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Eugenics. Bulletin of the Russell Sage Foundation, no. 3, Feb., 1914. (New York: The Russell Sage Foundation Library. Pp. 3.)

A selected list of books. "With few exceptions it does not include the allied subjects of heredity and genetics, nor periodical articles indexed in the Readers' Guide."

Fifth census of Canada, 1911. Vol. II. Religions, origins, birthplace, citizenship, literacy and infirmities, by provinces, districts, and subdistricts. (Ottawa: Bureau of Census and Statistics. 1913. Pp. xvii, 654.)

The negro's progress in fifty years. The Annals of the American Academy of Social and Political Science, vol. XLIX, no. 138. (Philadelphia, Sept., 1913. Pp. 237.)

The contents of this number are divided into four parts: statistical; business activities and labor conditions; social conditions and problems; and educational progress and need. Under each of these heads are a number of brief papers on various topics connected with the negro's recent history in this country. Over half of the volume is devoted to the consideration of social, political, and religious questions, a quarter to education, and about one sixth to business and labor conditions. The papers are of very uneven value, most of them being mere expressions of hope or exhortation; but a few embody the results of some careful investigation. Several of the best are, Negro Population in the United States (T. J. Jones), Negro Criminality in the South (M. N. Work), Betterment of the Negro in Philadelphia (J. T. Emlen), Negro Illiteracy in the United States (J. P. Lichtenberger), Industrial Education and the Public Schools (B. T. Washington). The name of the volume is somewhat of a misnomer, as very few of the papers cover the period since the Civil War. E. L. B. Commission extra-parlementaire chargée d'étudier les questions relatives à la dépopulation en France et de rechercher les moyens d'y remédier (instituée par décret du 5 novembre 1912). Sous-commission administrative et juridique. Procès-verbaux des séances. (Paris: Impr. Nationale. 1913. Pp. 97.)

Säuglingsernährung, Säuglingssterblichkeit und Säuglingsschutz in den Städten Hannover und Linden. (Berlin: George Stilke. 1913. Pp. 136.)

Die ausländischen Wanderarbeiter in ihrer Bedeutung für Oberschlesien. Veröffentlichungen der Mitteleuropäischen Wirtschaftsvereine in Deutschland, XVI. (Leipzig: A. Deichert. 1913. Pp. viii, 81. 1.60 M.)

Social Problems and Reforms


D'AETH, F. G. Liverpool social workers' handbook. (London: King. 1914. Pp. 223. 1s.)

BENNETT, E. N. Problems of village life. Home university library. (London: Williams & Norgate. 1914. Pp. 256. 1s.)

BERRY, G. and J. Le vagabondage et la mendicité en Russie, en Allemagne, en Hollande, en Belgique, dans les Etats scandinaves et dans le canton de Berne. (Paris: Figuière et Cie. 1914. 3.50 fr.) BEST, R. H. and OGDEN, C. K. The problem of the continuation school and its successful solution in Germany. A consecutive policy. (London: King. 1914. 1s.)

VON BIEBERSTEIN, F. M. Die Sparpflicht für Minderjährige und die Wohnungsfrage. (Jena: Fischer. 1914. Pp. iv, 130. 2.50 M.) BLAIKLOCK, G. The alcohol factor in social conditions.

King. 1914. 3d.)


BODINE, W. L. Bodine's reference book on juvenile welfare; a review of the Chicago social service system. (Chicago: W. L. Bodine. 1913. Pp. 221. $2.)

CHERRINGTON, E. H. History of the anti-saloon league. (Westerville, O.: American Issue Pub. Co. 1913. Pp. 160. 50c.) COMPTON-RICKETT, A. William Morris; poet-craftsman, social reformer. (New York: Dutton. 1913. Pp. 325. $2.50.)

DEARLE, N. B. Industrial training in London. (London: King. 1914. 4d.)

FARRINGTON, F. E. Commercial education in Germany. (New York: Macmillan. 1914.)

FISCHER-ECKERT. Die wirtschaftliche und soziale Lage der Frauen in dem modernen Industrieort Hamborn im Rheinland. (Hagen i. W.: Karl Stracke. 1913. Pp. iv, 159. 3.60 M.)

FLEXNER, A. Prostitution in Europe.
Pp. 9, 455.


(New York: Century Co. 1914.

FREEMAN, A. Boy life and labour. (London: King. 1914. 4d.)

FRIEDE, H. Die Kaufsteuer. Skizze einer Steuerreform. (Leipzig: B. Friede. 1913. Pp. 50. 1 M.)

FUCHS, F. Beiträge zur Geschichte der Zürcher Effektenbörse, 18821891. (Zurich: Füssli. 1913. 2 M.)

GREATHOUSE, C. A. Tentative course of study in industrial subjects. Education publications, bulletin no. 2. (Indianapolis: Department of Public Instruction. 1913. Pp. 203.)

GORING, C. The English convict. A statistical study. (London: Wyman. 1913. 9s.)

GOERNANDT, R. Die Boden- und Wohnungspolitik der Stadt Ulm. (Berlin: Heymann. 1914. Pp. viii, 66. 2 M.)

HAMILTON, W. B. A social survey of Austin, Texas.


series, no. 15. (Austin: University of Texas. 1913. Pp. x, 89, xix.)

HIGGS, R. The heart of the social problem. (London: Stead. 1914. Pp. 143. 2s. 6d.)

IVES, G. A history of penal methods. (London: Stanley Paul & Co. 1914. 10s. 6d.)

LAPAGE, C. P. Feeblemindedness in children of school age. (New York: Longmans. 1913. $1.60.)

MCKEEVER, W. A. The industrial training of the boy. (New York: Macmillan. 1913. Pp. 9, 72. 50c.)

MERLIN, M. R. La crise du logement et les habitations à bon marché. (Paris: Commission d'Action Sociale. 1914.)

PERKINS, A. F., editor. Vocations for the trained woman; opportunities other than teaching; introductory papers. (New York: Longmans. 1914. Pp. 305. 60c.)

PERRY, C. A. How to start social centers. (New York: Russell Sage Foundation. 1913. Pp. 40. 10c.)

WANINGER, K. Der soziale Katholizismus in England. (M.-Gladbach: Volksvereins-Verlag. 1914. Pp. 139. 1.85 M.)

This monograph is one of a series published by the Verein für das katholische Deutschland. It presents a brief account of the development of a program of social reform by English Roman Catholic clerical and lay leaders and a summary of the activities and guiding principles of the English Catholics organized for the betterment of industrial and social conditions by unified voluntary effort and legal enactment. The historical account occupies two thirds of the monograph. Considerable attention is paid to the influence exerted by the Oxford movement in its reaction against individualism in industrial as well as in religious matters and its harking back to the pre-Reformation emphasis upon moral obligations in economic relations. The teachings and work of Cardinal Manning are also given relatively extended treatment. The principles laid down by the leaders of the present movement, among whom the late C. S. Devas held a prominent place, are briefly summarized and their program is given in outline; it includes the encouragement of trade unions organized by trades and industries and not divided according to religious affiliation; also collective bargaining, and the establishment of minimum wage rates and the maximum work day by law. Of the various organizations described, the fullest treatment is given that created by the movement, the Catholic Social Guild, which was established in 1909 for the publication and distribution of social reform literature and the promotion of the study of the social sciences. The monograph contains a bibliography and is well indexed. DAVID A. MCCABE.

WHITE, B. The carpenter and the rich man. (New York: Doubleday, Page. 1914. Pp. viii, 339. $1.25.)

A companion book to The Call of the Carpenter. A study of the parables, in which the economic life of the time is the constant background.

The Catholic social year book for 1914. (London: Catholic Social
Guild. 1914. 1s. 6d.)

The industrial unrest and the living wage. (London: King.
Pp. 182. 2s.)


This volume contains addresses given at the United Summer School held during the summer of 1913 at Swanwick, Derbyshire, England, under the auspices of the Interdenominational Social Service Unions. Of special interest are "The Standard of Life," by Professor E. J. Urwick; "The Right to a Living Wage," by Professor L. T. Hobhouse; and a summary of unfavorable aspects of minimum wage legislation in Australasia, by Miss M. T. Rankin. The five addresses by clergymen are characterized by their emphasis upon the method of approach to social problems through appeal to the individual and by their insistence upon the supremacy of the spiritual and the relatively greater importance of the life beyond the grave. The book is valuable for its expression of varied points of view. The purpose for which the addresses were prepared prevented adequate treatment of a number of the topics, PAUL L. VOGT.

Year book of the United States Brewers Association.
The Association. 1914. Pp. xiv, 311.)

Insurance and Pensions

(New York:

Social Insurance. With Special Reference to American Conditions. By I. M. RUBINOW. (New York: Henry Holt and Company. 1913. Pp. vii, 525. $3.00.)

Mr. Rubinow has written a volume which is timely, large in range, and thoughtful. It "grew out of a course of fifteen lectures given at the New York School of Philanthropy in the spring of 1912," the supposed priority of which, however, as an American university course, is to be questioned. Three introductory chapters are followed by ampler discussions of insurance against industrial accidents, sickness, old age (with invalidity and death), and unemployment. The method in each part is to explain conditions and causes, then to examine foreign experience in mutual, voluntary, subsidized, and compulsory insurance institutions, arriving at a preference for the last type, and finally to show why or how the type needs to be set up in America. The book is not an impartial treatise; to write such it would be "futile to try”; it is a "bit of propaganda," yet persons whose premises are different will find only some discussions in the book vitiated.

Its clear excellence is in its actuarial discussions. There Mr. Rubinow is on professional ground. He sets forth his arguments with unusual lucidity and simplicity. His grasp is revealed both

in his criticisms and in his constructive recommendations. Another valuable trait is a ready comparison of significant features of the many social insurance institutions of various countries.

The chapters on employer's liability, on the elements of a normal compensation law, and on the organization of accident insurance are compact and forceful. Less acceptable are those on conditions and causes. For example, one naïve conclusion (ch. 5), supported by a table of injury rates of different industries, is that accidents (= uncaused events?) do not exist! This irrelevant statement is luckily forgotten in ensuing discussions of unavoidable hazard. Increase in number of accidents credited to inattention "spells one word, 'speed'"; presently also, fatigue, which is partly different. The high Monday rate of accidents in European statistics Mr. Rubinow prefers not to explain by Sunday indulgences, but by changes of occupation. Must not a more regular cause be sought? Germans say much of the resumptive operations of Monday. Mr. Rubinow is with those who believe that wage rates make no account of danger in an occupation. It has never, he says, "been statistically established that there is any correspondence between the comparative risk of an occupation and its remuneration, such as there undoubtedly is between remuneration and skill" (p. 100; cf. also p. 132). But can statistics be refined to isolate the danger factor? To concede that most men prefer the less dangerous tasks, other things equal, is to concede that danger makes a difference. If there were no risk, would wages be so high? Such a force as immigration may make for low wages in mining, while danger, less potently, may make for higher wages.

It is a clear history and an acute criticism of American compensation laws that Mr. Rubinow gives. To one point, since it is raised, exception may be taken. The American movement is dated from the Bureau of Labor description of German social insurance, in 1893. That is, "government institutions, and not the academic economists, who were deep in economic theory" (p. 156) began it. But Professor Taussig published his translation of the same laws in 1887.

Mr. Rubinow's chapters on sickness reveal again his strength and his weakness. He characteristically says little of personal causes and much about the responsibility of society. Partly one may agree, partly disagree. He believes, for example, that canning and cold storage deteriorate the food supply (p. 208). Does he appreciate that they have given to winter diet a scope and variety

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