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that creates the economic problems. The static compounds on the surface, which we call materials, must be transformed by a natural or artificial process into another series of static compounds called goods. Chemistry has to do with the composition of compounds. Economics deals with the transformation of these compounds into new aggregates useful to man. But for the peculiarities of the earth's crust this recomposition of mere aggregates into goods could not take place. New qualities of matter are displayed by this process which would have been overlooked by a mere chemist. The economist has, therefore, to study peculiar forces as well as the obstacles to the action of the primary forces of physics and chemistry which the crust of the earth impose. Economics is thus partly a science of forces and partly a science of the obstacles which other forces meet when in contact with the earth's crust.

There is, however, still another series of transformations within the field of economics. Goods must become utilities. The forces they contain must in the end lose their static relations and through assimilation the goods become utilities to their consumer. The theory of utilities, or in more concrete form, the theory of consumption, thus becomes the subjective side of economics, corresponding to the theory of the composition of goods which forms its objective side.

A correct theory of progressive evolution should have as its basis a theory of goods and a theory of utilities. Its necessary assumption is that the quantity of goods and the quantity of utilities can be increased by a better adjustment to the conditions of nature. Adjustment has no meaning unless these two possibilities can be realized. The development of organisms is one means of adjustment; the development of social relations is the other. Both of these sciences rest upon economics as an underlying science, and are particular means of increasing utilities and goods. The end of the organic mechanism which the biologist studies is not different from the mechanical contrivances which men

construct with materials, or from the adjustments between men in society which the social impulses create. They would all remain mere adumbrations but for the peculiarities of the earth's crust which allow an increase of goods and utilities to result from each new adjustment between men and nature.

We pass from economics to sociology when the limit to the conscious calculation of utilities is reached. New influences now appear which cannot be determined deductively from the theory of utilities. The impulses of the subjective environment displace calculation and create a new class of phenomena which must be studied inductively. The theory of conviction is not a corollary to the theory of utilities, but is the result of new forces which lie dormant until the need of adjustment to the general environment demands common action on the part of men. Through the impulses leading to conviction, institutions and ideals become so real and objective to individuals, that their conduct is shaped by these elements of the subjective environment as unconsciously and as instinctively as if they were facts of the objective world. Axioms and intuitions and revelations displace quantitative feelings as premises for reasoning, thus giving to each individual the same motives for action and demanding from him the same conduct. When this new force creating conviction is tempered by the influence of scepticism and utilitarianism, we have before us the complex phenomena of society in all their richness and variety. Sociology thus rests on economics as an underlying science, but has its own forces and material to investigate, and its own problems to solve. Sociologists must reach down into the underlying sciences of biology and economics for much of their material, but they cannot admit that the forces creating these sciences are the true social forces without undermining the independence of their own investigations, and making their results mere aggregates of unsorted particulars.


University of Pennsylvania.



The Twentieth Scientific Session of the Academy was held in Philadelphia, on Friday, November 17, 1893, at the New Century Club, at 8 p. m.

The secretary announced that the following papers had been submitted to the Academy since the last session:

165. By Professor WALTHER LOTZ, of the University of Munich, Germany: The Monetary Situation in Germany. Printed in the ANNALS, July, 1893.

166. By Dr. W. W. WILLOUGHBY, Washington, D. C.: A National Department of Health. Printed in the ANNALS, September, 1893.

167. By Rev. PERRY W. SINKS, Painesville, O.: The Treatment of Criminals in a Christian State.

168. By Professor WM. C. MOREY, of the University of Rochester: The First State Constitutions. Printed in the ANNALS, September, 1893.

169. BY FREDERICK H. COOKE, Esq., New York City: Economic and Uneconomic Anti-Trust Legislation.

170. By Professor J. C. BRANNER, of the University of California: Translation of the Constitution of the Republic of the United States of Brazil, and (171) Translation of the Political Constitution of the Empire of Brazil.

172. By Professor CARL, C. PLEHN, of the Leland Stanford Jr. University: Translation of Professor ADOLF WAGNER's Theory of Direct Taxes.

173. By Dr. Wm. Draper LEWIS, of Haverford College: The Adaption of Society to its Environment. Printed in the ANNALS, January, 1894.

174. By G. FRANK LYDSTON, M. D., Chicago: Sexual Crimes Among the Southern Negroes Scientifically Considered.

175. By Professor EDWARD A. Ross, of the Leland Stanford Jr. University: The Total Utility Standard of Deferred Payments. Printed in the ANNALS, November, 1893.

176. By Dr. F. C. HOWE, of Johns Hopkins University: Federal Revenues and the Income Tax. Printed in the ANNALS, January, 1894. 177. By Dr. EMORY R. JOHNSON, of Haverford College: Inland Waterways, Their Relation to Transportation. Printed as a Supplement to the ANNALS, September, 1893.

178. By Professor R. SALEILLES, Dijon, France: L'Evolution des Lois constitutionnelles en France.

179. By D. M. FREDERIKSEN, Esq., Chicago: Mortgage Banking. 180. By Miss FLORENCE J. FOSTER, of Vassar College: The Grange, and the Co-operative Enterprises in New England. Printed in the ANNALS, March, 1894.

181. By Gen. R. BRINKERHOFF, Mansfield, O.: The National Prison Association. Printed in the ANNALS, November, 1893.

182. By Mr. MILES M. DAWSON, Lake Bluff, Ill.: Life Insurance in the United States. Printed in the ANNALS, March, 1894.

183. By Mr. HUGO BILGRAM, Philadelphia: The Law of Value. 184. By M. PAUL DE ROUSIERS, Paris: La Science Sociale. Printed in the ANNALS, January, 1894.

185. By Mr. JOHN BORDEN, Chicago: The Labor Theory of Exchange Value.

186. By Professor EDWARD P. CHEYNEY, of the University of Pennsylvania: The Medieval Manor, Translation of a Typical Extent. Printed in the ANNALS, September, 1893.

187. By Dr. LEO S. ROWE, Philadelphia: Annual Congress of the Society of Social Economy at Paris. Printed in the ANNALS, September, 1893.

188. By GAMALIEL BRADFORD, Esq., Boston: Congress and the Cabinet. Printed in the ANNALS, November, 1893.

189. By Dr. LEO S. ROWE, Philadelphia: The Betterment Clause of the London Improvement Bill. Printed in the ANNALS, November, 1893.

190. By Sir GUILFORD L. MOLESWORTH, Bexley, Kent, England: Indian Currency. Printed in the ANNALS, January, 1894.

191. BY STOUGHTON COOLEY, Esq., Chicago: The Proportional Representation Congress. Printed in the ANNALS, November, 1893. 192. By Dr. H. L. WAYLAND, Philadelphia: American Social Science Association.

193. By Professor A. T. HADLEY, of Yale University: Interest and Profits. Printed in the ANNALS, November, 1893.

194. By FREDERICK WM. HOLLS, Esq., New York City: The German American Standpoint in Party Politics.

195. By Dr. LUCIUS S. MERRIAM, of Cornell University: Money as a Measure of Value. Printed in the current number of the ANNALS.

Professor Roland P. Falkner, who had served as secretary to the American Delegation at Brussels, addressed the Academy upon the "Monetary Conference of 1892.'

After giving an historical sketch of previous efforts to secure international legislation on the money question Professor Falkner said in substance:

"The result of the conference of 1892 is to be learned from an analysis of its proceedings, rather than its actual resolutions. The work of the conference clearly indicated the conditions of a successful issue and the bar to any result under present circumstances. The conditions are, first, general recognition of the evil to be remedied; second, a remedy which shall not impose unequal duties; and third, a remedy which shall be adequate to the trouble.

"The evils of the present condition of affairs were only partially recognized at Brussels. That certain States were heavily loaded with silver was not a cause for international action. That grave difficulties arose from the fluctuations of exchange between gold-using and silver-using countries was generally admitted and the need of a remedy conceded.

"That the existing industrial depression in all countries was traceable to monetary causes, which, if conceded, would be a potent impetus to international action, did not receive general assent.

"It is clear, therefore, that had a just and adequate remedy been proposed to meet the fluctuations of exchange it would have secured the approbation of the conference, which was not ready for the broader proposition of bimetallism.

"The remedies proposed, did not, however, meet the requirement of approximately equal effort. The proposition for the retirement of small gold coins and small gold notes, except those based upon silver, would fall heavily upon England and Italy. No action would be required in the United States. The proposal that gold be reserved for international exchanges, would fall equally heavily upon nations accustomed to its use in daily transactions. Again, the

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