Imagens das páginas

Gold, silver, &c., the most convenient
materials for a circulating medium,
i. 333; why, according to Smith, 335;
their intrinsic value, as exchangeable
commodities, 335, seq.; how, from
media of exchange, they came to form
the scale of valuation, 344, seq.; the
second of these purposes, how far
involved in the first, 345; objections
to the relative doctrine here main-
tained, 345, seq.; how their plenty or
scarcity affects price, 371-390.
Goldsmith, quoted on the natural su-
periority of those who think over
those who toil, ii. 379.
Government, Theory of, or Politics Pro-
per, ii. 351-453; simple forms of, in ge-
neral, 351-354; in special, 355-401; in
theory, Democracy, Aristocracy, Mon-
archy, 352-354; mixed forms of, on, in
general, 402-424; on, in special, and
particularly of the English Constitu-
tion, 424-453; simple forms of, mere
theoretical abstractions, 402, 403, seq.;
mixed in contrast to simple forms of,
402, seq.; every actual government
in reality a mixed government, 403;
its spirit varies at different times
though its written laws remain unal-
tered, 404; no form perfect, and all
change in, to be beneficial should be
slow, 419; forms of, do not in general
take their rise from political wisdom,


Grain, low prices of, in former ages, ex-
plained, i. 383, see 381; excessive
cheapness of, in 1800, explained, ii.
129, 130; rise in price not proportioned
to a deficiency of, 132, seq., compare
84; exportation of, quotation from
Howlett's pamphlet touching, 457.
Graslin, (M., author of Essai Analy-
tique sur la Richesse, &c.,) adduced
as against the expediency of an ex-
clusive territorial tax, i. 301.
Graunt, (Major,) quoted as to the pro-
portion of the sexes as born in Eng-
land, i. 87.

Gray, his pamphlet on the land tax re-
ferred to, ii. 229.

Greeks, their laws of succession, ii. 196,

Gregory, (Rev. George,) quoted as to
the spirit of the Athenian govern-
ment under Pericles, ii. 369; adduced
as to an observation of Tacitus, 395;
as to the impossibility of any stable
succession in a despotism, 397.
Grey, his Essential Principles of the

Wealth of Nations, adduced as to the
extent of Commons and Waste Lands
in Great Britain, i. 202; his reply to
Smith touching the distinction be-
tween the labour of artificers and that
of menial servants, 275, 278; this
distinction improved by the Author,
275, seq.; Smith defended against
this author, 278, 279.
Gronovius, (John Frederick,) referred to
touching the antiquity of Benefit
Clubs, ii. 306.

Grose, adduced, ii. 240, 241.
Grotius, (Hugo,) quoted as to the Poly-
gamy of the Patriarchs, i. 83, 84; his
translation of an epigram of Anti-
pater, 191; on the foenus nauticum,
ii. 187; his criticism of Polybius in
regard to the form of the Roman go-
vernment redargued, 415.

Ground-rents, are even a more proper
object of taxation than the rent of
houses, ii. 248.

Guthrie, his History of England quoted
as to the rate of interest, i. 412.

HALLES, (Sir David Dalrymple, Lord,)
adduced in regard to the old valuation
of land in Scotland, ii. 232.
Hale, (Sir Matthew,) alleged as to
Charity Workhouses, ii. 300.
Halley, (Dr. Edmund,) his character as
a statistical inquirer, i. 215, seq.;
that in a country the proportion of
persons able to bear arms is equal to
about a fourth of its inhabitants, 223;
his observations upon the deficiencies
of Sir William Petty's modes of de-
ducing population, 226, seq.
Hamburgh, maintenance of the poor in,
commended, ii. 143; in this city the
interest of money free, 157.
Hamilton, (Prof. Robert, LL.D.,) on
the Funds, ii. 214; referred to, 217.
Happiness, the term not employed in
the modern acceptation by the Greek
writers, i. 56.
Harrington, (James,) quoted as to the
political wants of the Senate and of
the People, ii. 365, 419.
Harris, (Mr. James of Salisbury,) re-
ferred to on the division of labour and
its effects, i. 311.

Harris, (Mr. Joseph,) adduced as to the
history of money, i. 333; as to the
intrinsic value of the precious metals,
337; as to the precious metals con-
stituting the measure of value, 347;

as to his doctrine of value, 355;
quoted as to the wages of labour con-
stituting the real price of commodi-
ties, 365, 366; his doctrine on this
point estimated, 366, seq.
Harte, (Rev. Walter,) quoted as to Col-
bert's injudicious policy, i. 160, seq.;
as to the inveteracy of local prejudices
among farmers, 181.

Harvest, plenty or scarcity of, should

be annually ascertained by public
authority, and by what persons? ii.
131, seq.; rise of price not in propor-
tion to a deficiency in grain, 132, seq.,
compare 84.

Hauterive, (M.,) commemorated as an
antagonist of Gentz, ii. 38.

Heeren, (Prof.,) adduced as to ancient
and modern trade, i. 39, seq.
Helvetius, quoted touching the ignor-
ance and stupidity of despotic mon-
archs, ii. 390, 391.

Henry, (Robert, D.D.,) quoted as to the

diet of the English people in the
fifteenth century, i. 370; his History
praised for its statistical information,
371; quoted as to the Scottish paro-
chial schools, ii. 328.
Herodian, quoted as to the funeral rites
of the Roman emperors, ii. 395.
Herrenschwand, (Herr,) adduced in
favour of large farms, i. 127.
Hertzberg, (Baron Von,) his Academi-
cal Discourses adduced as to the
history of Statistics, i. 214, 221, 223.
Hesiod, on the dependence of civilisation
(or the arts) on labour, i. 309.
Hindostan, its over-population, i. 200.
Holland, example of, contrasted with
that of China, i. 284; Usury legal
throughout the United Netherlands,
ii. 157; see Dutch.

Honour, the principle of Monarchy,—
what does it mean in the language of
Montesquieu? ii. 408.

Horace, quoted as to the institution of
Marriage, i. 71, 79.

Horner, (Mr. Francis, framer of the
Bullion Report,) alleged, i. 452; re-
ferred to touching the Scottish Poor-
Laws, ii. 292; a letter of his quoted
in regard to Joseph Lancaster and the
education of the poor, 341, 342.
Houses, Taxes on the Rent of, ii. 247,

Howard, (John, the philanthropist,) ad-
duced, ii. 326; on the paucity of
criminals in Scotland and in Switzer-
land, 333.

Howlett, (Rev. John,) as to the popula-
tion of Ireland, i. 99; in favour of
large farms, 127, 130; adduced in
favour of Enclosures, 133; on the aver-
age population of houses in England,
217; against Dr. Price, and in proof
of the progressive population of Great
Britain, 235, 236; on the progress of
British Agriculture, 238, 239; on the
population of England and Wales,
(bis) 243; on that of London, 244;
his pamphlet in answer to Mr. Dirom
adduced, 248, seq.; adduced in regard
to the exportation of corn, ii. 114,
457; against Kames and Smith in
regard to the Law of Settlements,
267; defends this law, 269; against
a limited compulsory support of the
poor, 278; praises the spirit of the
English Poor-Laws, 281, 282; causes
of the increase of the English poor,
282, seq.; have the wages of labour
increased with the cost of the neces-
saries of life? 283, seq.; alleged as
to the poor, 309; quotation from his
pamphlet on the exportation of grain,


Hume, (David,) quoted as to the end of
government, i. 22; as to the great im-
provement of monarchical government
in modern times, 43, seq.; ii. 400;
his opinion referred to in regard to the
influence of climate upon Population,
61; quoted as to the pairing of ani-
mals and as to marriage, 77; the
meaning he attaches to the phrases
"principles of nature," and "laws of
nature," censured, 78; referred to as
to the liberty of Divorce, 80; his
Essay on Polygamy and Divorce
praised, 91; adduced in favour of
Enclosures, 135; quoted as to the in-
applicability of the Roman policy
touching Agriculture, to the present
state of the world, 143; as to Swit-
zerland furnishing the most skilful
farmers, and the most bungling trades-
men in Europe, 153; holds that trade
and manufactures are nothing but the
public storehouses of labour, 256;
corrected in regard to his opinion of
the intrinsic value of gold and silver,
338; his History praised for its statis-
tical information, 371; his doctrine of
prices as corresponding with that of
Montesquieu, 373-376, seq.; his argu-
ment against banks and
paper credit,
385, 386, 431; his doctrine touching
the rate of interest, 398, seq.; given

in detail, 400, 401; just for the most
part, but too unqualified, 401, seq.;
his doctrine in regard to Interest and
Money, alleged, 439, 440; quoted in
regard to Queen Elizabeth's patents
for monopolies, ii. 17; against the
Commercial System, 31, seq.; as to
the utility of a high price of grain in
seasons of scarcity, 49; accused by
Dr. Gillies of plagiarizing from Aris-
totle, 148; referred to as to the laws
of succession among the Irish, 197;
on the Statute of Alienations, 202;
adduced touching taxation, 211;
quoted against the National Debt,
218, 219; on the term Circulation,
219; reconciled with Pinto, 220;
against the project of an exclusive
land-tax, 237; his supposition in ex-
planation of the omissions in Dooms-
day Book, 239; quoted in reference
to the Athenian democracy, 364, 403;
in reference to the wants of the senate
and of the people in a democracy,
365; praises an observation of Thu-
cydides, 371; how he would remedy
the inconveniences of a democratical
government, 374, 375; objections to
his doctrine on this point, 375, 376;
on the best kind of aristocracy, 377,
378; quoted as to the uncertainty of
political predictions, 413; on the
English Legislative power, as illus-
trated by that of Athens, 428; as to
the seeming political confliction of a
legislative people and a legislative
senate, 436, 437; as to the mutual
support given by the Crown and the
Peers in the working of the Constitu-
tion; 444; holds that the House of
Commons seems paramount in the
British Constitution, 445; but that
the three powers are in reality bal-
anced, ib.; his solution of the paradox
supposed by him in the British Legis-
lature, 446; is the dependence of
Parliament an infringement of liberty?
451; notices the long harmony be-
tween our Princes and our Parlia-
ment, 451, 452; his Essay on the
Populousness of Ancient Nations,
commemorated in the conclusion of
the course on Political Economy Pro-
per, 458.
Hume, (David, Prof. and Adv., after-
wards Baron,) his Commentary on
Criminal Law, quoted, ii. 332.
Huskisson, (Mr.,) quoted as to the cir-
culation of currency, i. 432, 441.

IMPORTATION and Exportation, as to
their proportion, i. 250; freedom of
importation, its effects upon the agri-
culture of a country, ii. 104, seq.;
British laws in reference to the im-
portation of corn, 106, seq.
Income-Tax, ii. 253.

India, on the low wages of labour in,
i. 448.

Infancy, long helpless state of, in Man,

shows the intentions of nature in re-
gard to Marriage, i. 73, seq., 76, seq.
Interest of Borrowed Money, on, in
general, i. 396-425; ii. 146-195; high
and low, according to Hume, depends
on three circumstances, 400; first,
a great or small demand for borrow-
ing, 400, seq.; second, the quantity of
stock which may supply the demand
of borrowers, 403, seq; third, high
or low profits arising from commerce,
407, seq.; low profits and low inter-
est, how they mutually act and re-
act, forming the conditions of a
flourishing commerce, ib.; a low in-
terest is the sign of prosperity in a
people, 408; the author coincides with
Hume against Locke, Law, and Mon-
tesquieu, in holding that the rate of
interest does not necessarily result
from a plenty or scarcity of the pre-
cious metals, ib.; rate of, in England
at different times, 410-415; interest
and usury, on their connexion, really
and verbally, 411; legal rate of, in
England under the Commonwealth
and Charles II., 413; rate of, in
Scotland, 415; in Ireland, ib.; in
France, 415, seq.; in our West Indian
Colonies, 417, seq.; in the East In-
dian British dominions, 419; in
China, 420, seq.; causes besides the
riches or poverty of a country, which
influence the rate of interest, 421,
seq.; connexion of this rate with the
ordinary price of land, 421; effect
where the law prohibits, or does not
enforce a rate of interest above a
limited amount, ib.; derivation of
the word τόκος from τίκτω, ii. 147 ;
variations of its rate at different times
and in different countries, 160, seq.;
policy of fixing a definite rate of,
considered, in general, 161-195;
arguments in favour of that limita-
tion of interest which has been fixed
by British law, 162, seq; argument
for, drawn from the case of prodi-
gals, 163-166; from the case of the

indigent, 166, 167; from the case of
projectors, 167-173; from the case
of the simple and inexperienced, 173,
seq.; laws against usury only aggra-
vate the distress of the unfortunate,
178, seq.; compound interest, laws
and prejudices with respect to, are
equally ill-founded as those concern-
ing simple interest, 193-195; see

Interpolations from Notes, see Bridges.
Ireland, population of, i. 99, seq; 245;

on the diet of the Irish peasantry, 101;
rate of interest in, 415; neglected
education of the lower orders in, bad
effect of, ii. 334.

Irish, their rules as to the succession
of land, ii. 197.

Ivernois, (Sir Francis D',) on Pinto and
the public debt, ii. 218.

JEFFERSON, (Thomas,) quoted as to
Education in America, ii. 337; his
Notes on Virginia, quoted as to the
necessity of legislative checks, 433,


Jenkins, (Henry,) his testimony in re-

gard to the hospitality of the Catholic
clergy, ii. 259, 260.

Jenyns, (Mr. Soame,) quoted on the ne-
cessity of machinery and the consoli-
dation of farms, as effects of taxation,
i. 196, seq.

Jews, did they invent bills of exchange?
i. 41; in regard to their Usury, ii.
149, 150.

Johnson, (Dr. Samuel,) alleged as to the
meaning of the word Economy, i. 10;
his dogmatical assertion in regard to
education quoted, 52.

Jones, (Sir William,) quoted as to Me-
nu's, or the ancient Hindoo doctrine
touching usury, ii. 152, 153, 187; re-
ferred to in his Commentary upon
Isæus, 197.

Journals, influence of these periodical
publications in the enlightenment of
the people, ii. 343.
Judicial Power, ii. 351, 352.
Juvenal, quoted in regard to the luxury
of the Romans, i. 147; as to the love
of money increasing with the posses-
sion of money, 446.

KAEMPFER, quoted as to the proportion
of the sexes in Japan, but his fact
controverted, i. 90.

Kames, (Henry Home, Lord,) quoted as
to the pairing instinct of animals, i.
77; referred to as to the rise of the
lower orders in Europe after the fall
of the Roman Empire, 113; adduced
as to the history and policy of Entails,
ii. 203; against the English Law of
Settlement, as creating a great differ-
ence in the price of labour in different
parishes, 266; defended on this point
against certain English critics, 267,
268; adduced in reference to the
Scottish Poor-laws, 297; quoted as to
the kingdom of Siam, 392, 393.
Kent, state of its agriculture adduced in
reference to the influence of manufac-
tures, i. 168.

Kent, (Mr.,) quoted against large farms,
i. 125, seq.; adduced as to the quan-
tity of land necessary for the support
of a horse, 250.

Kidders, who are they? ii. 56.
King, (Mr. Edward,) adduced as to the

Utility of the National Debt, ii. 218.
King, Mr. Gregory,) as a statistical
inquirer, i. 215-217; his estimate of
the numbers of the population in the
several ranks, professions, and occu-
pations, 240; as to the relative pro-
portion of wheat consumed about the
era of the Revolution, 368; referred
to in regard to the Corn Laws, ii. 84;
in regard to the proportion between
the price and produce of corn, 134,
seq., 138.

Kingdom, see Monarchy.

LABOUR: of slaves, i. 37; Productive and
Unproductive, on, in general, 253-332;
the relative doctrines of the Econo-
mists of the school of Quesnai con-
trasted with those of Smith, 255, seq.,
269, seq.; labour and land, these as
sources of wealth contrasted, 256,
seq.; labour productive and unproduc-
tive, with special reference to the
Economists, 258, seq., 268, seq., 294,
297; apology for their use of these
terms, 290; human, can be employed
to increase the fund of natural produce
only in two ways,-by adding to the
quantity, or by altering the form of
this produce; the first, by Agricul-
ture the second, by Manufactures,
259, seq.; distinction of useful and of
productive, 264, seq.; of productive
and of stipendiary, 265; labour pro-

ductive, Smith's doctrine of, ib.; ad-
ditional illustrations of this distinc-
tion, 270, seq.; Smith at one with the
Economists with respect to the fact,
270; how far he agrees with, how far
he differs from, them as to doctrine,
271; barren or unproductive and pro-
ductive, distinction of, according to
Smith, 274, seq., 285, seq.; according
to the Economists, 274; according
to Grey, 275; according to the Au-
thor, 275, seq.; on the circumstances
which render it more effective, 309-
332; on the division of, 310-316; on
the use of machinery as a substitute
for, 316-332; division of, its moral
effects, 330, seq.; result of the rea-
sonings on its division, 331; correc-
tion of certain expressions in relation
to, 332; does the amount of labour
constitute the real measure of the
exchangeable value of commodities,
as held by Smith? 353, seq.; wages
of, the five circumstances, according
to Smith's doctrine, on which they
vary, ii. 11; a circumstance causing
great inequalities in the wages of
agricultural labourers, both in Eng-
land and Scotland, viz., the prejudices
and ignorance of this order of men,
268. See Wages.

Labour and Stock, three circumstances,
according to Smith, which ought
principally to be attended to in deter-
mining their distribution, ii. 12, seq.;
the first of these, ib.; the second, 20,
seq.; the third, 21.

Lagrange, on the proportion between
consumption and population, i. 219,

Land, free commerce of, naturally con-
ducive to Agriculture and Population,
i. 151; Land and Labour, as sources
of wealth, contrasted, 256, seq.; land-
ed property, peculiar circumstances
regulating its price, 423, seq.; com-
merce of, on the policy of subjecting
this to the regulation of law, 195-210;
free commerce in, expedient, 202;
impediments to, 202, seq.; in certain
circumstances, restraints may be ex-
pedient, 203; taxes upon, 225-247;
land-tax proportioned to the rent, of
two kinds: 1° according to a fixed
rule or canon, 225-234; Land-tax of
England, (falling under this head,)
origin and history of, 225 232; the
English land-tax affects all personal
estates, except property in the funds,

and stock necessary for agriculture,
228; method of rating this tax, ib.;
policy of this tax considered, 228-232;
defects of the English land-tax, 229,
seq.; advantages of the same tax,
231, 232; land-tax of Scotland, 232-
234;-2° according to the actual
rent, 234-243; Venetian tax, of this
class, 234; advantages and disadvan-
tages of this kind of land-tax, 235,
seq.; exclusive land or territorial tax,
approved of by the Economists in ge-
neral, and in particular by Quesnai, by
Mirabeau the elder, by Dupont, by
Turgot, 237, (see also, i. 296, seq. ;) in
opposition to this project are arrayed
Necker, Pinto, Hume, Sir James
Steuart, Smith, and Arthur Young,
ib., (see also, i. 301;) land-tax pro-
portioned not to the rent, but to the
produce, 243-247; church-tithes, an
example of this, 243; other instances
in China, Bengal, and ancient Egypt,
246; all land taxes fall ultimately upon
the landlord, 243; taxes on the pro-
duce of land may be drawn either in
kind or in money, 247. See Terri-
torial Tax.

Languages, the analogy of, explains
what is politically constitutional or
unconstitutional, ii. 423, 424.
Lauderdale, (Earl of,) adduced, i. 299,
301; as to the division of labour, 315;
Notes on the Bullion Report, ad-
dressed to, 431, seq.; his pamphlet
on the Irish Bank quoted, 434, 442;
his doctrine of Paper Currency criti-
cised, 452; adduced, ii. 217; his work
on Political Economy recommended
for study, 459.
Laverdi, (M. de,) referred to as emanci-

pating the French corn trade, ii. 63.
Lavoisier, on the proportion between
consumption and population, i. 219,
seq.; adopted the fundamental prin-
ciples of the Economists, 289.
Law, (Mr. John, of Lauriston,) his opi-
nion as to the intrinsic value of gold
and silver, i. 341, seq.; Locke de-
fended against, ib.; seems to renounce
the doctrine for which he had con-
tended, 344; his doctrine of value,
355; touching the rate of interest,
398; vindicates a complete liberty in
regard to the interest of money, ii.
157, 158; was he the first to do this?

Laws,-1° as to their origin, 2o as to
their tendency, i 22; positive laws,

« AnteriorContinuar »