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Malthusianism, "Il malthusismo e i prob-
lemi sociale," by V. Lebrecht, reviewed,
Manor, MEDIEVAL MANOR, TRANSLATION
OF A TYPICAL EXTENT, 275-91. Character
of manorial records, 275; Summary of
Borley, 277; Translation of the text,
279-91; General characteristics, 279;
Free tenants, 281; Molmen, 281; Cus-
tomary tenants, 282; Cotemen, 288
Marginal utility, its scope, 369, 430
Marine, The American, 694-95
Mark. "The Mark in Europe and Amer-
ica," by E. A. Bryan, note, 687
MARRIED WOMEN'S PROPERTY IN ANGLO-
SAXON AND ANGLO-NORMAN LAW, 233-
264. Laws of the German tribes, 233;
Form of marriage, 234; Different kinds
of property, 235; Power to control prop-
erty, 238; Share of the widow, 240;
Anglo-Saxon laws, wife's property, 241;
Wife's powers, 247; The widow, 249;
Laws of the Normans, 250; Origin of
common law dower, 255; Removal in
recent times of common law restric-
Maryland. "Studies in the Civil, Social
and Ecclesiastical History of Early
Maryland," by T. C. Gambrall, re-
Massachusetts. See Religious toleration.
Mayor, powers of, 870-71
Method of political science, 153, 159
Michigan Political Science Association,
Monographs, family, 13, 40, 304, 624 et
Monopolies. See Taxation, Relation of,
Monetary Conference of 1892, Analysis
of address by R. P. Falkner on, 950 et
Money. BULLION NOTES AND AN ELASTIC
CURRENCY, 299-301. Details of the pro-
posal, 299; Relation to prices, 300
INDIAN CURRENCY, 493-528. Depres-
sion of trade since 1873, when
France abandoned bimetallism,493-
4; Disturbance greater in England
than India, 495; Confusion due to
neglect of common ratio between
gold and silver, 496; France main-
tained bimetallic system, 1803-1873,
497, note; History of ratio in Eu-
rope and United States, 497-8; His-
tory of Indian currency, 499 et seq.;
Demand for gold currency in India
since 1862, 501; Report of commis-
sion of 1866, 502; Gold has appre-
ciated, 503; Paris monetary confer-
ence, 503 et seq.; Demand for
double standard, 507; Fall in gold
prices not due to improvements,
507-9 (notes); Report of govern-
ment of India, 1886, and demand
for international agreement, 508-
11; Report of Royal commission
appointed, 1886, 512-14; Brussels
conference, 516-17; Situation of
India, 518-19; Suspension of silver
coinage, 520-22; Results. 523-25;
Counterfeiting, 527; Double stand-
ard accords with economic law,
"Das internationale Währungsprob-
lem und dessen Lösung" von The-
odor Hertzka, reviewed, 179-81
"THE MONETARY SITUATION IN GER-
MANY, 61-81. The currency of Ger-
many, 61; Paper money, 63; Con-
fusion of money before 1870, 66;
Advocates of the gold standard,
70; Sales of silver, 71; Legends of
the bimetallists, 74; Germany suf-
fers little from silver depreciation,
without restricting production, 79;
Military interests, 80
MONEY AS A MEASURE OF VALUE, 966-
69. Money measures value, 966;
Criticism of Walker's position, 967;
Analogy between value and weight,
Proposals by Professor Walras, 336
"The Silver Situation in the United
States," by F. W. Taussig, reviewed,
THE USE OF SILVER AS MONEY IN
THE UNITED STATES, 91-149. Im-
portance of historical study of
silver, 91; Early history of the
mint, 93; Hamilton's coinage re-
port, 95; Its bimetallic character,
99; Observance of the law, 101;
Bank currency, 103; Second United
States Bank, 104; Coinage act of
1834, 107; Need of a national cur-
rency, 110; Adoption of ratio 16 to
1, 111; Fractional currency, 116;
State of currency after the war,
121; Act of 1873, 122; The silver
question at this period, 125; Later
silver legislation, 132; Statistical
Mortgages. A DECADE OF MORTGAGES,
904-918. Amount of mortgages, 904-5
Acre and lot mortgages compared, 905;
Per capita ratios, 906-7; Limits of en-
cumbrance, 908; Increase in decade,
1880-90, 909-10; Causes of increase, 911-
13; Are mortgages signs of prosperity,
913; Interests charge, 914-15; Geo-
graphical concentration, 916; North
and South compared, 917
seq.; Relation of legislators to the
city government, 863 et seq.; Char-
acter of the city "bosses," 866-7;
Tilden's attempts at reform, 868-9;
Increased powers of the mayor,
870; Results, 8714; Administration
of petty justice, 874-5; Growth of
cities inevitable, 876-8; Disastrous
effects of voting on party lines,
879-80; Growth of municipal spirit
"A Study in Municipal Government:
The Corporation of Berlin," by J.
Pollard, note, 489
Municipal law, defined, 738-39
NATIONAL PRISON ASSOCIATION, 454
"Negro in the District of Columbia,
The," by Edw. Ingle, note, 488-89
New England. See Farmers' Movement.
New York. See Taxation.
New York City, History of government
of, 857 et seq.
Origin of the State, 594-95
Paleography, "Dell' abbreviature nella
Paleografia Latina," di Z. Volta, re-
Paper money in Germany, 63
Paris, Monetary Conference at, 503 et
People's banks. See Banks.
Personal Notes, 165-66, 306-15; 456-67; 647-
60; 810-15; 975-78
Philosophy. "Darwin and Hegel and
other Philosophical Studies," by D. G.
Ritchie, reviewed, 838-40
Pluralities, evils of, 899 et seq.
Political and Social Science Congress in
Political Economy, Definition of econom-
"Domestic Economy," by F. T. Paul,
"Die Entstehung der Volkswirth-
schaft," by K. Bücher, reviewed,
"Grundriss der politischen Oekono-
mie," 1 Band "Allgemeine Volks-
wirthschaftslehre," von E. von
Philippovich, reviewed, 168-79
"A History of the Theories of Pro-
duction and Distribution in En-
glish Political Economy from 1776
to 1818," by E. Cannan, reviewed,
THE IDEA OF JUSTICE IN POLITICAL
ECONOMY, 697-737. Problem of jus-
tice in distribution of wealth, 697-
99; Justice based upon classification
only the like are treated alike, 700-
704; Influence of social groups and
of convention on the idea of jus-
tice, 705-11; Justice can apply only
to distribution as determined by
man, 713-16; Effects of legal insti-
tutions, 717-18; Feeling of solidar-
ity, 719-20; Qualities serving com-
mon objects most highly esteemed,
721-2; Influence of the Ideal in
progress,, 723-4; Rôle played of
custom and legislation, 724-28; Jus-
tice in trade, 729-30; Problem of
Reforming Legislation, 731-33;
Function of the State, 734; Concep
tion of justice grows out of pro-
cesses of our soul and must influ-
ence economic life, 736
"Introduction to the Study of Politi-
cal Economy," by L. Cossa, re-
"Outlines of Economics," by R. T.
Ely, reviewed, 484-88
PROGRESS OF ECONOMIC IDEAS IN
FRANCE, 1-33. Classical or ortho-
dox school, 3; Premises of the class-
ical economy, 5; Character of eco-
nomic law, 7; Individualism, 8;
Early socialism, 9; Protectionism,
12; The family monograph, 13; In-
fluence of foreign thought, 15;
Later socialism, 16; German eco-
nomics, 17; Lack of writers in
France, 21; Academic positions, 22;
News of the reaction in France,
24; Catholic economists, 28
Recent French Economic Publica-
See also Malthusianism.
Political Ethics. THE POLITICAL ETHICS
OF HERBERT SPENCER, 582-619. Reac-
tionary character of Spencer's later
writings, 582-3; His writings on polit-
ical ethics enumerated, 583-5; Concil-
iation of altruism and egoism, 586;
Inductions of ethics, 588; Beneficence
negative and positive, 589-92; Social
ethics, 593 et seq.; "Law of equal free-
dom," criticized, 593-4; Origin and
functions of state, 594; Analogy be
tween society and living organism,
595-7; Spencer's neglect of psychologi-
cal elements, 598-9; Biological ele-
ments over-emphasized, 600-1; Appre-
hension of government interference,
602-3; Governmental failures exagger-
ated, 604-5; Government now reflects
society, 606; New governmental prob-
lems, 607-9; Spencer's fear of social-
ism, 610-12; Various inconsistencies,
613-17; Discouraging character of Spen-
cer's speculations, 618-19
Politics. "An Old Master and other
Political Essays," by Woodrow Wilson,
Poverty. Modes of investigating, 39;
Causes of, 46; Remedies, 53
Precious metals. See Currency.
Price, 337, 345; Theory of See Value.
Proceedings of the Academy, 150-164;
Profits. See Interest.
Property. See Married Women.
Protection. "Protezionismo Americano,"
per U. Rabbeno, reviewed, 476-80
Protection doctrines in France, 12
Spencer's, defence of, 607 et seq.
Providence, R. I. "Early Records of the
Town of Providence," by H. Rogers
et al., reviewed, 825-6
Sanitary supervision, disadvantages of,
SAVINGS BANK, A SUCCESSFUL SCHOOL,
297-99. Money deposited in building
and loan associations, 297; results, 298
See School Savings Banks.
Scholarships in political and social
science, 314-15, 467
School of Applied Ethics, 198
SCHOOL SAVINGS BANKS, 972-74
See Savings Banks.
Schools, Municipal control of, 961-62
Science sociale, La. See Sociology.
Separation of powers, 884 et seq.
Shipping, American, 694-95
American Marine," by W. W. Bates,
Silver. "The Future of Silver," by E.
Suess, reviewed, 994-95.
Slavery. "History of Slavery in Con-
necticut," by B. C. Steiner, note, 1003-4
"Social Contract," by Rousseau, transla-
tion of, note, 691-92
Social Democracy "Die Naturwissen-
schaft und die Social-demokratische
Theorie," by H. E. Ziegler, 998-99
Socialism, 9, 16
"Kritik des Socialismus," von L. Fe-
lix, reviewed, 827-29
"The Labor Movement," by L. T.
Hobhouse, reviewed, 827-29
"Socialism and the American
Spirit," by N. P. Gilman, reviewed,
"Socialism from Genesis to Revela-
tion," by F. M. Sprague, reviewed,
"Socialism, Its Growth and Out-
come," by Morris and Bax, re-
Spencer's attitude towards Socialism,
608 et seq.
Society, ADAPTION OF SOCIETY TO ITS
ENVIRONMENT, 529-556. Broader con-
ception of economics, 529. Progress is
increased happiness, 530; "Absolute"
and "positive" utility, 531; Surplus of
pleasure and methods of producing
this, 532-3; Nature of physical environ-
ment and causes of change, 534; Effect
of a change in pleasure derived from
goods, 536-7; Classification of subjec-
tive changes, 539 et seq.; Formation
of complements of goods increases
pleasure, 541-44; Production of goods
with less effort, 544-48; Creation of new
capacities for pleasure, 549-554; Func-
tion of the economist, 556
SOCIETY OF SOCIAL ECONOMY, ANNUAL
CONGRESS, 302-305. Conceptions of law
and social economy, 202: Prizes for
domestic virtue, 303; For monographs,
Sociology. "An Introduction to the
Study of the Dependent, Defective and
Delinquent Classes," by C. R. Hender-
son, reviewed, 666-67.
FAILURE OF BIOLOGIC SOCIOLOGY, 919-
947. Strength and weakness of bi-
ologic writers illustrated in Ward's
"Psychic Factors of Civilization,"
919; Conception of sociology held
by economists and biologists, 919-
21; Psychology and physiology
not rightly differentiated by Ward,
922-23; Biology has created miscon-
ceptions of social phenomena,
924-25; Methods of reasoning proper
to biology and economics, 926-32;
Ward's reasoning in economics and
psychology erroneous, 928-31; Indi-
vidual and social environment,
933-44; Adjustment to local and
general environment, 939-41; Hier-
archy of the sciences, 945-47; So-
ciology rests on economics, 947
"Les Lois Sociologiques," by G. de
Greef, note, 1002
LA SCIENCE SOCIALE, 620-46. Two
classes of adherents to Le Play's
system, 620-21; Le Play's method
of observation, 622-24; System of
monographs and its defects, 624-32;
New monographic system of De
Tourville, 633-34; Explanation of
terminology and classification, 635-
42; Le Play's conception of the fam-
ily, 643-44; False view of the U. S.,
Southern States. See Agriculture.
"Standard Dictionary of the English
Language," reviewed, 982-85
Standard of deferred payments, 969 et
State, functions of, 151 et seq.
State Government. THE REFORM OF OUR
STATE GOVERNMENTS, 885-903. Methods
of amending constitution, 883; Impor-
tance of the State government, 884-86;
Preponderance of legislative power,
886-88; Efforts to limit legislative activ-
ity, 889-91; Difficulty of separating leg-
islative from executive powers, 891-2;
The veto, 893; Methods of choosing
officials, 894-96; Congress and the Cabi-
net, 897-8; Election by pluralities, 899;
Suggested amendments to constitution
of New York, 901-3
State interference, inefficiency of, 156
States, American. See Constitution.
Statistics, French works on, 1008
Street car system in Berlin, 956-57
Surplus, distribution of objective, 387;
division of subjective, 391
Switzerland. Schweizerische Blätter für
Wirtschafts- und Socialpolitik, 490
Constitutional amendment on slaugh-
ter of animals, 492
Tariff. "Duties on Wool," by F. W.
Taussig, note, 693
"State Papers and Speeches on the
Tariff," reviewed, 181-83
"The Tariff Controversy in the
United States, 1798-1833," by O. L.
Elliott, reviewed, 181-83
Taxation. THE PENNSYLVANIA TAX CON-
"Report of Counsel to Revise the tax
laws of the State of New York," by
C. A. Collin and J. N. Fiero, re-
"Report of Joint Committee of Sen-
ate and Assembly relative to Taxa-.
tion," reviewed, 675-76
RELATION OF TAXATION TO MONOPO-
LIES, 764-89. A problem in distribu-
tion, 764; Must be treated deductive-
ly, 765; The laws of distribution sta-
ted, 766; The shares in distribution
illustrated, 767-69; Distribution of
the free surplus, 769-71; Monop
oly defined, 771; Subjective and
objective bases of monopolies, 771-
73; "Fixed surplus," 773-74; Mo-
nopolies classified and discussed,
774-80; Means of excluding or re-
stricting competition, 778; Exclu-
sive monopolies obtain free surplus
and permanent burdens, 779-82;
Monopolies classified in relation
to taxation, 783; Taxes classified,
784; The source and object of fiscal
taxes, 785; Direct and indirect fis-
cal taxes discussed, 785-89; Ethical
"Systèmes generaux d'impots" by
R. Stourm, note, 1005
TAXATION OF LARGE ESTATES, 82-90.
Large fortunes a public menace,
81; Difficulties of testamentary dis-
positions, 83; Public administra-
tion of charitable trusts, 84; Pro-
posed legislation, 85
See Income tax.
Temperance question. See Liquor traffic.
Tenantry. See Manor.
Ticino representation system, 450
Tobacco tax, 573 et seq.
TOTAL UTILITY STANDARD OF DEFERRED
PAYMENTS, 425-441. Problem of de-
ferred payments, 425; Standards pro-
posed, 427; Limitation of marginal
utility to the market, 430: Relation to
total wealth, 434; Total utility the true
Tramps, Consular reports on, note, 690
Transportation. See Railroads.
Treasury, Independent. "The History,
Organization and Influence of the
Independent Treasury of the U. S.,"
by D. Kinley, reviewed, 668-70
United States, History of "The United
States," by Goldwin Smith, reviewed,
See American History.
University Extension, Summer School,
Summer School, 1894, 846-48
University instruction in France, 22
Value. THE AUSTRIAN THEORY OF
VALUE, 348-377. Controversy of the
Schools, 348; Classical view of cost,
349; Standpoint of employer and
society, 350; Elements of cost, 352;
Austrian view of cost, 356; Reduces
cost and value, 357; Inconsistencies of
treatment of cost, 359; Importance of
cost, 362; Capital in its relation to cost,
363; Relation of marginal utility to
cost, 365; Austrians explain exchange,
but not production, 367; cost determines
marginal utility by determining sup-
ply, 369; Hence, marginal utility is not
decisive principle, 376
"Mathematical Investigations in the
Theory of Value and Prices," by L
Fisher, reviewed, 664-66
Veto, 893 et seq.
Wages, relation to price, 337
"The Theory of Wages," by H. M.
Thompson, note, 692
Wealth, estimate of, 424
"The Distribution of Wealth," by J.
R. Commons, reviewed, 818-22
"Webster's International Dictionary,"
"Women Wage Earners," by H. Camp-
bell, note, 688
Wool, duties on. See Tariff,
PROBLEMS OF MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT.
REFORM OF OUR STATE GOVERNMENTS .
A DECADE OF MORTGAGES...
FAILURE OF BIOLOGIC SOCIOLOGY.
MINUTES OF THE PROCEEDINGS.
MONEY AS A MEASURE OF VALUE.
E. L. Godkin. Gamaliel Bradford. G. K. Holmes. S. N. Patten.
AN UNFINISHED STUDY BY DR. MERRIAM
SCHOOL SAVINGS BANKS
L. S. Merriam. John B. Clark.
S. L. Oberholtzer.
PERSONAL NOTES: CURTIS, NEURATH, RENAUDIN, ERRERA, V. WENKSTERN.
BOOK DEPARTMENT-(See next page for table of contents.)
AMERICAN ACADEMY OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE.
ENGLAND: P. S. King & Son, 12 and 14 King St., Westminster, London, S. W.
FRANCE: L. Larose, rue Soufflot, 22, Paris. GERMANY: Gustav Fischer, Jena.
ITALY: Direzione del Giornale degli Economisti, Rome, Via Ripetta, 102.
SPAIN: Fuentes y Capdeville, Madrid, 9 Plaza de Santa Ana.
Copyright, 1894, by the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Table of Contents and Index to the Fourth Volume sent