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NOTES.

DR. ANDREWs' excellent study of the old English manor * deserves special mention. In this work of three hundred pages one may find the carefully thought-out results of a painstaking study of practically all the original and secondary authorities on the subject. After an extended introductory chapter on the unsettled, and perhaps insolvable problem of the origin of the manor, together with a discussion of the mark theory, Dr. Andrews devotes the body of his volume to an investigation of the land and the people. Herein he presents a clear picture of the times and throws much light upon social conditions. In a word, one has here a thorough, instructive and interesting monograph; and it is doubly welcome, first for its own intrinsic worth, and secondly as another evidence of the larger attention now being given in America to early European history and institutions.

ONE or more courses of lectures on jurisprudence and the philosophy of law are offered by the law faculty of each German university, and in this, as in some other subjects, considerable tomes are often the consequence. One of the most recent contributions is by Dr. Bergbohm,† of the University of Dorpat, whose first volume appeared a year ago. This, though formidable in size, contains only an introduction and the first subdivision of the work as planned. This portion, on the law of nature, is unfortunately of but small interest to English-speaking peoples, who usually lay little stress on the topic, though recent tendencies in American foreign relations may give a new weight to the subject in connection with the principles of International Law. The succeeding volumes of Dr. Bergbohm's work promise to prove of wider interest outside of Germany than the present one can be.

THOSE interested in transportation will find the series of articles by W. M. Acworth, in the Engineering Magazine, well worth reading. The author of "The Railways of England," "The Railways of Scotland" and "The Railways and the Traders" has undertaken by means of a number of monthly papers, the first of which appeared in

The Old English Manor; a Study in Engish Economic History. By CHARLES M. ANDREWS, Ph.D. Pp. 280. Baltimore. Johns Hopkins Press, 1892.

+ Jurisprudenz und Rechtsphilosophie. Von Dr. KARL BERGBOHM. Erster Band. Pp. xvi., 566. Leipzig, 1892.

the April issue of the Engineering Magazine, to contrast and compare the railroads of England and America in such a way that the nontechnical reader can understand the essential points of similarity and difference and the reasons that explain their existence. The excellent illustrations greatly increase the value of the articles.

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THE Independent, of June 1, contains a symposium of ten articles on railway problems. The articles make a valuable and timely contribution to the transportation question. Aldace F. Walker discusses "The Amendment of the Interstate Commerce Law;" Wager Swayne, "The Legal Aspect of Railroad Strikes-The Ann Arbor Decision; "the Interstate Commerce Commissioner, Martin A. Knapp, “Discrimination by Railroads ; " James Peabody, “The Necessity for Railway Compacts under Governmental Regulation; Augustus Schoonmaker, “Limitations upon Railway Powers;" Henry Clews "Railway Stocks and Bonds ;" W. M. Acworth, "Government Interference in English Railway Management;" C. C. McCain, "The Development of Freight Classification; " E. E. Russell Tratman, "The Relation of Track to Train Service;" Nat Sawyer, "The Brotherhood of Engineers, and its Relation to the Railroads." The article by Mr. Swayne is especially good. It is a brief statement by a railroad lawyer of recognized ability of the bearing of the Ann Arbor decision on railroad strikes. American readers will find Mr. Acworth's article a strong defence of the doctrine that railroads can be better controlled by government inspection and publicity than by direct state regulation.

FOR SOME TIME the opinion has been increasing among those best informed that the Interstate Commerce Law contains several weaknesses, that it is in consequence becoming from year to year a less potent rather than a stronger force in the control of abuses, and in the promotion of improved conditions of transportation. The advocates of pooling contracts, and the members of the Interstate Commerce Commission are of their number, had a bill introduced into the Senate last session to permit such agreements among railroads. The bill, however, died in the committee-room. The conflict which took place last winter between the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers and the Toledo, Ann Arbor and Northern Michigan Railroad, and the decisions of the United States courts, that grew out of this boycott, brought the relation of employés to railroad corporations forcibly to the attention of the public and of Congress. At the reorganization of the Committee on Interstate Commerce, along with the alterations in the other Senate committees that followed the change of the United States Government from Republican to Democratic control, an inquiry into the alleged weaknesses of the Act to Regulate Commerce was

authorized. By resolution of the Senate, passed April 15, 1893, the investigation is to include four subjects: pooling, the short-haul clause, Canadian competition, labor on railroads. If the committee does its work well and thoroughly investigates the workings of the Interstate Commerce Law it will doubtless be able to propose amendments that will make the law more efficient than it has thus far been. Students of transportation will follow the investigations of the committee with interest.

THE AMERICAN SOCIETY for the Extension of University Teaching will hold its first summer meeting in Philadelphia during the four weeks beginning July 5. The University of Pennsylvania has placed at the disposal of the Society its College Buildings, Libraries and Laboratories, so far as these may be needed for the instruction which is to be given. The meeting will be devoted principally to the study of History and Economics. The lecturers on American History will be Professor William H. Mace, of Syracuse University; Arthur Kaiser, of the University of the State of New York; Rev. Edward Eggleston; Professor John Fiske; Hon. Theodore Roosevelt ; Rev. S. D. McConnell, D. D., and Professor John L. Stewart, of the Philadelphia Manual Training School. A number of excursions will be made with Professor Stewart to places of historic interest in and near Philadelphia. European history will be treated of in lectures by Professors James Harvey Robinson and Edward P. Cheyney and Mr. Dana C. Munro, of the University of Pennsylvania; by Mr. E. L. S. Horsburgh, of Oxford University, and Professor George W. Smith, of Colgate University. Professor Robert W. Rogers, of Dickinson College, and Edmund M. Hyde, of Lehigh University, will lecture on subjects in ancient history.

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The following lectures on sociology and economics will be delivered: Rev. S. W. Dike, on "Sociological Statistics; Mr. Robert A. Woods, of Andover House, on "Methods of Sociological Study;" Dr. William Howe Tolman, on "The City as a Sociological Workshop; " Miss Dora Freeman, of Hampton Institute, on "College Settlements; " Professor Edward A. Ross, of Leland Stanford Jr. University, on the "Extra-University Teaching of Economics; " William L. Garrison, Esq., of Boston, on "The Single Tax ; " George G. Mercer, Esq., of Philadelphia, on "Civics."

There will also be courses of lectures on other subjects, such as literature, music, the natural sciences, sanitation, pedagogics, University Extension, etc.

THE CHAUTAUQUA program for the present summer contains more courses in political economy and social science than have ever been offered before at that summer school at any one time. The class work

will be conducted by Professors Richard T. Ely and William A. Scott, of the University of Wisconsin. Professor Ely will give a course on "Socialism," extending from July 5 to 26. Professor Scott will give a course on the "Development of Economic Thought" during the first two of the six weeks during which the class work is to continue, a course on “Consumption and Production" during the second two weeks, and a course on "Money and the Mechanism of Exchange" during the last two weeks. This arrangement is designed to meet the wants of students coming to Chautauqua at different times. Each course may be taken without the others, and is open to all students of the College of Liberal Arts.

In addition to the class work a course of lectures will be given by the Rev. Samuel A. Barnett, of Toynbee Hall, London, on "The New Philanthropy;" by Mr. A. J. Herbertson, of Edinburgh, on the "Relation of Physical Geography to Sociology;" by Professor Ely on "The Distribution of Wealth ;" and by Professor Scott on "Economic Problems of the Present Day." Single lectures will also be given by prominent Americans and Europeans.

Perhaps the most interesting and important feature of the summer's work along social lines at Chautauqua will be the organization of "The American Institute of Christian Sociology," which is to take place July 19 and 20. The object of this organization will be the application of the moral truths and principles of Christianity to the social and economic difficulties of the present time. It proposes to work toward the attainment of this object through the publication of appropriate leaflets, monographs and treatises, the employment of special lecturers, the preaching of sermons by clerical members, the encouragement of the study of social science by the establishment of prizes, scholarships, fellowships, lectureships and professorships, and through the annual meetings of its members. The membership of the Association is to be open to all persons interested in its objects. Its chief promoters and backers are Professor Henry Drummond, author of "Natural Law in the Spiritual World," Bishop John H. Vincent, Doctor Washington Gladden, Professor Arthur S. Hoyt, of Auburn Theological Seminary, Rev. George D. Herron, of Iowa College, Rev. Cyrus Hamlin, of Beloit, and others.

The Chautauqua term begins July 6 and ends August 16. The class work continues during the entire six weeks, according to the plan described above, and the lecture courses will be distributed throughout the period. A detailed announcement with exact dates will soon be made public.

THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION will hold its meeting this year in conjunction with the World's Congress of Historians and

Historical Writers. This Congress will meet at Chicago, in the Art Institute on Monday, July 10, and will hold sessions during the week, with intervals which will give members opportunity to visit the Exposition. The object of this Congress is to bring together during the the term of the Columbian Exposition, representatives of Historical Societies, and other persons who have made contributions to historical research and literature, or, who are especially interested in historical study. The immediate management of the Congress, under the control of the General Committee on Literary Congresses appointed by the Auxiliary, is assigned to a Sub-Committee of four residents of Chicago. Historical societies, whether state or local, in all parts of the United States and in all foreign countries, are invited to send representatives to the Congress. The complete program has not been announced yet, but the persons who, up to June 15, had accepted invitations to read papers before the Congress with their subjects so far as they had been selected, are as follows:

President James R. Angell, Michigan University, "The Inadequate Recognition of Diplomatists by Historians." Professor Simeon E. Baldwin, Yale University, "The Historical Policy of the United States as to Annexation." Dr. Frederic Bancroft, Washington, "Mr. Seward's Position toward the South, December, 1860—April, 1861." Hon. James Phinney Baxter, Portland, Me., "The Present Status of the Columbian Discovery." Professor F. W. Blackmar, Kansas University, "The Annals of an Historic Town." Dr. George Bourinot, clerk of the Canadian House of Commons, "The Intellectual Development of the Canadian People." Professor Edward G. Bourne, Adelbert College, Cleveland, Ohio, "Prince Henry the Navigator." Dr. Lewis H. Boutell, Chicago, "Roger Sherman in the National Constitutional Convention." Dr. Rudolph Cronau, Leipzig, Germany, "Personal Explorations at Watling Island and at the Tomb of Columbus at Santo Domingo." Professor Ephraim Emerton, Cambridge, "The Historical Doctorate in America." Professor Charles H. Haskins, University of Wisconsin, "The Eleventh Amendment of the Constitution." Hon. William Wirt Henry, Richmond, Va., "The First Legislative Assembly in America." Professor B. A. Hinsdale, University of Michigan, "The Thirty-first Parallel in American History." Professor J. F. Jameson, Brown University, "The Origin of Standing-Committee System in American Legislative Bodies." Colonel William Preston Johnston, Tulane University, "The Definition of History." Dr. George Kreihn, Johns Hopkins University, "English Popular Uprisings in the Middle Ages." Professor Jesse Macy, Iowa College, "The Relation of History to Politics." Miss Mary M. P. Newton, Richmond, Va., "Colonial Virginia

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