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becomes so complex that it is no wonder that biologists are chary of undertaking to describe this environment except in terms of its effects.

Social evolution, however, changes all this and reduces the many complex conditions of a primitive state to a few simple ones. Society, through its increasing powers, gradually destroys the organisms which are antagonistic to it. The savage animals are killed, hostile tribes are exterminated, and all plants or animals which would compete with man for the possession of the region which he inhabits are destroyed or driven out. The environment of society thus becomes simply the crust of the earth in so far as this crust is useful to society. It is strictly an economic problem to decide what the environment of advanced society is, and from these economic conditions can be determined what the influence of the environment on such a society will be. The peculiarities of this crust determine the three economic conditions to progress-climate, food and material. Change the form of the crust, and the climate becomes favorable or unfavorable. Alter the surface a little, and there would be no coal, iron or similar useful material within reach. Had certain poisonous substances been deposited on the surface, as is the case in some parts of the world, no vegetation would be possible.

All forms of organic life secure the conditions for a progressive evolution from the peculiarities of the crust of the earth which form their environment. Were the crust of the earth a level plain in which there were no irregularities, the forces creating a progressive evolution would be weakened if not destroyed. Low forms of animal life might be dominant, and progress would be retarded, as it has been in the case of deep-sea life. It is to the presence of mountains and to the changes which the formation of mountains provoke that the rapid evolution of animal life has been due. They bring many forms of animal life into close contact with one another, and hasten the struggle by which progress is

secured.* It is fair to assume that the relative rate of advancement in the forms of life on the different continents has depended upon the processes of mountain building or upon the conditions growing out of the existence of mountain ranges. Europe is far ahead of any other region in the development of its organic life, while Australia lags behind all the other continents in this respect. Had Australia been endowed with the same irregularities in its crust as Europe, the evolution of its organic life would have been equally rapid, because of the increased intensity of the struggle for existence which such conditions would have afforded.

The conditions determining the climate, food and materials of a society form its objective environment in contrast with the social instincts, customs, ideals and institutions which form its subjective environment. These two environments supplement one another, and together determine the possibilities of social progress. In the earlier stages of evolution, regions with the most complete objective environment have the conditions favorable to progress. In these regions many varieties of climate, food and material are aggregated in close proximity, thus giving a local environment where progress is possible before the subjective environment is strong. In regions, however, where a variety of climate, food and material can be secured only from a large area of land (a great continent for example), the objective environment touches the individual at too few points to insure a progressive evolution. A strong subjective environment must supplement the weaker objective environment of these

*"In a continent such as Europe, where a great diversity in the mountain systems favors the localization of life and the development of peculiar forms, the tendency is to develop in separate mountain strongholds particular species, and to evolve their militant peculiarities until the forms are fitted to enter into a larger contention with their kindred species in less localized assemblages of life. Thus each mountain district becomes, as it were, a cradle of peculiar forms, which in time, when they have been proven by contention on their own ground, may enter into a wider field of combat." Shaler, "Nature and Man in America," p. 27.

† For a more detailed account of the nature of the subjective environment, see the writer's article on "The Place of University Extension "-University Extension, February, 1894.

regions before social progress in them can be continuous. Evolution begins in a local environment with favorable objective conditions, but it can reach its highest form only in the most general environment which the crust of the earth can afford. Here the objective conditions for social progress are the weakest, and the adjustment of society to this extended, but less pronounced, environment is due for the most part to the strength of the subjective environment.

If we define economic development as the progressive utilization of the earth's crust by the beings which inhabit it, this development is divided into two distinct stages-the biologic and the social. In the biologic stage the tendency is to localize the organism in places where the objective environment is most complete. There is a more complete adjustment to local conditions, and an increased dependence on the peculiarities of the objective environment for the conditions of progress. The environment becomes complex through the presence of many other antagonistic organisms, and the added intensity of the struggle for existence forces an increased adjustment to local conditions as a means of surviving. The complex environment needed for a purely biologic progress is afforded by mountainous regions, because here the local conditions are most diversified. In the course of this development there is an increase of function on the one hand and of desire on the other. The increase of function is demanded as a means of surviving in the isolated life which a local environment produces. An increase of desire leads to greater activity, and heightens the struggle for the local area to which the species is confined. It also leads to important limitations of the food supply and other sources of pleasure. Intense pleasures once enjoyed create habits which limit the species to a particular form of consumption, and thus increase still more the dependence of the species upon its local environment.

In the social stage of economic progress, however, the tendencies we have observed in the biologic stage are re

versed. The group of organisms forming the society moves away from the conditions of the local environment and adjusts itself more fully to the conditions of the general environment. The society reaches out and procures its food and material from a continually larger section of the earth's surface. Gradually as the social forces gain in strength, the points of contact between the society and distant parts of the earth's crust increase, and new foods and material displace or supplement those of the local environment. Thus the different societies are bound together by economic ties into one society. In this process there is perhaps a loss of function and of the intensity of individual desires, but the harmonious blending of the many products secured from the general environment creates for the individual a better consumption than any local environment could afford.

The contrast between the adjustment to the local environment and the adjustment to the general environment demands emphasis because in it can be seen the two forces which create economic progress and the way in which they stand opposed to each other. Desire is the force back of the biologic development pushing the organism into an intense local environment. The satisfaction of intense quantitative desires is the goal of an isolated individual development. This is the realm of positive utilities, and the calculations of an individual under these conditions would be purely utilitarian. There would be no check to utilitarian calculations because intenser feelings and functional growth would accompany every tendency to a greater localization and to a more exclusive utilization of the local surroundings. Under these conditions intense satisfactions come through comforts and luxuries that are rare and local, and the highest degree of functional growth depends upon an equally rare combination of circumstances. Men oppose the process of

* For a more complete discussion of positive utilities and of utilitarian calculations see the writer's article on "The Scope of Political Economy."-Yale Review, Nov., 1893.

socialization because they want intenser pleasures, stronger bodies, better stomachs, or more muscle and nervous force than the common conditions of a higher civilization afford.

The adjustment to the general environment is secured through another force. It is impulse and conviction that leads the members of a society to act together and thus increase the utilization of the general environment. Without impulses to move the members of a society in some one direction they would lack that common interest and combined action which extend the field of economic activity. Social Impulses blind individuals to the advantages of the local environment and create instincts, customs and institutions which hem in the activity of individuals and compel them to exert themselves in ways most advantageous to society. These habits, institutions and race ideals form the subjective environment of individuals, and are created through the social impulses. A society cannot be progressive and increase its utilization of the general environment unless each of its members creates and projects the same subjective environment and gives to his instincts, habits and ideals the same reality that he gives to the phenomena of the objective world with which he comes in contact. The objective and subjective environments blend into one inseparable unit having the same degree of reality. The individual accepts social laws and institutions with as little question as he does the law of gravitation, and adjusts his conduct to the one set of conditions as readily as to the other.

It is necessary, therefore, to examine more fully into the forces that create the subjective environment, through which the social action of men is determined. In them we shall find the true intellectual forces and thus have a key to intellectual activity. Not merely the customs and ideals of social life are created by the social impulses, but also those deeper convictions which we call intuitions, including even the moral and logical instincts. Conviction, in whatever form we find it, has but one cause, the social impulses, and if we isolate it

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