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CALMETTE (GERMAIN). Recueil des documents sur l'histoire de la question des Réparations (1919-5 Mai 1921). Paris: Costes. 1924. Pp. 539.

[A large collection of documents numbering more than 150 is preceded by an introduction dealing with the Peace Conference, the negotiations of 1920, and the resolutions of 1921.]

GOODMAN (S.). Le grand vol des titres. Paris: Giard. 1924. Pp. 119.

[On the theft of coupons, etc., payable to bearer.]

GIGNOUX (C. J.). L'après-Guerre et la politique Sociale. Paris: Colin. 1924. Pp. 200.

LAVERGNE (BERNARD). Les Co-opératives de consommation en France. Paris: Colin. 1923. Pp. 216.

LIEFMANN (ROBERT). Les formes d'Entreprises. (Bibliothèque Internationale de Bonnet.) Paris: Giard. 1924. Pp. 287.

[The Fribourg Professor's second edition is translated by H. Stelz and J. Loussert. The subject includes Co-operation and Socialisation."

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VARKE (ALBERT). Le droit international du travail. Preface par G. ANTONELLI. Paris: Giard. 1923. Pp. 310.

[An analysis of the Labour clauses in the Treaty of Versailles and of the International Labour Organisation occupies a great part of the book.]

German.

BERL (O.). Die Chinesische Mauer. Vienna: Berl. 1923. Pp. 63.

[The policy of mutual exclusiveness pursued by the nations into which AustriaHungary was broken up is deplored; and it is hoped that Austria may play a part in breaking down these Chinese walls.]

BRENTANO (LUGO). Der Wirtschaftende Mensch in der Geschichte. Leipsic: Memer, 1923. Pp. 498.

[A collection of lectures and articles.]

HEINECKE (DR. GUNTHER-ERFRID). Die Volkswirtschaftliche Erfüllbarkeit der Reparationsverpflichtungen, im im Rahmen des paneuropäischen Wiederaufbauproblems. (Forschungen von der Sozialwissenschaftlichen Arbeitsgemeinschaft.) Berlin and Leipsic. 1924. Gruyter. Pp. 134.

KÖTZSCHKE (DR. RUDOLF). Allgemeine Wirtschaftsgeschichte der Mittelalters. Jena: Fischer. 1924.

MANES (ALFRED). Versicherungswesen. Erster Band, Allgemeine Versicherungslehre. Vierte auflage. Teubner: Leipsic and Berlin. 1924. Pp. 231.

MANKO (DR. A.). Regenerierung der Landes-Währung. Vienna and Leipsic Manko. 1923. Pp. 159.

[A secondary title promises a method of reckoning calculated to ensure stability of valuation.]

VADNAI (DR. EUGEN). Die stellung des Spediteurs in der arbeitsteiligin Verkehrswirtschaft. Budapest: Lloyd. 1924. Pp. 81.

[A study on the functions of the agent who is intermediary between those who despatch and those who transport goods.]

WEBER (MAX). Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Sozial und Wirtschafts geschichte. Tübingen: Mohr. 1924. Pp. 556.

[Six articles covering an immense range of subjects and periods, beginning with the agriculture of the ancient world, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Israel, etc.]

Italian.

BACHI (RICCARDO). La Cassa di risparmio delle Provincie Lombarde nella evoluzione economica della regione. 1823-1923. Milan. 1923. Pp. 567.

[A sumptuous quarto published under the auspices of the Commissione Centrale di Beneficenza, to celebrate the centenary of the Savings-Bank of the Lombard Provinces. Professor Bachi is the general editor, and there are contri. butions by several distinguished writers on different aspects of the subject: by Prof. Bachi on the Historical Evolution of the Bank; by Prof. Supino on the Effects of Crises; by Prof. Gini on the Importance of Lombardy to the Kingdom of Italy. . .]

CABIATI (ATTILIO). Principi di Politica Commerciale. Vol. I. La Teoria Generale degli Scambi internazionali. Genova: Stabilimento Grafico. 1924. Pp. 302.

[Among features special to his treatise on a familiar subject the author announces his treatment of international exchange in a regime of depreciated and unstable money and his study of two particular types of customs duties, countervailing imports (against "dumping ") and retaliation.]

EINAUDI (LUIGI). Le lotte del lavoro. Turin: Gobetti. 1924. Pp. 276.

[A series of republished papers containing interesting descriptions of Italian strikes, together with instructive reflections on the psychological causes and economic consequences of labour disputes.]

GANGEMI (L.). La politica economica e Finanziaria del Governo Fascista. Bologna: Zamchelli. 1904. Pp. 507.

GOBBI (PROF. ULISSE). Trattato di economia. Secunda edizione riveduta. Mila: Società editrice. 1923. Vol. I., pp. 256; Vol. II., pp. 384.

[A general treatise covering evenly a large extent of familiar ground.]

GRAZIANI (AUGUSTO). Il pensiero scientifico di Angelo Messedaglia Capitale e Interesse. Two papers contributed by Professor Graziani to the Academy of Moral and Political Science, Naples.

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MORTARA (GIORGIO). Prospettive Economiche, 1924. Città di Castello Società Tipografica "Leonardo da Vinci." 1924. Pp. 420.

[This volume, following on a similar publication last year, contains very useful summaries of the world's production of and trade in the principal com. modities in which Italy is interested. Professor Mortara is hopeful for the economic future of Italy. "Italy, who may be said to have become convalescent in 1921 after the crisis of the passage from war to peace, has prosecuted energetically in 1923 her efforts towards economic recovery." Her financial position has been greatly strengthened by the excellent harvests last year.]

SAVORGNAN (F.). La scelta matrimoniale (Studi Statistici, Metron). Ferrara: Taddei. 1924. Pp. 136.

[A study on "homogamy ": the correlation between husband and wife with respect to race and nationality and some other attributes.]

VINCI (FELICE). Statistica Metodologica. Padua. 1924. Pp. 242.

ZORLI (A.). Trattato di Economia Sociale. Turin: Bocca.

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THE ECONOMIC JOURNAL

SEPTEMBER, 1924

ALFRED MARSHALL, 1842-19241

I

ALFRED MARSHALL was born at Clapham on July 26, 1842, the son of William Marshall, a cashier in the Bank of England, by his marriage with Rebecca Oliver. The Marshalls were a clerical family of the West, sprung from William Marshall, incumbent of Saltash, Cornwall, at the end of the seventeenth century. Alfred was the great-great-grandson of the Reverend William Marshall, the half-legendary herculean parson of Devonshire, who, by twisting horseshoes with his hands, frightened local blacksmiths into fearing that they blew their bellows for the devil.3 His great-grandfather was the Reverend John Marshall, Headmaster of Exeter Grammar School, who married Mary Hawtrey, daughter of the Reverend Charles Hawtrey, Sub-Dean and Canon of Exeter, and aunt of the Provost of Eton.4

His father, the cashier in the Bank of England, was a tough

1 In the preparation of this Memoir I have had great assistance from Mrs. Marshall. I have to thank her for placing at my disposal a number of papers and for writing out some personal notes from which I have quoted freely. Alfred Marshall himself left in writing several autobiographical scraps, of which I have made the best use I could.

2 By his third wife, Mary Kitson, the first child he christened in his parish, of whom he said in joke that she should be his little wife, as she duly was twenty years later.

* This is one of many stories of his prodigious strength which A. M. was fond of telling-how, for example, driving a pony trap in a narrow Devonshire lane and meeting another vehicle, he took the pony out and lifted the trap clean over the hedge. But we come to something more prognostical of Alfred in a little device of William Marshall's latter days. Being in old age heavy and unwieldy, yet so affected with gout as to be unable to walk up and down stairs, he had a hole made in the ceiling of the room in which he usually sat, through which he was drawn in his chair by pulleys to and from his bedroom above.

4 Thus Alfred Marshall was third cousin once removed to Ralph Hawtrey, author of Currency and Credit-so there is not much in the true theory of Money which does not flow from that single stem. A. M. drew more from the subtle Hawtreys than from the Reverend Hercules.

No. 135.-VOL. XXXIV.

Y

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