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farthing ever lost." Besides, the system trains even rude peasants to strict business habits. After giving an account of the great co-operative strife in Germany and also the co-operative congresses held, the author describes, at length, the Schulze-Delitsch system as adopted by Signor Luzzatti to suit Italian conditions under the name of the "Banche Popolari," and further how the Raiffeisen Loan Banks have been modified to suit the same country by Dr. Wollemburg. In the chapters following he describes the co-operative banking in France, Belgium and Switzerland, and concludes the book with a strong plea for the establishment of similar banks in England.

The introduction to the book unfortunately has too much the tone of the reformer to convince one of the reliability of all the author's statements. One feels that the author regards people's banks as a panacea for all industrial ills. These banks are styled a "second California." In addition to this the book is not well arranged and is redundant. The same field could have been covered as thoroughly in far fewer pages. But the book is of much value; it again brings before the public in an emphatic way the important subject of successful co-operation.

University of Pennsylvania.

JOHN QUINCY ADAMS.

NOTES.

MR. BRYAN'S little book on the Mark* is the work of an intelligent man upon a difficult and much disputed subject, and it gives an intelligent account of many of the points in controversy. As a one-year production it is based on a reading knowledge of known authorities and frequently printed texts, and elaborated with arguments generally sensible and sound. The dangers attending so short an acquaintance with the subject are evident in Mr. Bryan's unqualified obedience to the guide who suggested the task to him, and an occasional pugnacity . which has a little of the character of the traditional chip on the shoulder. We wish that he had been as independent as he promised to be in the preface, for with all the good points of this essay, and it has many, we feel from the first that Mr. Bryan is more or less in leading strings, and we know without further examination to which of the "schools" he has been attached. Nevertheless he reviews in excellent form, and generally with clearness of expression, the history of the Mark theory and the character of the primitive and medieval evidence. He gives résumés of the work of Seebohm, Fustel de Coulanges, Vinogradoff and Adams, and cites from Allen, Ashley, Gomme and others. On the whole his arguments are temperate, although he is a disbeliever, as is his master, in anything called a Mark, or in anything like a village community stage in economic progress. Fortunately, however, this is not the day for such definite statements upon this subject, and Mr. Bryan's remarks must be taken for what they are worth. Perhaps the least effective chapter is that on the Mark in America, in which Mr. Bryan has set up a man of straw only valiantly to charge it down. No one nowadays takes the idea of institutional retrogression seriously, not even the chief author of it, and to one who knows this Mr. Bryan's witticisms are even more amusing than they seem. However this little book will be useful, if only to those who, unwilling to read larger works, will find it convenient to accept Mr. Bryan's way of looking at the subject.

THE FIRST volume of the third edition of "The American Commonwealth,' by James Bryce, appeared some months since, and the second volume is now in press. Although Mr. Bryce has "carefully *The Mark in Europe and America, a Review of the Discussions on Early Land Tenure. By ENOCH A. BRYAN. Pp. 164. Boston: Ginn & Co. 1893.

Vol. I.

†The American Commonwealth. By JAMES BRYCE. In two volumes. The National Governments; The State Governments. Third edition. Pp. xvii.724 New York and London: Macmillan & Co. 1893.

revised throughout," and has qualified numerous statements, he has not added materially to the length of the former edition. The principal changes made are those that the admission of six States into the Union, and the growth in population, have rendered necessary. The third edition is the same in appearance as the second, and the changes are hardly vital enough to make it necessary for one who owns the second edition to purchase the third.

HELEN CAMPBELL has given a modest presentation of facts regarding the employment of women and the conditions, past and present, of that employment.* The most of the book is historical and seems to be at once deeply sympathetic and scrupulously fair. The writer's research has been extensive and her choice of facts judicious. She has evidently tried to be untechnical in expression, but has nowhere yielded to the temptation to be sensational, and so the book excites neither tears nor indignation, but simply interest. The concluding chapters discuss "Evils and Abuses," which are excellently summarized but not exaggerated, and "Remedies and Suggestions" which are temperate and sensible. Much is expected from the improvement of factory laws, the development of co-operation and profit-sharing, the organization of women and the limitation of competition in its fiercer aspects by forces now in operation. Above all, and through all, we must rely on education, ethical and intellectual, of workers, employers and consumers who must all co-operate in a reform. Apparently the book is designed to popularize science rather than to make original contributions to it, but it is to say the least far superior to most such books. It combines in rare balance sympathy and dispassionateness, two qualities' which, in social studies at least, can not be divorced without detriment. The writer has wisely avoided the discussion of those deeper problems of distribution which are suggested by the extension of wage-earning among women and has likewise avoided the more serious danger of urging reforms inconsistent with economic principles.

ONE OF THE MOST valuable reports that the United States Government has made is a recent publication of the Labor Bureau. It is the fifth special report of the Commissioner of Labor, in which Dr. E. R. L. Gould discusses "The Gothenburg System of Liquor Traffic" in an exhaustive and thoroughly scientific manner. This system originated in Gothenburg, Sweden, in 1865, and by it the sole right to sell brandy or other alcoholic liquor in any locality is transferred to a single company, which is required to conduct the business in accordance with Women Wage Earners. By HELEN CAMPBELL. Pp. 313. Boston: Roberts Brothers. 1893.

stringent regulations and to turn over all surplus profits-usually those above six per cent-to the local government to be expended for the benefit of the working classes. It is true, as Carroll D. Wright says in the letter of transmittal by which he prefaces the report, "that among all those social questions which at the present time occupy the attention of thoughtful men and of governments none seem to present considerations of greater importance than the regulation of the liquor traffic. For a quarter of a century, at least-he adds-Norway and Sweden have led the way in Europe in their efforts to lay down a satisfactory basis of control." The nature and results of those efforts are given in the five chapters of Dr. Gould's Report. The chapters are entitled: History of the Scandinavian Liquor Legislation and the Establishment of the Gothenburg System. Liquor Legislation in Sweden and Norway. The Company System in Operation. The Economic and Social Results of the Company System. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Company System. Dr. Gould's conclusion is that, though the system is not perfect, "it represents the best means which have yet been devised for the control of the liquor traffic where licensing is permitted at all." The question whether such a system is applicable to American conditions is one that is of especial interest to us. Dr. Gould has discussed this in the October Atlantic Monthly and thinks that in spite of the difficulties which our political conditions oppose to carrying out the system, the Norwegian modification of the Gothenburg is the best model to be followed. "Why not," he says, "invite the struggle openly on the only plan of control which eliminates the political influence of the liquor interest and abolishes altogether the saloon as we know it to-day?"

PROFESSOR HART has gathered into a bound volume* ten of his previously published essays and one other, on "The Chilean Controtroversy, ," which now appears for the first time. The eleven essays treat of "The Speaker as Premier," "The Exercise of the Suffrage," "The Election of a President," 99 66 "Do the People Wish Civil Service Reform?" "The Chilean Controversy," "The Colonial Town Meeting," ""The Colonial Shire," "The Rise of American Cities," "The Biography of a River and Harbor Bill," "The Public Land Policy of the United States," and "Why the South was Defeated in the Civil War." The two essays on "The Rise of American Cities," and "Why the South was Defeated in the Civil War," are to be especially commended to those who desire to obtain a clear, concise and accurate analysis of the economic forces which decide where and how cities shall grow up, and which determined the issue of that * Practical Essays on American Government. By ALBERT BUSHNELL HART, Ph. D. Pp. 311. New York: Longmans, Green & Co. 1893.

long struggle between the North and South which culminated in the defeat of the South in 1865. The essay on "The Exercise of the Suffrage is also well written. Professor Hart shows that, in the presidential elections, the vote which stays at home from lack of interest is but small. In State and local elections the neglect to vote is greater, and is really an important question. He does not believe in compulsory voting, and thinks that any attempt to compel voters to exercise the right of suffrage would be undesirable.

THE SIXTH EDITION of "The Elements of Jurisprudence,"* by Thomas Erskine Holland was issued from the Clarendon Press last September. The author has given the work a careful revision, but without adding to the size of the volume. The German and Greek definitions in the early chapters of the work have been translated.

THE GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE at Washington has recently issued several publications which are of interest to students of social science. The report from the Department of Labor upon the Göthenburg System of regulating the liquor traffic is noticed elsewhere.† From the Bureau of Education we have a "Circular of Information" prepared by Dr. MacDonald, the specialist on the relation of education to crime. The first two hundred pages present a compilation of opinions, largely from foreign literature, upon such subjects as criminology, alcoholism, insanity and genius. The chief merit of the book lies in the fact that it introduces the English reader to a large field of literature that is not generally accessible. An apparent lack of discretion, however, and a disregard of the relative importance of different writings detracts much from the value that the book would otherwise have as a guide to the literature of social pathology. A bibliography of 228 closely-printed pages is noteworthy for its size rather than for completeness. The most of the extensive bibliography given in the author's book on Criminology " is found here, though under a different classification, and many additional writings are included to cover the broader field of the present work.

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In February, 1892, a circular was issued by the Department of State at Washington directing the consular officers in all parts of the world to report upon certain questions in regard to the management of tramps and beggars and the distribution of alms in the places to which they

* For a review of the fifth edition consult the ANNALS, vol. ii, p. 269. † See page 196.

Abnormal Man, Being Essays on Education and Crime and Related Subjects, with Digests of Literature and a Bibliography, by ARTHUR MACDONALD. Pp. 444. Washington: Government Printing Office. 1893.

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