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and its Part in Moulding American Civilization." Professor Lucy M. Salmon, Vassar College, "The Union of Utrecht." James Schouler, Esq., Boston, "The Methods of Historical Investigation." Hon William Henry Smith, Lake Forrest, Ill., "Early Slavery in Illinois." Ainsworth R. Spofford, Esq., Librarian of Congress, "American His torical Nomenclature." Miss Cora Start, Worcester, Mass., "The Naturalization of the English Colonies in America." Mr. Reuben G. Thwaites, Wisconsin State Historical Society, "Lead Mining in Illinois and Wisconsin." Professor Moses Coit Tyler, Cornell University, "The Time-Element in American History." Mrs. Ellen Hardin Walworth, Saratoga, N. Y., "The Value of National Archives to a Nation's Life and Progress." Professor Frederick J. Turner, University of Wisconsin, "The Significance of the Frontier in American History." President Ethelbert D. Warfield, Lafayette College, "The Moravians in America." Professor Stephen B. Weeks, Trinity College, "General Joseph Martin and the War of the Revolution in the West." Professor James A. Woodburn, Indiana University, "The Historical Significance of the Missouri Compromise." The following gentlemen will also read papers at the Congress: Dr. Edward Everett Hale, Dr. Charles K. Adams, Professor Bernard Moses, Professor Herbert B. Adams, Edward G. Mason, Esq., Dr. Charles J. Little. A CONGRESS of the advocates and friends of Proportional Representation will meet, under the auspices of the World's Congress Auxiliary of the World's Columbian Exposition, in the city of Chicago, in the week commencing on Monday, August 7, 1893. This conference constitutes a section of the Congress on Suffrage, in republic, kingdom and empire. In all countries in which representative government obtains, the more intelligent citizens are coming to see that a system by which the city, state or nation is divided into a number of arbitrary districts, from each of which one representative is chosen by a majority or plurality of votes, though seemingly fair upon its face is really destructive of the very end sought-government by the people. The successful candidates necessarily represent only the citizens who voted for them, and, as a majority of the members of legislative bodies control their action, laws may be passed by the representatives of a small minority of the people. A careful analysis of city councils, state legislatures and the United States Congress, shows that a majority of their members represent but from one-fifth to one-fourth of the voters who participated in the election. For a government by the representatives of a majority of the people there has been substituted a government by a majority of the representatives of a minority of the people. In place of this unnatural and unjust system the proportional representationists are prepared to submit a method which

secures the rule of the real majority, and at the same time gives the minority the full representation to which its numbers entitle it. By abolishing the districts and apportioning the representatives among the various parties or bodies of voters according to their voting strength, representative government will be in fact what it now is in theory-a government of the people, for the people and by the people. During this conference it is hoped not only that an American Society of Proportional Representation may be formed, but that an International Association may also be organized. All persons interested are cordially invited, to favor the committee with subjects to be considered in the proposed Congress, the names of persons especially well qualified to present such subjects, and any other recommendations which may be deemed conducive to the end in view. Stoughton Cooley, Esq., of Chicago, is the Secretary of the Committee in charge.

THE POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE CONGRESS will be one of the most noteworthy among the Congresses to be held at Chicago in connection with the World's Columbian Exposition. It will meet during the week beginning August 28. A definite program has not been announced as yet, but from the list of those who have accepted invitations to prepare papers, it is certain that the Congress will prove to be of value in the development of these sciences in America. Among those who have promised to speak before the Congress are Signor Luzzatti, late Finance Minister of Italy; Dr. Heinrick Braun and Dr. Richard von Kaufmann, both of Berlin; Professor Levasseur, of Paris; Mr. Holyoake, of England; Presidents Andrews, of Brown University, and Schurman, of Cornell University; Colonel Carroll D. Wright, of Washington, D. C.; Professors E. J. James, of the University of Pennsylvania, J. W. Burgess, of Columbia College, Bernard Moses, of the University of California, R. T. Ely, of the University of Wisconsin, E. A. Ross, of Leland Stanford Jr. University, J. B. Clark, of Amherst College, H. C. Adams, of Michigan University, E. R. L. Gould, of Johns Hopkins University, and many others.

THE AMERICAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ASSOCIATION will hold its annual session at Saratoga Springs, in the new Convention Hall, during the week of September 4. The complete program has not been announced yet, but it will be in part as follows: Monday, September 4, evening: opening address by the president, on "Compulsory Arbitration.' Mr. Andrew Carnegie has been invited to be present to discuss this subject. Tuesday morning, address by Mr. Hamilton W. Mabie, of New York, chairman of the Education Department, followed by "The Seamy Side of the Kindergarten," by Mr. Edward T. Fisher and Miss

Spence. Tuesday evening, "Turkey," by Hon. Oscar Strauss. Wednesday morning will be devoted to the Health Department. Papers will be read on "Hygiene" and the "Cholera." In the afternoon the general subject will be Finance. Mr. J. L. Greene, of Hartford, and Mr. Charles B. Spahr will discuss "Bimetallism," and Mr. S. S. Rogers "The Currency." On Thursday morning, Mr. Charlton T. Lewis will read a paper on the "Succession Tax," which will be discussed by Mr. Eugene Smith. In the afternoon, Mr. E. A. Merrill will deliver an address on "George William Curtis," and in the evening Hon. Andrew D. White will speak on the "Diplomatic Service."

THE AMERICAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION will hold its Sixth Annual Meeting in Chicago during the week beginning September 11. The meetings in Chicago during the whole period from August 28 to September 15 will be of extraordinary interest to economists, but the last week of this period will be especially attractive to members of the association. As the International Statistical Institute, at the joint invitation of the American Economic Association and the American Statistical Association, holds its first cis-Atlantic meeting in Chicago during this week, it has been decided to defer in respect to program to the sessions of the distinguished guests. On Wednesday, September 13, however, the Institute holds no sessions, while the Economic Association offers a program for which the following papers have been promised:

"The Value of Money," by Gen. Francis A. Walker, president of the Mass. Inst. of Technology. "The Relation between Interest and Profits," by Professor Arthur T. Hadley, of Yale University. "The Development of the Wages Fund Doctrine," by Professor F. W. Taussig, of Harvard University. "The Scope of Political Economy," by Professor Simon N. Patten, of the University of Pennsylvania. "Marshall's Theory of Quasi-Rent," by Professor E. R. A. Seligman, of Columbia College. "The Genesis of Capital," by Professor J. B. Clark, of Amherst College. "The Law of Diminishing Returns," by Professor Franklin H. Giddings, of Bryn Mawr College.

THE SCHOOL OF APPLIED ETHICS will hold no session at Plymouth during the present summer. The reasons for this decision are-first, that the World's Fair, now being held in Chicago, and its Philosophical, Economical, Ethical and Religious congresses, are likely to attract the attention of students throughout the country, and to serve much the same purpose that the school is designed to promote in ordinary years, when no such unusual opportunities for thought and discussion are offered. Secondly, it is hoped during the present intermission to prepare for a considerable expansion and enlargement of the work of the school in the future. Among the plans which are being

considered with this end in view is a series of winter sessions in connection with some of the leading universities of the country. The first winter session will probably take place in the winter of 1893-'94, the place selected and program of lectures to be announced hereafter.

It is hoped also to arrange in connection with the summer session at Plymouth a series of meetings of ministers' institutes, teachers' associations and the like, with a view to reaching a class of students to whom the school is specially fitted to be of use. It is intended to mark the international feature of the enterprise by inviting one or more distinguished scholars from abroad to take part in the lectures of the coming season. Detailed programs of the future work will be issued in the autumn.

A POLITICAL SCIENCE ASSOCIATION has been formed in Michigan. The aims and scope of its work is described as follows by Professor F. M. Taylor, of the University of Michigan:

Early last winter several members of the faculties of the University of Michigan and of the various colleges of the State, together with a number of prominent lawyers, bankers, and business men, met at the State Capitol and organized the Michigan Political Science Association. In February a second and very successful meeting was held at Ann Arbor, and the publication of the proceedings of these two meetings furnishes the occasion for this notice.

The scope of the Society is only roughly indicated by the word "political;" since history, economics, penology, and social topics generally will receive attention. The chief objects of the Association are to increase the interest of educated men of Michigan in the great practical questions, to promote a more scientific, non-partisan consideration of these matters, and to secure, through the interchange of views among teachers, professional men, and men engaged in practical affairs, greater community of ideas and greater breadth of view. The last consideration has, perhaps, been most emphasized. The separation of theory and practice so often complained of is doubtless much less marked than it was a generation ago. There is, however, room for improvement, and such improvement would seem to be promised by an association where the specialist and the practical man meet to discuss freely the questions of living interest to both.

Naturally the college men hope to increase public interest in their respective fields of work. They hope, also, to convince the public that their teaching is more in touch with the life of society than is commonly supposed; and they think that with the help of practical men they can make its connections with actual conditions still closer. They further expect to receive real and valuable assistance from such men in the purely scientific study of social problems of every-day

interest. Considerable attention is to be given to monetary questions, municipal reforms, municipal control of quasi-public works, tax systems, prison reforms, etc. To the specialists who are called on to talk and write about these matters, it seems highly desirable to get the benefit of the opinions and experience of the men more immediately engaged in working out solutions of these problems in actual life.

An effort will also be made to carry on the co-operative investigation of some of these questions. It is hoped to give the membership such extension within the State that the Association will have in every considerable town persons able and willing to furnish data as to the actual working in their community of any social or political institution which is being studied. Under the leadership of Professor Waldo, of Albion College, has already been begun a study in the changes in the charters of a number of Michigan cities. Professor McBride, of the Agricultural College, will have charge of an investigation into the history of changes in methods of farming in Michigan. Other similar studies will soon be under way.

As to the means for accomplishing its ends the personal intercourse and general discussions of the regular meetings will be mainly depended upon. Publication, indeed, will not be neglected, but will be primarily for the benefit of members; since the object of the Association is not, in the first instance, to make original contributions to social science. Naturally, however, the promoters hope that some matter will come to the front at each meeting which will have interest and value even to specialists. With the name of Judge Cooley prefixed to two of the papers, it is needless to say that this hope is realized at least in the first number.

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