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"Benjamin Franklin" (American Statesmen Series); P. L. Ford's "The Many Sided Franklin," first printed serially in The Century, 1898-99. Miller's "Life of Jonathan Edwards" ; A. V. G. Allen's "Life of Jonathan Edwards." Consult Poole's "Index to Periodical Literature" for interesting magazine and review articles.

Historical fiction illustrating the second colonial period: Mary Johnston's "Audrey" (1727); William Gilmore Simms's "The Yemassee (1715); Amelia E. Barr's "The Bow and the Orange Ribbon" (1706); James Fenimore Cooper's "The Leather-Stocking Tales" (1756-60); Wm. M. Thackeray's "The Virginians" (1756-83); John Esten Cooke's "The Virginia Comedians" (1763-65); R. W. Chambers' "Cardigan " (1744-73).

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JOHN TRUMBULL (1750-1831). Born in Connecticut, and graduated at Yale. Wrote essays in the style of the Spectator, and in 1782 completed "McFingal," a satire upon the Tories in the manner of Butler's "Hudibras." (See text.)

JOEL BARLOW (1754-1812). Poet and politician, born in Connecticut. In 1787 he published an epic poem entitled "The Vision of Columbus," which appeared anew in revised form in 1805 under the title of "The Columbiad." It is a dull epic, but his "Hasty Pudding" is still readable. Ambassador to France in 1811. (See text.)

TIMOTHY DWIGHT (1752-1817). President of Yale College from 1795 to the time of his death. A theologian whose works are still instructive. He wrote the hymn, "I love Thy Kingdom, Lord," and the patriotic song, "Columbia, Columbia, to Glory Arise."

JOHN ADAMS (1735-1826). Born in Massachusetts. A statesman of great ability; ambassador to England in 1785, and second President of the United States in 1797. He published an elaborate “Defense of the Constitution of the United States" (3 vols.), in London in 1787.

Mrs. Susanna Rowson (1762–1824). A novelist of English birth, residing in Boston. Her "Charlotte Temple" was the most popular story of its day. Besides a half dozen novels, she wrote several dramatic pieces. PHILLIS WHEATLEY (1753-1794). A verse writer of African birth. Brought to this country as a slave, she was purchased by Mrs. Wheatley of Boston, by whom she was well educated. Her "Poems on Various Subjects" were published in London in 1773, and gained a temporary popularity.

MIDDLE STATES.

CHARLES BROCKDEN BROWN (1771-1810). The first American novelist. Born in Philadelphia. He studied law, but abandoned it for literature. He wrote "Wieland,” “Ormond,” and “Arthur Mervyn,” all of which are characterized by imaginative and sometimes weird ingenuity. (See text.) FRANCIS HOPKINSON (1737-1791). A lawyer and politician, born in Philadelphia. One of the first graduates of the College of Philadelphia, afterwards the University of Pennsylvania. One of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. He wrote many satires, the best known of which is "The Battle of the Kegs."

JOSEPH HOPKINSON (1770-1842). A distinguished lawyer. He graduated at the University of Pennsylvania, and was a member of Congress in 1815-1819. He is best known as the author of "Hail Columbia," which was written for the benefit of a player at a Philadelphia theatre. PHILIP FRENEAU (1752-1832). A poet, editor, and political writer, born in New York and educated at the College of New Jersey. Edited several papers, among which were the N. Y. Daily Advertiser and the National Gazette of Philadelphia. He published several volumes of poems, of which "Lines to a Wild Honeysuckle" and "The Indian Burying Ground" are regarded the best. (See text.)

THOMAS PAINE (1737-1809). A native of England, who came to Philadelphia in 1774. His pamphlet entitled "Common Sense," an able defence of the American Colonies, won him the friendship of Washington, Franklin, and other distinguished American leaders. His "Rights of Man" (1791) is an eloquent defence of the French Revolution. "The Age of Reason," written while in a French prison, favors Deism. HUGH HENRY BRACKENRIDGE (1748-1816). A lawyer and humorist of Philadelphia, whose works were quite popular in their day. "Modern Chivalry" was his principal work, though he wrote a dramatic poem, "Bunker's Hill," and a few lyrics.

ALEXANDER WILSON (1766-1813). A Scottish poet and ornithologist, who came to this country in 1794. His narrative poem, "Watty and Meg," had in its day an immense vogue-100,000 copies sold in a few weeks. But his principal work is "American Ornithology."

VIRGINIA.

JAMES MADISON (1751-1836). A great statesman and political writer. He was Secretary of State under Jefferson, and in 1809 became President. One of the authors of "The Federalist."

JOHN MARSHALL (1755-1835). A statesman, and Chief Justice of the United States. He was a captain in the American Revolution, and Secretary of State under John Adams. As Chief Justice, to which office he was appointed in 1801, he was said to be "conscience made flesh, reason incarnate." His "Life of Washington" is an elaborate and judicious biography.

WILLIAM WIRT (1772-1834). A native of Maryland, he long resided in Virginia, where he practised law and served in the legislature. He was Attorney-general of the United States, 1817-1829. He afterwards settled in Baltimore. He wrote "Letters of a British Spy," containing sketches of popular orators, and a “ Life of Patrick Henry," an excellent biography.

George WashiNGTON (1732-1799). Commander-in-chief during the Revolution and first President of the United States. His writings, including his diary and correspondence, fill fourteen volumes. His "Farewell Address " would be sufficient to give him a place in the literature of his country.

CONTEMPORARY WRITERS IN ENGLAND.

RICHARD BRINSLEY SHERIDAN (1751-1816); Edmund Burke (1730–1797); EDWARD GIBBON (1737-1794); SAMUEL JOHNSON (1709–1784); WILLIAM COWPER (1731-1800); OLIVER GOLDSMITH (1728-1784); ROBERT BURNS (1759-1796); ANN RADCLIFFE (1764-1823); JANE AUSTEN (1775-1817); ROBERT SOUTHEY (1774-1843).

III.

THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD.

(1763-1815).

121. Two Important Events.-The Revolutionary Period embraces about fifty years, and includes two events of great importance. The first of these is the War of Independence; the other, the adoption of the Constitution. Around these two events gathers nearly all the literature of the time. This literature can be understood only as we comprehend the spirit and principles of the founders of our republic. No other period better illustrates the relation of literature to prevailing social conditions. For half a century the struggle against British injustice and oppression, and the establishment of a great national government, absorbed a large part of the intellectual energies of the people. Great practical questions were pressing for solution. It was the age of political pamphlets and popular oratory. The literature of the time arose, not to enrich the treasures of artistic expression, but to mould and move popular thought and action.

CONTEMPORARY

George III., 1760-1820.
Stamp Act, 1765.

American War, 1775-1783.
War with France, 1793.
Union of Great Britain and
Ireland, 1800.

EVENTS IN ENGLAND.

Colonization of Australia, 1802.
Abolition of Slave Trade, 1807.
The Peninsular War, 1808-1814.
Second War with America, 1812.
South Africa Acquired, 1815.

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