clat" ter of the storm, which drowned the “ noise of their approach, making it "impossible to hear them." 'Avà Tò σκοτεινὸν is, “ amid the darkness, or, " in the dark.” Διὰ τοῦ σκότους would signify, the looking at an object " through the darkness ;” that is, knowing where it was, and trying to discern what it was. ̓Ανὰ τὸ σκοτεινὸν denotes more "the looking about "amidst darkness," without knowing what to expect, or where to seek for it.

16. τὸν ἀριστερὸν πόδα μόνον κ. τ. λ.] The stress, I believe, is to be laid on the word μόνον, as Thucydides means to say that every man had his right foot bare, that he might be less liable to slip in the mud: in other words, he had only his left or weaker leg shod as usual, the other being prepared to meet

PLATEA. A. C. 428, 7. Olymp. 88. 1.

4τῆς πρὸς τὸν πηλόν. κατὰ οὖν μεταπύργιον προσέμισγον πρὸς τὰς ἐπάλξεις, εἰδότες ὅτι ἔρημοί εἰσι, πρῶτον μὲν οἱ τὰς κλίμακας φέροντες, καὶ προσέθεσαν· ἔπειτα ψιλοὶ δώδεκα ξὺν ξιφιδίῳ καὶ θώρακι ἀνέβαινον, ὧν ἡγεῖτο ̓Αμμέας ὁ Κοροίβου καὶ πρῶτος ἀνέβη, μετὰ δὲ αὐτὸν οἱ ἑπόμενοι ἐξι ἐφ ̓ ἑκάτερον τῶν πύργων ἀνέβαινον· ἔπειτα ψιλοὶ ἄλλοι μετὰ τούτους ξὺν δορατίοις ἐχώρουν, οἷς ἕτεροι κατόπιν τὰς ἀσπίδας ἔφερον, ὅπως ἐκεῖνοι ῥᾷον προσβαίνοιεν, καὶ ἔμελλον 5 δώσειν ὁπότε πρὸς τοῖς πολεμίοις εἴησαν. ὡς δὲ ἄνω πλείους ἐγένοντο ᾔσθοντο οἱ ἐκ τῶν πύργων φύλακες κατέβαλε γάριο τις τῶν Πλαταιῶν ἀντιλαμβανόμενος ἀπὸ τῶν ἐπάλξεων σ κεραμίδα, ἢ πεσοῦσα ψόφον ἐποίησε. καὶ αὐτίκα βοὴ ἦν, τὸ δὲ στρατόπεδον ἐπὶ τὸ τεῖχος ὥρμησεν· οὐ γὰρ ᾔδει ὅ τι ἦν τὸ δεινὸν σκοτεινῆς νυκτὸς καὶ χειμῶνος ὄντος, καὶ ἅμα οἱ ἐν τῇ πόλει τῶν Πλαταιῶν ὑπολελειμμένοι ἐξελθόντες προσέ- 15 βαλον τῷ τείχει τῶν Πελοποννησίων ἐκ τοὔμπαλιν ἢ οἱ ἄνδρες αὐτῶν ὑπερέβαινον, ὅπως ἥκιστα πρὸς αὐτοὺς τὸν

ἐρῆμοί Bekk. 3. καὶ] om.e. Κοροίβου—ἐν οὖν τῷ νοτίῳ cap. 34, 2.] καὶ πρῶτος ἀνέβη] om. Η. 7. μετὰ τούτους] om. c.

6. έκα

1. προσέσμιγον 1. 2. πρὸς] om. Α. 4. καὶ τῷ θώρακι f. ἀμμαίας d.i. 5. Hæc. in F. a recentiore manu scripta sunt. τέρων F. rec. H.L.N.O.Q. ἀφ' ἑκατέρων V. έφερον ε. προσβαίνοιεν Q.d.e. 9. τοὺς πολεμίους Ο. 10. oi] om. A.P. κατέλαβε d.F.rec. ΙΙ. τις ἐκ τῶν G.L.O.P. δοῦτον Α. Βekk. Goell.

8. προστ

12. ψόφον Β.E.G. et recens F. ἦν] om. G. 15. προσέβαλον Α.Β.Ε.Q.V. 16. A.F.G.H.K.P.V. o] om. P.

βοὴν Γ.Η.Κ.Ν.V.d.e.i. Poppo. rec. F.L.O.P. Cf. Hermogen. de ideis I. 12. e.g.h. Poppo. Goell. rec. F. et vulgo προσέβαλλον. Bekk. oi e. B.E. vulgo, et Haack. y ubi.

the emergency of the case. Compare Sir W. Scott's description of the Ger

man mercenaries :

Each better knee was bared, to aid
The warriors in the escalade.

LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL,
Canto IV. st. xviii.

I

4· ἀνέβαινον] “ Proceeded to mount "the wall." Ανέβη, "mounted." have placed only a comma after avéßn, with Poppo, because the words & ἡγεῖτο ἀνέβη are a sort of interruption

to the course of the narrative, after which Thucydides repeats again with some slight alteration what he had said before. The transition from painting a scene to stating a fact is marked by the variation of tense from ἀνέβαινον το ἀνέβη, the first represents the party in the very act of mounting the wall, the second records the fact that their commander was the first man who did mount it.

PLATEA. A. C. 428, 7. Olymp. 88. 1.

νοῦν ἔχοιεν. ἐθορυβοῦντο μὲν οὖν κατὰ χώραν μένοντες, η βοηθεῖν δὲ οὐδεὶς ἐτόλμα ἐκ τῆς αὐτῶν φυλακῆς, ἀλλ ̓ ἐν ἀπόρῳ ἦσαν εἰκάσαι τὸ γιγνόμενον. καὶ οἱ τριακόσιοι αὐτῶν,8 οἷς ἐτέτακτο παραβοηθεῖν εἴ τι δέοι, ἐχώρουν † ἔξω† τοῦ 5τείχους πρὸς τὴν βοήν. φρυκτοί τε ᾔροντο ἐς τὰς Θήβας ο

1. οὖν] om. e. 2. αὐτῶν Α.Β.Ε.g.h. Bekk. ed. 1832. G. rec. F. et vulgo 4. περιβοηθεῖν g. βοηθεῖν 1. woev C.H.K.N.Q.V.c.d. rec. F. 5. ἐς] πρὸς G.L.O.P. Tàs] om. Q.

ἑαυτῶν. Haack.

Ι. ἐθορυβοῦντο μὲν οὖν κ. τ. λ.] “They "caught the alarm it is true, and were "ready to act in their several stations; "but in their ignorance of what was “ the matter, none ventured to stir "from their own posts."

3. οἱ τριακόσιοι, οἷς ἐτέτακτο κ. τ. λ.] The article in this passage has been objected to, because nothing had been said before of the existence of the body of men here spoken of. And a similar objection has been made to the article in the words τὰς τῶν Μυτιληναίων δέκα τριήρεις, ΙΙΙ. 3, 4. no such particular number of ships having been before alluded to. But in both these cases, and in others to be noticed presently, the article is explained by the words immediately following: "The three “ hundred, who were appointed to act

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on any sudden emergency;" «The

“ ten ships of the Mytilenæans, which "happened to be with them as the contingent of Mytilene according to "the alliance." The subsequent clause explains the article as completely as if the sentence had run, καὶ οἱ τριακόσιοι, ἦσαν γὰρ οἷς ἐτέτακτο—τριακόσιοι λογάδες. Οr, τὰς δὲ δέκα τριήρεις, τοσαῦται γὰρ ἔτυχον παροῦσαι. So also in VIII. 15, 1. τὰς μὲν ὀκτὼ ἤδη πέμπειν, αἱ ἀπολιποῦσαι τὴν φυλακὴν—ἀνακεχωρήκεσαν. Not a word of these eight ships had been mentioned before, but the clause αἱ ἀπολιποῦσαι —ἀνακεχωρήκεσαν is equivalent to τοσαῦται γὰρ ἀπολιποῦσαι— ανακεχωρήκεσαν. Add VIII. 26, I. and on this same principle the article in VIII. 13. αἱ ἀπὸ τῆς Σικελίας—εκκαίδεκα νῆες is perfectly defensible in itself, even if we choose to omit it on account of the authority of the best MSS. in which it is in this place wanting.

4. ἐχώρουν †ἔξω† τοῦ τείχους προς THUCYDIDES, VOL. I.

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τὴν βοήν] I am inclined to agree with Haack that woev is right, as given by all the best MSS. although I have yielded to the united authority of Bekker, Poppo, and Göller, in retaining ἔξω in the text. Ἐχώρουν ἔξωθεν could not indeed signify, they issued out of "the wall," but the order of the words is ἐχώρουν πρὸς τὴν βοὴν, ἔξωθεν τοῦ τείχους, that is, “ they moved in the "direction of the alarm, on the outside "of the wall," supposing them to have already sallied out by a gate in another quarter of the lines, and describing them as advancing towards the sound of the action, not on the walls, but on the outside of them. And ἔξωθεν expresses this exactly, as ἄνωθεν, ΙΙ. 102, 3. signifies, not "from above," but "at "the upper part, above." See the note there.

5. φρυκτοὶ πολέμιοι] From what is here said, and also from ch. 80. of this book, it appears evident that the art of signals in the age of Thucydides was not so entirely in its infancy as the Scholiast and Polybius (X. 40.) represent it. Had the φρυκτοὶ πολέμιοι announced nothing but that the enemy were making an attack, and had the signal consisted merely, according to the Scholiast, of lights moved up and down, whereas those which announced the coming of a friend were stationary, it is difficult to conceive that the Thebans could have supposed that all was right, when they saw the signals of alarm and of assurance of safety exhibited together. But if the number or position of the lights indicated the numbers of the enemy, as seems probable from chap. 80, 3. or the direction in which he was moving; then other lights put up so as to interfere with B b

PLATEA. A. C. 428, 7. Olymp. 88. 1.

πολέμιοι· παρανῖσχον δὲ καὶ οἱ ἐκ τῆς πόλεως Πλαταιής ἀπὸ τοῦ τείχους φρυκτοὺς πολλοὺς πρότερον παρεσκευασμένους ἐς αὐτὸ τοῦτο, ὅπως ἀσαφῆ τὰ σημεῖα τῆς φρυκτωρίας τοῖς πολεμίοις ᾖ καὶ μὴ βοηθοῖεν, ἄλλο τι νομίσαντες τὸ γιγνόμενον εἶναι ἢ τὸ ὂν, πρὶν σφῶν οἱ ἄνδρες οἱ ἐξιόντες5 διαφύγοιεν καὶ τοῦ ἀσφαλοῦς ἀντιλάβοιντο. XXIII. οἱ δ' ὑπερβαίνοντες τῶν Πλαταιῶν ἐν τούτῳ, ὡς οἱ πρῶτοι αὐτῶν ἀναβεβήκεσαν καὶ τοῦ πύργου ἑκατέρου τοὺς φύλακας δια7. ὡς οἱ] ὅσοι Α.Β.Ε.g.

1. ἐκ] ἀπὸ Η.Ν.V. 8. ἀνεβεβήκεσαν Ε.

4. ] εἴη corr. rec. F.

them, and make their communication unintelligible, would naturally have the effect of keeping the Thebans in suspense, for they would only know that something was the matter, but would neither know what the particular danger was, nor in what direction their ef

forts would be most available.

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1. παρανίσχονὅπως ἀσαφῆ ᾖ καὶ μὴ βοηθοιεν] “ Observandum, etiam antiquos et diligentes scriptores optativum præsentibus jungere, ubi finem "indicant hunc esse, non ut quid fiat, “ sed ut quid possit fieri. Vide Seid“ lerum ad Euripid. Elect. 59. Eadem "differentia conjunctivi et optativi in "oratione historica etiam post præteri“ tum est, ut apud Herodot. VIII. 76, « 2. τῶνδε δὲ εἵνεκα ἀνῆγον τὰς νῆας, ἵνα δὴ τοῖσιν Ελλησι μηδὲ φυγέειν ἐξῇ, “ ἀλλ ̓ ἀπολαμφθέντες ἐν τῇ Σαλαμίνι “ δοῖεν τίσιν τῶν ἐν ̓Αρτεμισίῳ ἀγωνισμάτων. ΙΧ. 51, 3. ἐς τοῦτον δὴ τὸν χῶρον ἐβουλεύσαντο μεταναστῆναι, ἵνα σε καὶ ὕδατι ἔχωσι χρῆσθαι ἀφθόνῳ, καὶ “ οἱ ἱππέες σφέας μὴ σινοίατο.” Hermann, Notes on Viger, n. 350. Compare the passages here quoted with the one in the text, with VII. 17, 4. ναῦς— ἐπλήρουν, ὅπως ναυμαχίας τε ἀποπειράσωσι,—καὶ ἧσσον οἱ ̓Αθηναῖοι κωλύοιεν ἀπαίρειν. with VIII. 87, 3. παρῆλθεν ἵνα διατρίβῃ —ἵνα ἐκχρηματίσαιτο. and with a passage iu Euripides, Hecuba 1120, quoted by Mr. Tate in his Comment on Dawes' Canons, and which he calls "singularly awkward:"

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ἔδεισα, μή σοι πολέμιος λειφθεὶς ὁ παῖς
Τροίαν ἀθροίσῃ καὶ ξυνοικίσῃ πάλιν·
γνόντες δ' Αχαιοὶ ζῶντα Πριαμιδῶν τινὰ
Φρυγῶν ἐς αἶαν αὖθις αἴροιεν στόλον, κ. τ. λ.

Now it seems to me that in all these cases the transition from the subjunctive to the optative mood is meant to shew that the several consequences are not contemporaneous, but that the subjunctive mood indicates the immediate, and the optative the remote consequence of the action contained in the principal verb; the second being a consequence upon the first: and that to mark this gradation different moods are employed, and the subjunctive is thus used even where the principal verb is in the past tense, because otherwise the distinction intended could not be marked. Thus in the text the immediate consequence of putting up the additional lights was that the enemy's signals were rendered unintelligible: the remote consequence, or the consequence of the first consequence, was, that the Thebans did not come to join their friends, because they could not understand the signals. And it will be found that this solution will apply to all the other passages quoted in the beginning of this note.

6. οἱ δ ̓ ὑπερβαίνοντες τῶν Πλατα ῶν, ἐφύλασσόν τε—καὶοἱ μὲν εἶργον οἱ δ ̓ ἐν τούτῳ, οἱ πλείους—ὑπερέβαινον] This is another instance of the subject being first stated universally, and then divided into its several parts, and of the nominative case being used to express both the whole subject and its parts. See Poppo, Prolegom. I. p. 107. κάτωθεν καὶ ἄνωθεν. From the passage which was carried through the towers, and from the summit of them, whither some of the Platæans had mounted by ladders.

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