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Agriculture, as affecting Population, i.
113-152; kinds of farm tenure, 113-
118; size of farms, 124-132; arable
and grazing, comparative profit of,
137, 138; estimation of, among the
Romans, 140-146; distinction of, as a
mere mean of subsistence, and as a
competing trade, 141; in connexion
with Manufactures, 152-183; duty of
Government to encourage, 181, seq.;
Agriculture and Manufactures, on
their relative claims to attention by
the statesman, 201, seq.; progress of,
during the eighteenth century, 237,
238; number of persons engaged in
farming, calculations estimating, 240;
affords the foundation of many ex-
changes of production, 254; agricul-
tural and manufacturing industry,
their relative importance, 258, seq.;
these two exhaust the labour of man,
259, 260; in what respect pre-eminent
over manufactures, 260, 306; pro-
sperity of, dependent more upon
steadiness of an adequate, than upon
the high amount of the average
price, ii. 116.

Agriculture, Board of, see County Re-

Aikin, (Dr. John,) quoted as to the em-
ployment of children in Manufactures,
i. 183, 184; on the progress of Inland
Navigation about Manchester, in
Yorkshire, Lancashire, &c., 241, 242.

Akenside, quoted as to the estimation

of Agriculture by the Romans, i. 141.
Ale, great increase of its consumption,
i. 236.

Alienation, English statute of, by Henry
VII., ii. 202.

Allegiance to Government, a writing of
Mr. Stewart, now lost, i. 9, 23.
America, discovery of its silver mines,
effects of, i. 448; United States of
Northern, how affected by Manufac-
tures, 157, seq.; beneficial influence
of Education on the lower orders in,
ii. 334, 335, 337.
Anacharsis, his opinion in regard to the
value of gold and silver, i. 338, 439.
Anatocismus, on the laws regarding, ii.

Anderson, (James, LL.D.,) his Obser-

vations, &c., 1777, adduced as to the
influence of Manufactures upon Agri-
culture, i. 177, 178; as to the Corn
Trade, ii. 114.

Anglican Divines, see England, Church

Animal food and pasturage, in reference
to the support of Population, i. 105,

Animals, food being supplied, their
multiplication depends on five cir-
cumstances, i. 60.
Anonymous Author, of The Grand
Concern of England Explained,
quoted touching the Poor, ii. 273; of
Essay on the Right of Property in
Land, praises the English Poor-Laws,


Antipater, (of Thessalonica,) quoted as
to the employment of Water-Mills, i
191, 192.

Apprenticeships, see Corporations.

Arbuthnot, (Dr.,) quoted as to the pro-
portion of the Sexes as born, i. 86,
87; adduced as to Roman Fortunes,
146, 147, 382; as to the Circulation
of money, 381; examples of Prices in
ancient Rome, 383, 448.
Aristocracy, on, simply, and in general,

ii. 352, 353; on, in special, 376-386;
what is meant in saying that Modera-
tion is its principle, 379-382; in this
form of government the nobles should
be debarred from trade, 382, 383; its
corruption, Oligarchy, 384; natural,
in every community rising from ori-
ginal differences, 417.

Aristotle, on Man as a social animal, i.
18; referred to touching Population
and Marriage, 68; quoted as to the
impossibility of perfect friendship to-
wards more than one object at once,
74; his doctrine as to Usury, ii. 146-
148, 152; quoted as to the simple
Forms of Government, 384, 385; al-
leged to shew that each form of
government is proportionally good or
bad, 388; his Politics referred to,


Asgill, (Mr. John, M.P.,) adduced as to

an exclusive Territorial Tax, i. 300;
ii. 239.
Assessments periodical, the previous
subsidies, and the more ancient Scut-
age, Hydage, and Talliage, were vir-
tually a Land-Tax, ii. 227.
Athenians, their measure for maintain-
ing the equality of landed property,
ii. 196; formed Benefit Clubs, 306;
on the Athenian Democracy, 362, 364,
403, 404; their government serves as
Montesquieu's model of Democracy,


Auckland, (Lord,) on the Population of
Great Britain in 1779, i. 234.
Augustin, (Saint,) quoted as to the
Polygamy of the Patriarchs, i. 83.
Aulus Gellius, quoted in regard to Celi-
bacy among the Romans, i. 92.

BACON, (Lord,) quoted as to Leges Le-
gum, &c., i. 10; his Speech against
Purveyors, 118, seq.; opposed to En-
closures, 134; as to his calling Edu-
cation "the Georgics of the Mind,"
288; quoted, with approbation, ib.;
as to the necessity of political institu-
tions being accommodated to the
character of their subjects, ii. 420.
Balance of Powers in the British Con-

stitution illustrated, ii. 430, 431, 445,
449, 450.

Balance of Trade, ii. 23, seq.; 28, seq.,
absurdity of, shown by Smith, 31.
Ballot, (the thing,) on the expediency of
this mode of voting in Republics, ii.
359; adopted by the State of Mary-
land, 433.

Bank Notes, the word commodity mis-
applied to, i. 436, 445.

Baring, (Sir Francis,) how prices are re-
gulated with reference to Circulation,
i. 394, 395, 434, 447; opposed to any
restriction upon Interest of money, ii.

Barrington, (Bishop of Durham,) alleged
as to Workhouses and the poor, ii.
303, 304.
Barthélemy, (Abbé,) quoted as to the
opinion of the ancients touching a
tempered Monarchy, ii. 416.
Baudeau, (Abbé,) quoted in regard to
Productive and Unproductive Labour,
i. 278.

Beccaria, (Marchese,) referred to as to
Crimes and Punishments, i. 49; his
opinion as to a low Interest for money,
ii. 189, 190.

Beddoes, (Dr.,) on the use of opium by
the poor, ii. 145.

Bedford, (Duke of,) in regard to Bills of
Enclosure, i. 136, seq.

Bell, (Mr. Benjamin,) quoted as to the
influence of Manufactures upon Agri-
culture and Population, i. 158, 176;
adduced in the same respect, 169; as
to the possible increase of agricultural
produce in this country, 202; on the
proportion of our British importation
and consumption of grain, in 1801
and previously, 285; on the proportion
of different kinds of corn consumed
in Great Britain, 369; on the amount
of our importation of corn, ii. 108.
Benefit Clubs, on, ii. 306-313; the
author strongly in favour of, 311.
Bentham, (Mr. Jeremy,) his Defence of
Usury, ii. 156; quoted against the
Usury Laws, 164, 165, 168, 170, 172,
194, 195; describes these laws in
Russia as a dead letter, 181; his pro-
ject to substitute escheat for taxation,
253; his Panopticon adduced, 326.
Berkeley, (Bishop,) as to the intrinsic

value of the precious metals, i. 337;
his query as to a rapid circulation of
money, 379, 432.
Berne, (Society of,) their Essays on the

Spirit of Legislation quoted, i. 54;

(Republic of,) its substitute for Taxa-
tion, ii. 212; (Canton of,) an example
of political happiness and prosperity,
386; its two Legislative Councils, 435.
Bills of Exchange, invented by the Jews,

i. 41; a branch of trade altogether
modern, ii. 153.

Births, proportion of, to Deaths and
Marriages, i. 220, seq.
Blackstone, (Sir William,) on the origin
of Borough-English, ii. 200; quoted
in favour of a restraint on Latter Wills,
204, 205; quoted, 208, 209; his ac-
count of the English Land-tax, 225;
of the aids in England called Tenths
and Fifteenths, 226; adduced as to the
practice of the Crown in rejecting
Bills from the Legislature, 444; touch-
ing the influences exerted by the
other elements of the Legislature on
the House of Commons, 450.
Blake, (Mr. William,) quoted as to Cur-
rency, i. 431, 432, 436.
Blomefield, (Rev. Francis,) on the scar-
city of the year 1595, ii. 262, 263.
Boivin, (John,) his Latin translation of an
Epigram of Antipater quoted, i. 192.
Bolingbroke, (Viscount,) quoted as to the
operations of nature, i. 430; as to a na-
tural aristocracy in communities, 418.
Bonar, (Mr. James,) his Notes of Mr.
Stewart's Course of Political Economy
Proper employed in the present work,
i. xxi., seq., 198; Notes of Mr. Stewart's
conspectus of Smith upon the Mercan-
tile system, ii. 23-27.

Book Societies, effect of, in the cultiva-
tion of the lower orders, ii. 347.
Borough-English, on the origin of, ii.

Botero, (John,) his claim to be the founder
of Statistical science, i. 214.
Bottomry, a species of virtual usury, ii.


Boulainvilliers, (Count de,) as to Col-

bert's injudicious encouragement of
Commerce and Manufactures to the
disparagement of Agriculture, i. 160.
Bounties and Drawbacks, ii. 26, seq.,
113, seq.; Author's opinion in regard
to Bounties not decided, 117-120.
Boyd, (Mr. Walter, M.P,) as to the
principle by which the Price of com-
modities is regulated, i. 394.
Brackenridge, (Dr.,) on the Population
of Great Britain during the war in
1756, i. 232.

Brand, (Rev. John,) adduced as to the
Corn Trade, ii. 137, 138.


Breslau, the Bills of Mortality in that

city adduced as a valuable authority
by Dr. Halley, i. 227.
Bridges, (Mr. James, W.S.,) as supply-
ing Notes of Mr. Stewart's Lectures
on Political Economy, i. xxi., seg.,
198; interpolations from his Notes of
these Lectures, 198-200, 204-207,
208-211, 253-269, 302-396; ii. 3-47,
108, 109, 111-120, 137-139, 195-210,

Brienne, (M. de,) his connexion with
Turgot, ii. 80.

Britain, (Great,) the amount of its Po-
pulation, i. 232; how the distinctions
of rank do not here imply any con-
trast of class or caste, but slide insen-
sibly into each other, ii. 439, 442,
448, 449.

Brougham, (Mr., now Lord,) Review of

Lauderdale On Public Wealth, i. 277.
Brown, (Dr. John, Author of the Esti-

mate,) quoted as to Education, i. 53, 54.
Bullion: relation of a coined to a paper
currency, i. 346, seq.; Parliamentary
Bullion Report, framed by Mr. Fran-
cis Horner, Notes of the Author on,

Burdens upon farm tenants, i. 118-124.
Burke, (Edmund,) quoted as to the in-

terference of the state, i. 17; adduced
as to the British Corn Laws, ii. 114;
holds that the wages of labour have
more than kept pace with the expenses
of living, 284; strictures on his praise
of drinking, 314, 319; quoted as to
the confliction of the British King and
Parliament, 443.

Burnet, (Gilbert, Bishop of Salisbury,)
contrasts the English and Scottish
Poor-Laws, ii. 286, 287.

Bury, Chairman of the Quarter Sessions
of, quoted with approbation as to the
growth of native timber, ii. 46.
Butler, (Bishop,) quoted as to Education,
i. 51.

CADASTRE, or Territorial Valuation, in

different countries, ii. 241, 242; that
of Sardinia, of Bohemia, of the Duchy
of Milan, 242.
Cæsar, (Julius,) quoted in regard to the
usage of the ancient Britons touching
Marriage, i. 72; as to the proportion
of population among the Helvetii,
224; his description of a British and
German pastoral state alluded to, ii.

2 G

Call, (Sir John, Bart.,) on the Popula-
tion of England and Wales, i. 243.
Calvin, (John,) his liberal opinion in re-
gard to Interest or Usury quoted, ii.
155, seq.

Campagnoni, (Citizen,) adduced as in
favour of Polygamy, i. 92.
Campbell, (John, LL.D.,) referred to as
to the agriculture of Kent, i. 168; his
Political Survey of Great Britain,
quoted for the statistics of Food and
Population in England, 370; quoted,
ii. 113.

Canon Law, opposed to Usury or Inter-
est, ii. 149.

Cantova, quoted as to the polygamy of
the Caroline Islanders, i. 86.
Capital, the accumulation of stock faci-
litated by the introduction of money,
397, seq.; "Money breeds money,'
an ancient proverb, 398.
Carrington, (Lord,) his speech adduced
in regard to the extent of waste lands
in this kingdom, i. 202.
Cary, (a Bristol merchant,) adduced as
to Monopolies, ii. 18.
Casaubon, (Isaac,) referred to as to the
antiquity of Benefit Clubs, ii. 306.
Casaux, (Marquis de,) against the pro-
ject of an exclusive Territorial tax, i.
301; in favour of taxes on consump-
tion, ii. 252.

Cassius, see Dion Cassius.

Castlereagh, (Lord,) on the Population
of Ireland, i. 100, 245.

Cato, (M.,) quoted in regard to the
farmer and the merchant, i. 182; in
regard to usury and interest, ii. 148.
Celibacy, regulations against, by the
ancient legislators, especially the Ro-
man, i. 92, 94; in modern states, true
policy regarding, 95, seq.
Censorial Office, abuse of, ii. 366, seq.,

Chalmers, (Mr. George,) as to the
amount of population in England and
Wales, i. 99, 243; in Ireland, 99,
245; quoted in favour of the policy of
enclosures, 136; adduced as to the
history of statistics, 216, seq.; as to
the average population of houses in
Britain, 217; as to the numbers of the
population engaged in the various oc-
cupations and trades, 240, 241; as to
the progress of inland navigation, 242;
as to the statistics of Scotland, 246;
as to the rate of interest in England,
412; as to the progress of England in
prosperity during the civil wars under

Charles I., 413; subsequently, 414;
as to the Corn Trade, ii. 112; confir-
mation of Adam Smith's doctrine
touching the Corn Trade, 117; ad-
duced as to the proportion between
the price and produce of grain, 136,
138; quoted as to the good effects of
the English civil wars, 440; noticed
as republishing Charles Smith's Corn
Tracts, 459.

Chalotais, (M. Carodeuc de la,) his
speech on the Corn Trade referred
to, ii. 68.
Chamberlayne, (Dr. Hugh,) project for
a land bank, and his paradoxical
truths, i. 300, 301.

Chardin, (Sir John,) quoted in regard
to the absolute monarchy of Persia,
ii. 396.

Charters, (Rev. Dr.,) quoted as to the
Scottish poor-rates, ii. 297.
Checks, the necessity of, in all human
political constitutions, ii. 417, seq.,


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China, its over-population, i. 200; esti-
mates of its population, 232; example
of, contrasted with that of Holland,
284; rate of interest in, 420, seq.;
in this country there is a land-tax pro-
portioned to the produce, ii. 246.
Christian, (Mr. Edward,) quoted as to the
English law of usury, ii. 188; adduced
as to the English land-tax, 227; quot-
ed as to the history of the House of
Commons, 447, 448.

Cicero, quoted on the exportation of
gold, i. 34, 147; as to the priority of
Concubinage to Marriage, 70; as to
Marriage being the "Seminary of the
Republic," 79; as to the comparative
estimation of agriculture and other
occupations, 145, 146; his opinion as
to usury and interest, ii. 148; quoted
as to compound interest, 194; on the
mode of voting in the Roman republic,
358, 359; quoted passages from, in
regard to forms of government, 416,
417; as to the legislative power in
the Roman republic, 435; on love of
country, 460.

Circulation of money, as to the effect of
a slow and rapid, i. 378, seq., 437, seq.;

contrast of, among the ancient Ro-
mans, and among our modern nations,
383; on circulation with regard to
Banks, 431-452; the word Circula-
tion, as a term of Political Economy,
derided by Hume, ii. 219, 220; de-
fended by the Author, ib.

Cities, considerations to be taken into
account in reference to the statistics
of their population, i. 229, seq.; less
favourable to health and population
than the country, ib.
Clarendon, (Earl of) prosperous state
of England under Charles I., i. 412;
adduced as to the liberalizing effects
of the English civil wars, ii. 440.
Cocceii, (Henry de,) on the foenus nau-
ticum, ii. 187; on compound interest,
or anatocismus, as agreeable to the
law of nature, 194; his opinion
against the liberty of bequeathing
property by Will, referred to, 204;
his satisfactory defence of Polybius
against Grotius, 415.

Coin Coining Metals, how it affects or
determines their value, i. 349; equi-
vocal meaning of the term, 377, seq.
See Money.

Coke, (Sir Edward,) adduced as to what
grains formed the ordinary food of the
English people, i. 368; his Household
Book quoted, ii. 57.

Colbert, his injudicious encouragement
of Manufactures, i. 160; his mistaken
policy in regard to population, 307.
Collins, (David, Judge-Advocate in New

South Wales,) quoted on the evil
effects of drinking, ii. 314-316.
Colonus Partiarius, what kind of farm-
tenant among the Romans? i. 113, seq.
Colquhoun, (Peter, LL.D.,) on the po-
pulation of London, i. 244; quoted as
to street-banks, ii. 176; as to pawn-
broking and swindling, 184; as to
the amount of public charities in
London about 1797, 264.
Columella, quoted as to the Roman con-
tempt of civic and pacific occupations,
i. 144.
Commerce, questions concerning the
expediency of restrictions on its va-
rious kinds, i. 45; progress of, during
the eighteenth century, 237, 238;
restraints on, by the Commercial
System, ii. 22-47; ancient and mo-
dern, difference between in point of
extent, 151; in an aristocracy the
nobles should be excluded from trade,

Commercial spirit, beneficial influence
of, in uniting mankind, ii. 399.
Commoner and Roturier, how the words
differ in their meaning, ii. 405.
Commons, House of, steps of its pro-
gress in independence stated, ii. 447,
448; influence both of the Crown and
of the Peers on its composition and
proceedings, 449; two different influ-
ences, the direct and the indirect, at
different periods operative upon this
House, 450.

Commons, (Land in common,) how they
may be turned to advantage and the
increase of population, ii. 141.
Competition in Trade, bad effects of dis-
couraging, ii. 12, seq.; bad effects of
inordinate encouragement to, 20, seq.
Compound Interest, see Interest.
Conclusion of the Course on Politics
Proper, ii. 452, 453; an earlier, 459-
461; of the Course on Political Eco-
nomy Proper, 458, 459.
Concubinage, compared with Marriage,
in reference to Population, i. 67-82.
Constitution, constitutional, unconstitu-
tional, their meaning in a political
acceptation defined, ii. 422, 423.
Consumption, taxes on, their advan-
tages and disadvantages, ii. 252.
Cook, (Captain,) quoted as to Poly-
gamy in the Friendly Islands, i. 85,

Corn, prohibition of its exportation, i.

121; corn, or whatever constitutes the
ordinary food of the people, the best
standard of valuation, 361, 362, 364;
how this doctrine differs from that of
Smith, 364; British legislation in re-
ference to, ii. 112, seq.
Corn-Dealer, utility of, in preventing
scarcity, ii. 53, seq., 59; see Fore-
stallers, Regrators, Engrossers.
Corn-Tracts, see Smith, (Charles.)
Corn-Trade, how to be used in reference
to statistics, i. 246, 247; a favourite
subject of speculation to Political Eco-
nomists, 446; on, in general, ii. 47-
145; introduction to, 47, 48; inland
corn-trade, 48-99; popular prejudices
in France relative to, commemorated,
69, 70; unlimited freedom of, a pallia-
tive of a dearth, 88, et antea; this
policy sanctioned by a unanimous
decision of the Court of Session, the
supreme tribunal of Scottish law, 90;
the reverse of this decided by English
Judges, 90-95; of the importation of
corn for home consumption, 100-109;

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