A Treatise on the Law of Municipal Corporations

Capa
Callaghan and Company, 1913
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Índice

Samechanging course or width and vacating streets
4363
Toll roads and turn pikes
4365
Street sprinkling and cleaning 4366
4366
Sewers and drains 43674371
4367
Samereconstructing or repairing 4371
4371
Lighting plant
4373
Parks and market places 4375
4375
Miscellaneous objects 4376
4376
Necessity of benefit to property by improve ment 4377
4377
Samegeneral or special benefits 4383
4383
Samecharacter and extent 4384
4384
Sameeffect of like existing improvement 43894391
4389
Assessment of benefits where part of property taken 4391
4391
Vacant or property not improved 4392
4392
Unplatted and rural lands 43934395
4393
Railroad property 4395
4395
Samevarious uses illustrated 4399
4399
Assessment districts 44000
4404
Property beyond municipal area 4407
4407
Waterworks 4408
4408
Property abutting 4409
4409
Sameplatted and unplatted lands 4411
4411
Property fronting 4412
4412
Property contiguous adjoining and adjacent 4413
4413
Property not abutting on part of street
4414
Secs Pages 2061 Restricting property by depth or distance
4416
PROPERTY EXEMPT 2063 Power to exemptconstruction 44174419
4417
Religious and charitable institutions 4419
4419
Educational institutions
4420
Cemeteries and burial grounds 4421
4421
Homestead property
4423
Making of or payment for part of improve ment by property owners
4424
Exemption by agreement 4425
4425
EXERCISE OF POWER 2070 Municipal officers empowered to make assess ments 4426
4426
Samecommissioners 4428
4428
Competency of commissioners 4429
4429
Oath of commissioners 4431
4431
Notice of assessment to property owners 4432
4432
Sufficiency of the notice 4436
4436
Service of noticepublication 4437
4437
Hearing on proposed assessment 4439
4439
Time for making assessment 4440
4440
Samewith reference to completion of
4442
Levy of assessment 4444
4444
Mode of assessment 4445
4445
Sameland in bulk or separate lots or parcels 4446
4446
Samedivision of improvement into parts 4449
4449
Sametwo or more improvements in one as sessment 4450
4450
Sameagainst part or lot or tract
4452
Apportionment of assessments 4454
4454
Same_according to benefits 4455
4455
Sameby front foot 4459
4459
Samesuperficial area
4461
Secs Pages 2091 Sameeach lot for the improvement in front of it 4462
4462
Sameomission of property
4463
Samededuction of damages
4464
Samecosts and expenses included 4466
4466
Samewhat may not be included 4467
4467
Confirmation correction revision or setting aside of assessment 4468
4468
Samenature of proceedingsnotice 4472
4472
Sameby courtpetition or application 4474
4474
Samejurisdiction of court 4475
4475
Sameevidence 4476
4476
Samejudgment
4477
Assessment record 4478
4478
Sufficiency of certificate warrant or tax bill 4484
4484
THE LIEN 2106 The lienmust be created by lawconstruc tion of laws 4488
4488
Samesteps required to perfect 4490
4490
Samewhen lien attaches 4491
4491
Sameduration and discharge 4492
4492
211O Sameorder of priority 4494
4494
VALIDITY AND REMEDIES 2111 Nonobservance of law authorizing improve ment 4499
4499
Defects and irregularities affecting validity of assessment 4501
4501
Failure to advertise for bids for the work 4502
4502
Legal existence of street or way improved 4503
4503
Improvement extending on private property 4504
4504
Change of title to avoid assessment 4505
4505
Presumption of validity of assessment 4506
4506
When and by whom assessment may be ques tioned 4510
4510
Estoppel to question validity of assessment 4512
4512
Sameby petitioning for improvement 4517
4517
Sameby recital in deed 4519
4519
Same_by payment or part payment
4520
Sameby failure to object or appeal 4521
4521
Samesameapportionment of assessment
4522
Equitable reliefinjunction 4523
4523
Reassessments 4526
4526
Appeal from assessment 4529
4529
Certiorari to review assessment 45324534
4532
COLLECTION AND ENFORCEMENT 2131 Nature of proceedingsin rem or in personam 4535
4535
Form of actionvalid assessment is basis 4539
4539
Sameaction at law 4540
4540
Samewarrants
4541
Samedistress warrant
4542
Samein equity
4543
When assessment becomes delinquent 4544
4544
Demand of payment
4545
Venue of suit or action 4550
4550
Parties plaintiff 45514553
4551
Sameassignee 4553
4553
Parties defendantowners of land 4554
4554
Samewife of property owner 4556
4556
Sameall parties in interestmortgagee 4557
4557
Samemunicipalitystate 4558
4558
Joinder of actions
4559
Counter claim 4566
4566
Sale of property 4567
4567
The purchasers title 4568
4568
Redemption of the property 4569
4569
CHAPTER 39
4571
Secs Pages 2157 Necessity for revenue
4572
Sources of revenue 4573
4573
Control of legislature 4574
4574
POWER TO BORROW LOAN AND GIVE NOTES OR Issue BILLS 2160 Power to borrow money 4575
4575
Power to execute promissory notes 4580
4580
Power to issue bills to be used as currency
4583
POWER TO INCUR INDEBTEDNESS AND MAKE EXPENDITURES 2164 General rules 4586
4586
Must be for public municipal purpose 45894592
4589
Samepower of legislature 4593
4593
Sameillustrations of what are and what are not public purposes 4595
4595
Samemoral claims
4601
Sameaid to private corporations or associa tions 4604
4604
Sameconstitutional prohibitions against do nations 4609
4609
Conditions precedent and procedure 4613
4613
Necessity for first making provision for pay ment of debt 4614
4614
Samerequiring provision for levy of taxes 4618
4618
Certificate that funds are applicable or indebt edness lawful 4622 2
4622
Secs Pages 2177 Fiscal year 4625
4625
Estimates of probable expenditures
4626
Same general expense fund
4629
Adjustment of accounts with state or county 4630 463
4630
Surplus funds at end of fiscal year
4632
Payment of debts 4633
4633
Effect of insufficiency of fund 4634
4634
APPROPRIATIONS 2187 Definition classification and power to make 4636
4636
Necessity for 4637
4637
Annual appropriation 4638
4638
Ordinance passage and contents 4641
4641
Effect of appropriations
4643
CHAPTER 40
4645
Authority to hold elections
4646
Necessity for election 4647
4647
How question submitted 4653
4653
Notice of election 4655
4655
Form and scope of question or questions sub mitted 4659
4659
Conduct and time of election 46674669
4667
Samecounting the vote returns and record 4669
4669
Number of votes necessary 4670
4670
Effect of irregularities and attacks on validity of election 4672
4672
Effect of favorable vote 46754677
4675
Successive elections 4677
4677
DEBT LIMIT OF MUNICIPALITIES
4679
Samedebt limits as prescribed by legislature 4690
4690
Samedebt of political division as indebted
4697
Sameright to compel payment as affecting
4706
FIRE AND POLICE DEPARTMENTS
4712
Samedebts in anticipation of collection
4713
Sameinterest as indebtedness
4719
Secs Pages 2227 Effect of money in treasury to meet liabilities
4722
Sameobligations payable from special as sessments 4723
4723
Sameliability payable solely from income of property 4725
4725
Samefund created by levy of tax 4726
4726
Time when indebtedness arises 4730
4730
Contracts for payments for a term of years 4733
4733
Evading debt limit provisions 4736
4736
Sameevading debt limits by taking lease in stead of purchasing
4737
PROPERTY TAXABLE
4738
Computation of amount of indebtedness actu ally outstanding 4740
4740
Samesinking funds 4745
4745
Effect of exceeding debt limits and remedies of creditors 4746
4746
Sameeffect of debt limit upon municipal acts in general 4751
4751
CHAPTER 42
4753
Power to issue 4755
4755
Sameaudit and allowance of claim as condi tion precedent 4756
4756
Sameissuance at a discount
4757
Samesignature 4759
4759
Delivery
4760
Warrants not negotiable 47614763
4761
Interest on warrants 4763
4763
Rights of holders of warrants in general
4765
Samefrom what fund payable 4766
4766
Samepriority in payment 4768
4768
Samewarrants as receivable in payment of taxes etc 4770
4770
Assignment of warrants 4771
4771
Reissuance funding and calling in for exam ination 4772
4772
Actions on warrants 4773
4773
Samedefenses 4775
4775
Samestatutes of limitation as barring actions on warrants 4777
4777
Mandamus 4779
4779
CHAPTER 43
4781
NEGOTIABILITY AND RIGHTS OF TRANSFEREES 7 ESTOPPEL AND RATIFICATION
4782
BONA FIDE PURCHASERS 9 RECITALS IN BONDS 10 PAYMENT II REMEDIES
4783
DEFENSES TO ACTIONS ON BONDS 13 SUGGESTIONS TO INVESTIGATORS OF VALIDITY OF BOND IS SUE 1 DEFINITIONS KINDS OF ...
4784
Importance of the law as to municipal bonds 4786
4786
Kinds of bonds
4787
Samecoupon bonds 4788
4788
Sameconvertible coupons bonds and reg istered coupon bonds 4789
4789
Samerailroad aid bonds 4790
4790
Sameimprovement bonds 47914798
4791
REMEDIES
4795
Samefunding and refunding bonds
4798
Interest 4801
4801
Samecoupons 4803
4803
Who may attack bonds
4805
Decisions of state courts as binding on feder eral courts 4808
4808
POWER TO Issue BONDS 2277 In general 48104812
4810
CHAPTER 39
4811
Implied power to issue bonds 48124815
4812
Express power to issue bonds and construction thereof 4815
4815
Whether bonds issued for a public purpose 48204822
4820
Power to issue negotiable bonds as con ferred by power to issue bonds 4822
4822
Funding and refunding bonds 4823
4823
Railroad aid bonds 4827
4827
Debt limit provisions 4831
4831
FORM AND CONTENTS 2285 General rules 4833
4833
To whom made payable 4835
4835
Signature 4836
4836
Samenecessity for purchasers to investigate signatures 4837
4837
Provisions as to maturity of bonds 4839
4839
Seal
4842
Date
4843
Secs Pages 2294 Medium of payment
4844
Recitals 4845 4947
4845
ISSUANCE DELIVERY AND CONDITIONS PRECEDENT 2297 Time for issuance and when deemed issued 4847
4847
Delivery 4848
4848
Proceedings before issuance of bonds 4849
4849
Samepetition or consents 4852
4852
CHAPTER 40
4855
SALE OR OTHER DISPOSITION OF BONDS 2303 Disposition of bonds 48564860
4856
Sale at less than par 4860
4860
Negotiability of bonds 4862
4862
What law governs
4864
Stolen or lost bonds 4865
4865
ESTOPPEL AND RATIFICATION 2309 When municipality bound by ratification or es toppel 4866
4866
ELECTIONS AS TO INCURRING OF INDEBTEDNESS OR ISSUANCE
4868
Curative statutes 4870
4870
Estoppel as to conditions precedent by mere is suance of bonds
4872
Definition and effect of status 4874
4874
Purchaser from a bona fide purchaser 4875
4875
Gross negligence effect of 4876
4876
Actual notice
4877
Sameexistence and contents of enabling stat
4878
Who may rely on estoppel by recitals
4889
Authority to make recitals 4890
4890
Sufficiency of general recitals 4891
4891
Recitals as to constitutional provisions in gen eral
4893
Recitals contrary to matters of record 4895
4895
Recitals as to ordinances resolutions or or ders of court 4896
4896
Recitals as to consideration
4899
Recitals as to purpose of issue 4900
4900
Recitals as estoppel to deny compliance with conditions 4902
4902
Samerules applied to railway aid bonds 4910
4910
Recitals as affecting bonds in excess of debt limits 49114916
4911
Recitals in funding or refunding bonds 49164919
4916
Recitals showing on their face statutory pro visions not complied with
4919
Sinking funds 4921
4921
Secs Pages 2346 Enjoining bond issue 4924
4924
Mandamus to compel issuance of bonds
4926
Remedies where bonds invalid 4930
4930
DEFENSES TO ACTIONS ON Bonds 2350 Introductory 4932
4932
Want of power to issue 4934
4934
Debt limit exceeded
4935
Municipality only a de facto one
4937
SUGGESTIONS TO INVESTIGATORS OF VALIDITY OF BOND ISSUE 2357 In general 4938
4938
CHAPTER 44
4941
Scope of chapter
4943
Power of legislature to delegate authority to tax 4945
4945
Conditions precedent to levy 49484949
4948
Sameelections 4949
4949
Secs Pages 2363 Power as inherent 4951
4951
Poll taxes 49554958
4955
Collateral inheritance tax
4958
Power as conferred by constitution
4959
Occupation and income taxes 4960 1961
4960
Statutory authority 4962
4962
Sameconstruction of statutes granting power 4965
4965
Tax must be for a public purpose 4966
4966
Revoking or limiting power of taxation 4971
4971
Power as lost by user or nonuser
4972
DUTY TO LEVY Taxes 2376 Duty to levy and enforcement thereof 4973
4973
Power of legislature to compel levy of taxes 49754977
4975
CONSTITUTIONAL RESTRICTIONS 2378 In General 4977
4977
On power of legislature to tax for municipal purposes 4978
4978
Uniformity 4979
4979
Sametaxing districts 4980
4980
Samepower to tax one species of property only
4981
LIMITATIONS ON RATE OR AMOUNT OF Taxes 2384 Tax limits in general 4983
4983
Tax limits as mandatory
4987
Whether all municipal taxes included within limit 4988
4988
Effect of levy above tax limit 4991
4991
Secs Pages 2388 In general 4992
4992
Property not receiving benefits
4997
Samevessels 5001
5001
Property annexed 5002
5002
Property of grantees of franchises 5003
5003
Municipal bonds
5006
Federal means or agencies
5007
Rural property 5008
5008
EXEMPTION FROM TAXATION 2399 In general 5010
5010
Construction of exemption provisions 5015
5015
Repeal or revocation 5016
5016
Exemption as assignable
5017
Procedure to levy taxes 5020
5020
Sameassessment 50255031
5025
Payment and collection 5031
5031
Sameremedies for collection 5034
5034
Samesale for unpaid taxes 5037
5037
Forfeiture and penalties for nonpayment 5038
5038
Remedies against municipality where tax wrongful 5039
5039
CHAPTER 46
5041
CHAPTER 45
5044
Police force in general 5045
5045
Samepolice commissioners
5048
Policemen and firemen as public officers 5049
5049
Legislative control of fire and police depart ments 5050
5050
ute 4878 4879
5052
Removal or suspension 5053
5053
Salaries and compensation 5054
5054
Pensions 5055
5055
Reimbursement for expenses incurred
5056
Criminal responsibility
5057
Samepowers of police officers to arrest
5058
Liability of municipality for failure to provide aequate fire protection
5062
Liability of municipality for torts of policemen 50635068
5063
Liability of municipality for torts of fire de partment 50685071
5068
PUBLIC EDUCATION
5072
Eligibility of members of board of education
5076
Powers of boards of education 5077
5077
Sameto make rules governing school 5080
5080
Removal of commissioners
5081
Employment of teacher 5082
5082
License to teach 5083
5083
Removal of teachers 5084
5084
Secs Pages 2444 Compensation of teacher 5085
5085
Power to expel pupils
5086
Control of pupils away from school 5087
5087
CHAPTER 47
5089
Municipal administration of charity 5091
5091
Legislature may divide state for purpose of relief and support of poor
5093
Power of municipal corporation to furnish support to poor 5094
5094
Samedelegation of power forbidden 5095
5095
Liability of municipal corporation for relief of poor by others 5096
5096
Settlement of pauper 5098
5098
Overseers of the poor 5099
5099
Boards of charities and correction 5100
5100
Property in trust for charitable uses 5102
5102
Municipal hospitals asylums etc 51035105
5103
Sameliability for damages 5105
5105
Sameproperty
5106
Juvenile courts 51105117
5110
Workhouse 5117
5117
CHAPTER 48
5119
Conditions precedentpresentation of claims 5123
5123
Samenotice of intention to sue 5128
5128
Sameto whom claim to be presented 5129
5129
Sametime within which claims must be pre senteddelay 5130
5130
Secs Pages 2469 Samestatement of claim 5132
5132
Sameverification of claimwaiver
5133
Allowance of claims 5136
5136
Sameeffect of allowance or disallowance 51375139
5137
Auditing boards and officers 51395141
5139
Review of decisions touching claims 5141
5141
Assignment of claims 5143
5143
Payment of claims
5145
Priority of claims
5146
Who authorized to compromise 51495151
5149
Method of compromise
5151
Questions of damages and benefits may not be arbitrated 51535155
5153
Mode of submission of arbitration 5155
5155
ACTIONS BY AND AGAINST MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS IN GENERAL
5157
Scope of charter 5158
5158
QUO WARRANTO
5159
Municipal corporation may sue and be sued 51605161
5160
Same remedies 5161
5161
Liability on contracts 5162
5162
Limitations of actions 51645166
5164
Conditions precedent 5166
5166
Venue 5167
5167
Form of action
5170
Parties 51735177
5173
Pleadings 51775182
5177
Process form and service 5182
5182
Representation by counselappearance 51845186
5184
Defenses
5187
Judgment
5188
Enforcement of judgment 5189
5189
Costs 5191
5191
PARTICULAR ACTIONS 2502 Equitable remediesinjunction in general 5192
5192
Sameenactment of ordinance 51955197
5195
Sameenforcement of ordinance 51975198
5197
Injunction by municipal corporation 5198
5198
Creditors remedymandamus 5200
5200
Recovery of involuntary payments made to municipal corporations 52015203
5201
Certiorarinature an object of the writ 52035207
5203
Samewhen appeal or writ of error lies 5207
5207
Sameas writ of review 5208
5208
Sameto review acts of judicial character 5209
5209
Sameapplication for and direction of writ 5213
5213
Samereturn of writ 5214
5214
Samewhat reviewable 52155218
5215
Samematters of practicejudgment 5218
5218
Prohibition 52195223
5219
Garnishment of municipal corporations 52235226
5223
Sameequitable garnishment 52265228
5226
CRIMINAL LIABILITY 2519 In general 52285230
5228
Liability for maintenance of a nuisance in gen eral 5230
5230
Samedefective sewer system
5231
Samebridges
5233
CHAPTER 50
5234
Samewhen writ will issue 5237
5237
Discretion in instituting proceedings
5239
Quo WARRANTO
5241
To test existence of officeouster 5242
5242
Questioning legal existence of municipal cor poration 52445246
5244
Questioning annexation proceedings 52465248
5246
Ouster from exercise of franchise 5248
5248
Parties plaintiff 5249
5249
Parties defendant 5251
5251
Sufficiency of information 5253
5253
Subsequent pleadings 5255
5255
Matters of practiceevidence 5256
5256
Reliefjudgment 5258
5258
CHAPTER 41
5261
Nature and object of writ 5262
5262
Discretion in granting writ 5266
5266
Laches as barremedy unavailing 5267
5267
Controlling considerations 5268
5268
Sameclear legal right to performance 5270
5270
Sameto compel performance of official act nature of duty 5271
5271
Samedemand and refusal of alleged duty 52725273
5272
Secs Pages 2548 Samediscretionary acts 52735276
5273
Sameministerial acts 5276
5276
Mayor and other executive and administrative officers subject to mandamus 5277
5277
SPECIAL INSTANCES WHERE WRIT WILL BE GRANTED OR REFUSED 2551 To induct into or reinstate to office or public situation 5278
5278
To compel transfer of books etc of office 5279
5279
To compel auditing claims 5280
5280
To compel payment of claims or issue of war rant for salaries fixed by law 5281
5281
To compel signing or issuing warrants
5282
To compel payment of indebtedness
5283
Samenecessity of appropriation or available funds
5284
To compel levy of assessments 5285
5285
To compel calling an election 5287
5287
Concerning elections and officers thereof 5288
5288
To compel award of contract 5289
5289
Compelling public improvementsrepairing streets 5290
5290
To compel the granting of licenses and permits 5293
5293
To compel payment of judgmentreturn of execution unsatisfied 52955299
5295
Miscellaneous instances 52995301
5299
PROCEDURE 2567 Applicationalternative writ
5302
Parties 5303
5303
Sufficiency of alternative writ 5304
5304
How writ directed against municipal corpora tion
5305
The return 5306
5306
Subsequent pleadingsmatters of practice 5307
5307
Peremptory writ 5309
5309
CITIZENS AND TAXPAYERS Suits
5311
Propriety of action in general 5312
5312
Samestatutory provisions 5316
5316
SameNew York statutes 53185325
5318
Sameeffect of remedy at law 5325
5325
Sametitle to office not triable 5326
5326
Action by attorney general of state 53275329
5327
Certiorari as remedy 5329
5329
Actions on behalf of municipality 5330
5330
Right of taxpayers to intervene or defend 5335
5335
Motive of plaintiff immaterial 5336
5336
Who may sue 5338
5338
Samepecuniary interest 5339
5339
Sameinjury different from that sustained by other taxpayers 5343
5343
Sameestoppel to sue 5344
5344
Time to sue and laches 5345
5345
Acts which may be enjoined 53465349
5346
Samepassage and enforcement of ordi nances 5349
5349
Sameacts relating to bonds 5350
5350
Samemaking or performance of illegal con tracts 5353
5353
Sameletting of contracts where competitive bids 5356
5356
Sameincurring indebtedness above debt limit
5357
Samelevy and collection of taxes 5360
5360
Samepayments 5365
5365
Samecollection of judgment 5366
5366
Samemisuse of municipal property 5367
5367
Demand before suit 5368
5368
Parties pleading and proof 53695372
5369
Judgment 5372
5372

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Palavras e frases frequentes

Passagens conhecidas

Página 4680 - ... in any manner or for any purpose to an amount exceeding in any year the income and revenue provided for such year, without the assent of two-thirds of the voters thereof voting at an election to be held for that purpose...
Página 4706 - All certificates of indebtedness or revenue bonds issued in anticipation of the collection of taxes...
Página 4821 - ... provide for the collection of a direct annual tax sufficient to pay the interest on such debt as it falls due, and also to pay and discharge the principal thereof within twenty years from the time of contracting the same.
Página 5110 - ... hooks on to any moving train, or enters any car or engine without lawful authority; or who habitually uses vile, obscene, vulgar, profane or indecent language, or is guilty of immoral conduct in any public place or about any school house.
Página 4336 - Assembly may vest the corporate authorities of cities, towns and villages, with power to make local improvements by special assessment or by special taxation of contiguous property, or otherwise. For all other corporate purposes, all municipal corporations may be vested with authority to assess and collect taxes; but such taxes shall be uniform, in respect to persons and property, within the jurisdiction of the body imposing...
Página 4681 - ... for such year, without the assent of two-thirds of the qualified electors thereof voting at an election to be held for that purpose, nor unless, before or at the time of incurring such indebtedness, provision shall be made for the collection of an annual...
Página 4326 - The exaction from the owner of private property of the cost of a public improvement in substantial excess of the special benefits accruing to him is, to the extent of such excess, a taking under the guise of taxation, of private property for public use without compensation.
Página 4693 - No city, town, school district, or other municipal corporation shall become indebted to an amount, including existing indebtedness, exceeding four per centum of the value of the taxable property therein, the value to be ascertained by the last assessment for State and county purposes previous to the incurring of such indebtedness; except that in incorporated cities the assessment shall be taken...
Página 5265 - The writ of mandamus may be denominated the writ of mandate.— 1873-345. 1085. It may be issued by any court, except a justice's or police court, to any inferior tribunal, corporation, board, or person, to compel the performance of an act which the law specially enjoins, as a duty resulting from an office, trust, or station...
Página 4534 - Headquarters Detective, True Cases from the Police Blotter, June 1940.' He was convicted, and the conviction upheld by the Court of Appeals, the state's highest appellate court. It was reversed by the United States Supreme Court, on the ground that the law as drawn violated the First and Fourteenth Amendments.

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