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The lack of a theory of consumption also causes Dr. Ely to neglect the theoretical basis of monopolies. The inductive side in the treatment of monopolies is clearly presented in the discussion of public economics, and comes out also in the discussion of economic history; but in his theory of private economics he has not definitely enough broken away from the static economy of the past to enable him to find the ultimate causes of monopolies, and thus properly to correlate the different parts of his book.

Notwithstanding these defects, Dr. Ely's book is a most valuable one. I see in it many indications of the form and content of the future textbook. It is certainly much better than any treatise with which it can fairly be compared. If he has not reached the goal, it is due more to the present transitional state of the science than to defects of presentation.


University of Pennsylvania.


A RECENT WORK*, by M. Charles Borgeaud, gives a statement of the way in which the constitutions of nearly all the countries of Europe and America have come into being, as well as the provisions for their amendment. The Central and South American States are properly given but a few pages, and the group designated as the Latin and Scandinavian is treated with considerable brevity; to the German States, the United States of America, France and Switzerland, about three-fourths of the book are assigned. There is a large amount of useful and generally accurate information, but the discussion of principles pertains chiefly to superficial rather than to the less obvious and more far-reaching considerations. M. Borgeaud has furnished us with a valuable storehouse of facts, and it is therefore all the more to be regretted that these facts are not made easily accessible by an index. If the author, instead of confining himself to written constitutions, had included a study of the most important political system of all, the English, he would not have implied that it is only in France, Switzerland and the United States that one may study the evolution of modern popular government. In a word, this will be found a convenient book of reference, but it does not contribute much to the subject of political philosophy.

ECONOMICS and certain phases of history have become, in the hands of the most recent writers, a science closely related to philosophy, ethics and psychology, and a study of the latter branches has become essential to the best work in the former. Those economists and historians who are teachers of their sciences have a double reason for studying the mental and moral sciences. At present there is a copious literature concerning Herbartian pedagogy being published, and whether or not one accept the conclusions of that school of thought, one can hardly fail to get helpful suggestions from it. Professor Rein, of Jena, last year wrote the “Outlines of Pedagogics,"†`an English translation of which has just appeared. The first third of the work, which is devoted to Practical Pedagogics, has little value for the American reader; but the second part, dealing with the (a) Aim * Établissement et Revision des Constitutions en Amérique et en Europe. Par CHARLES BORGEAUD. Pp. vi., 423. Paris: Thorin, 1893.

+ Outlines of Pedagogics, by W. REIN, Director of the Pedagogical Seminary at the University of Jena. Translated by C. C. and IDA J. VAN LIEW, with additional notes by the former. Pp, xii, 199. London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co. 1893.

of Education-Teleology—and (b) the Means of Education-Methodology-give a brief but satisfactory outline of a system of pedagogy based on Herbartian principles. The apperception theory, which occupies such an important place in Herbartianism, is comprehensively set forth in the work by Professor Lange on Apperception,* just recently made accessible to English readers by a translation edited by President Charles De Garmo, of Swarthmore College.

THE LARGE AMOUNT of scholarly work in economic and social history that has been produced in recent years throws into still greater relief the shortcomings of such a work as Garnier's "History of the English Landed Interest." Although in his preface the author refers to Vinogradoff, Maitland and Ashley, he seems to have obtained but little advantage from their results and none from their methods. His book is bulky, uncritical and badly arranged. For the student it is, of course, of no value; for the general reader it might have been interesting if a certain brightness of style had not been nullified by its confusedness and repetition. A great deal of interesting and valuable information about rural life at various periods is scattered through the book, but it is so scattered that no reader can obtain or retain any one clear picture in his mind. There is undoubtedly a field waiting to be occupied by a social historian of England who is neither so detailed nor so erudite in his writing as those who have written so far; but his work must be the product of much more thought, care, labor and knowledge than this gives any evidence of.

TO DESCRIBE clearly and impartially the condition of the colored race to-day is not an easy task. Mr. Inglet has gone to work in the right way by selecting a circumscribed field, and pursuing facts rather than theories, leaving the final generalizations from the whole area to be made at a later time. Mr. Ingle begins by describing the composition of the colored population of the District at the time of the abolition of slavery in 1862, and its subsequent increase in numbers. He then traces the history of the efforts to improve their condition by giving them education, civil and social equality with

* Apperception; A Monograph on Psychology and Pedagogy, by Dr. KARL LANGE. Translated by members of the Herbart Club, edited by CHARLES DE GARMO. Pp. ix, 279. Boston: D. C. Heath & Co. 1893.

History of the English Landed Interest, by R. M. GARNIER, B. A., A. M. Pp. xviii. 406. London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co. New York: Macmillan & Co., 1892.

The Negro in the District of Columbia. By EDWARD INGLE, A. B. Pp. 110. Johns Hopkins Studies in Historical and Political Science, Eleventh Series, Nos III-IV. Baltimore, 1893.

the whites, and the right of suffrage. The chapter on education is perhaps the one best grounded on certain information, that on social equality the most suggestive, that on the suffrage the most instructive. It is interesting to note (p. 44) that the color-line is less prominent in labor organizations than elsewhere. The story of the misgovernment of Washington since the war is a sadly familiar tale, but as presented here it seems to epitomize the absurdities of the American municipal system as controlled by the boss and the illiterate voter. Mr. Ingle's investigations seem to show that the benefits from the schools are largely neutralized by the degraded home life which surrounds the children, that the attempt to force a social equality is illadvised and has been abandoned by the wisest of the negroes, that negro suffrage was a failure in the District, and that the hope of the race lies in the cultivation of the spirit of unity and race pride. While these conclusions are not so optimistic as one might wish, we believe that they correspond to the impressions received in other parts of the country by those who have seen much of the life of the colored people, even though the observer feel a greater sympathy than Mr. Ingle with some of the efforts made to relieve their condition.

THE ATTENTION bestowed upon the administration of Berlin within recent years by students of municipal institutions, has been productive of a new work* by a student of local government, who endeavors to give to the English-speaking public a short sketch of the organization and operation of the various municipal departments of that city. The book is written in a popular strain and gives a brief statement of the work done in the different fields of municipal activity. Mr. Pollard's book is a collection of articles previously published in the Scotsman, and for this reason is not a satisfactory treatment of the questions discussed. In the nine chapters treating of (a) Municipal Departments; (6) Water and Gas; (c) Sanitation, Drainage and Street Cleaning; (d) Domestic Sanitation and Meat Inspection; (e) Public Hospitals and Convalescent Homes; (f) Administration for Relief of the Poor; (g) Education and the Common Schools; (h) Public Works, Free Library and the Fire Brigade; (i) Police, Treasury and Powers of Corporation, he has sketched the various branches of municipal activity, but has failed to give us the skeleton upon which these various departments are built. The book, therefore, fails to fill the gap so long existing in the literature of

*“A Study in Municipal Government: The Corporation of Berlin." By JAMES POLLARD, C. A., Chairman of the Edinburgh Public Health Committee and Secretary of the Edinburgh Chamber of Commerce. London: Blackwood & Sons, 1893.

municipal institutions, although it will serve as a starting point for subsequent efforts.

IN A short article* of some seventeen pages, Professor Hodder endeavors to give us a brief bibliography of municipal government in the United States. Confining himself to the recent publications upon the subject, which as regards American cities is very complete, the list will undoubtedly prove of much value to those interested in a general way in the problems of municipal government. To the advanced student, however, especially if he be interested in the history of municipal institutions this bibliography will hardly fill the void so long existing in our institutional literature, i. e., a classified list of legislative documents pertaining to the government of cities. Then, again, such an important and representative city, as regards municipal reforms, as Brooklyn has been almost entirely neglected. It is also to be hoped that when Professor Hodder comes to publish a more complete bibliography, his references for the study of such cities as Paris, Berlin and Vienna will give a better idea of the literature upon the subject. In making this start, the author has done a real service to the study of some of the most important problems the American people have to face, and it remains with him to greatly enhance its value by giving it that completeness which the subject merits.

A NEW bi-monthly journal, with the title of Schweizerische Blätter Wirtschafts und Socialpolitik, has appeared under the editorship of Dr. Otto Wullschleger. The first number was issued July 1, 1893. Twenty-one persons in academic and official life in Switzerland cooperate in editing the magazine, which is published at Basel. The object of the publication is, first of all, to discuss the current economic and social questions of Switzerland; and, secondly, to devote attention to the treatment of social questions in which the public generally have greatest interest. The contents of each number contain six divisions: First, papers upon the present economic and social questions; second, the social outlook, the object of which is to present a critical account of social events; third, an economic chronicle in which the doings of the economic life of Switzerland and foreign countries are to be briefly outlined; fourth, statistical memoranda; fifth, book department and bibliography of current economic writings; sixth, miscellaneous notes. The papers thus far have been devoted mostly to labor problems, and principally to questions of insurance and the problem of dealing with the unemployed. The book Bibliography of Municipal Government in the United States, by F. H. HODDER. Kansas University Quarterly. April, 1893.

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