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LEROY-BEAULIEU, P. La production et la consommation de la soie dans le monde. L'Econ. Franç., Nov. 8, 1913.

The raw silk industry has been practically stationary in France and Italy for the last 20 years, in consequence of the competition of the more profitable grape culture and other forms of agriculture. The Levant and particularly Asia have shown a substantial increase in production.

MYERS, M. S. Statistical review of Manchuria's commerce. Daily Cons. & Trade Repts., Nov. 25, 1913.

RUTTER, F. R. Need for study of foreign trade-mark and patent laws. Exporter's Rev., Nov., 1913.

In the United States use, not registration, gives title to a trademark, the registration merely furnishing a convenient means of proving title. In numerous foreign countries title depends upon registration. Lack of attention to foreign trademark regulations has caused serious embarrassment to American exporters.

SEEGER, W. Die Messe in Nischny-Nowgorod. Jahrb. f. Nat. Oek., Sept., 1913. The organization of the great fair at Nigni Novgorod and its importance for domestic and foreign trade is interestingly and carefully explained. The opening of the Siberian railroad and the employment of resident agents by West European firms has tended to divert the international trade to Moscow, where it is carried on continuously throughout the year. On the other hand, because of the increase in population in central Russia, the system of land ownership, methods of community trade, cheap water transportation on the Volga, and the reluctance of the Russians to purchase from description or sample, the domestic trade has continued to prosper. Cotton goods and hides are the leading articles of trade.

SEVIN, L. Die politische Neuordnung auf dem Balkan und der deutsche Aussenhandel. Schmollers Jahrb., No. 4, 1913.

From a comparative analysis of the foreign trade statistics of the Balkan states and European Turkey, attempts to foretell the effect of the recent war on German trade. Optimistic.

TOWER, W. S. Notes on the commercial geography of South America. Bull. Am. Geog. Soc., Dec., 1913.

Draws conclusions regarding the trade prospects of South America. UHLIG, K. Die Verschiebung des wirtschaftlichen Kräfteverhältnisses zwischen England und Deutschland. Zeitschr. f. Volkswirtsch., No. VI, 1913. Discusses the reasons for the earlier development of the capitalistic form of industry in England and the growth of German competition. Germany has a larger but poorer population, forced to work more intensively but more cheaply. It is placing a rapidly increasing quantity of cheap goods on the market, and in its export trade will soon surpass England. But England's political control of foreign markets and the specialization of its industries and refinement of its products will enable it to maintain the volume of its export trade. Their trade, there

fore, is more or less supplementary rather than competitive. "The world has room for both!"

ZICKERT, H. Die Wertberechnung in der deutschen Aussenhandelsstatistik. Die Bank, Nov., 1913.

Until 1911 no declarations of value were required of exporters; the prices at which the exports should be valued were estimated by a commission meeting once a year. Except for a few groups of articles, the values of imports are still estimated in that way. Hence the statistics are inaccurate. Author might have criticised the quantity figures given in the German trade statistics, since they are by weight. The ton is a significant quantity unit for pig iron or raw wool, but not for automobiles.

ZURHOST, A. Tagesfragen aus der städtischen Fleischversorgung. Zeitschr. Staatswis., No. IV, 1913.

The national government is attempting, by inadequate means, to encourage the production of more meat in Germany. Some municipalities have undertaken to stimulate greater consumption of fish as a substitute for meat; others are regulating prices; another group have opened municipal retail meat markets; and a few are trying municipal establishments for hog-raising. Although some of these experiments are meeting with success, the general rise in the price of meat continues. Coöperative slaughter-houses on a large scale are economical. Several large manufacturing companies, notably Krupp and the Harpener Mining Co., have established slaughter-houses and retail shops for supplying their employees. The latter company has even undertaken to raise hogs. From the laborers' standpoint, however, these employers' stores are open to the same objections as other company stores and company dwelling houses. Such measures may help to bring relief, but the great problem is to induce the German agriculturists to produce

more meat.

New York's advantages for furniture industry. Greater N. Y., Jan. 5, 1914. Our account with the world. N. Y. Times Annalist, Nov. 3, 1913.

Criticises the estimates of the invisible balance of trade as being too high. In 1911 and 1912, in spite of cheap money in United States, and stringency in Europe, we imported more gold than we exported. Hence the debit of the invisible balance of trade could not have exIceeded the credit of the visible balance of trade.

Position of hardware trade in New York City. Greater N. Y., Dec. 8, 1913. The first of a series of articles prepared by the Industrial Bureau of the Merchants' Association. Summarizes methods, volume of wholesale and retail trade, and advantages of New York as a distributing center. Written from the New York point of view.

Railways

(Abstracts by Ernest R. Dewsnup)

ALLIX, G. Le tunnel sous la Manche. Journ. d. Transports, Oct. 4, 1913. Pp. 3 The Channel Tunnel scheme receives more and more favor in France and England. The cost is estimated at $80,000,000.

ARNOLD, B. J. Report on the Chicago railway terminal situation. Engg. News, Dec. 4, 1913. Pp. 3.

BELLET, D. La politique des voies d'eau aux Etats-Unis. Journ. d. Transports, Nov. 29, 1913. Pp. 21⁄2

COLSON, M. C. Movement of prices and railway rates. Ry. Age Gaz., Nov., 14, 1913.

The upward trend of prices compels increases in railway rates all over Europe.

CONANT, C. A. Relation of railway charges to the supply of money and capital. Ry. & Engg. Rev., Dec. 20, 1913. Pp. 2.

Discusses the movement of railway freight earnings as interpreted in terms of purchasing power.

DELANO, F. A. The Chicago plan, with particular reference to the railway terminal problem. Journ. Pol. Econ., Nov., 1913. Pp. 13.

The president of the Monon lays down certain general principles which should be observed in the readjustment of the railway terminals of the city.

DUNN, S. O. The railway employee and the railway patron. Ry. Age Gaz., Dec. 5, 1913. Pp. 32.

It is just as much the duty of the public to check members of the railway brotherhoods, when unreasonable and unfair, as the officers and stockholders of the railways.

EDWARDS, W. H. Das Anlagekapital der nordamerikanischen Eisenbahnen und seine Beziehungen zum Reinertrage. Archiv f. Eisenbahnw., Aug.-Sept., Sept.-Oct., 1913. Pp. 78.

Attempts to show by tables and curves the relation of the admissable capitalization of American railways, in each year of the past two decades, to their actual capitalization and net income.

EATON, J. S. The indirect result of national railway valuation. Engg. Mag., Nov., 1913. Pp. 8.

Survey of the difficulties to be overcome by the Interstate Commerce Commission in its valuation. Physical value should not be emphasized at the expense of intangible value.

EMERY, J. A. Statistical units used in analysis of electric railway accounts. Elec. Ry. Journ., Oct. 16, 1913. Pp. 3.

Discuss value of various units upon which operating expenses may be averaged.

GIBSON, T. and MCELROY, C. F. The case of the railroads. I-IV. Moody's Mag., Oct., 1913-Jan., 1914. Pp. 17.

Attempt to show that the value of most railroad securities is greater than generally believed, and that "poverty" arguments of railways are not justified.

HARRIS, H. P. London traffic problem. Munic. Reform Pamph., Nov. 24, 1913. Pp. 19.

A speech before the London Municipal Society in favor of the rec

ommendation of the Select Committee that a traffic branch of the Board of Trade be organized.

K. La politique des chemins de fer russes. Journ. d. Transports, Nov. 15,

1913. P. 1.

A criticism of the railway policy of the Russian government on the grounds of neglect of railway projects of the first importance, delays in putting approved projects into execution, poor financial policy. KENNEY, R. Railway disasters and dividends. Eng. Rev., Nov., 1913.

KENNEY, R. Railway rules and railway practice. New Statesman, Nov. 15, 1913. Pp. 12.

The railways of England are understaffed; their regulations are so framed that blame for accidents must always fall on the men; and the Board of Trade is impotent or indifferent in the matter.

KLAPP, J. O. Demurrage as a remedy for car shortages. Ry. Age Gaz., Dec. 26, 1913. Pp. 3.

Shippers are too willing to use cars for storage purposes and to send shipments to be reconsigned. The charges should be made heavier.

LAUCK, W. J. Plight of the railroads. No. Am. Rev., Jan., 1914. Pp. 13.

Though at the bottom of the present difficulties of the railroads is to be found improper or misguided financial management, the railways should be granted permission to increase their rates, and care taken to prevent such financial practices in the future.

LEIGH, E. B. Railway buying and general prosperity. Ry. Age Gaz., Dec. 19, 1913. Pp. 2.

Large orders for railway equipment stimulate all of the industries of the country; when railway purchases decline, prosperity ends. (Also appears in Ry. & Engg. Rev., Dec. 20, 1913.)

LOESCH, F. J. Some aspects of railway regulation. Ry. Age Gaz., Oct. 10, 1913. Pp. 2.

NORVIEL, F. D. and others. Report of the committee on express and freight rates. Elec. Ry. Journ., Oct. 16, 1913. Pp. 2.

A large majority of the traction lines communicated with handle or intend to handle freight and express.

PAYEN, E. Les transformations des moyens de transport en commun dans trois capitales: Paris, Londres, Berlin. L'Econ. Franç., Nov. 1, 1913. Pp. 2. Treats of the development of the motor-bus and the electric street car in Paris, London and Berlin.

RANK, E. Eisenbahnen und Volksbewegung. Zeitschr. f. Volkswirts., No. VI, 1913. Pp. 8.

Largely based upon Professor Mahaim's study of the social effects of working-men's tickets on the Belgian railways.

RIGGS, E. T. Some legal problems of railroad valuation. Columbia Law Rev., Nov., 1913. Pp. 28.

A discussion of the difficulties involved in the determination of railway value.

RIPLEY, E. P. Letters to Clifford Thorne on possible savings under government ownership. Ry. Age Gaz., Nov. 28, 1913. Pp. 2.

Criticizes the statistical errors made by Mr. Thorne in his discussion at the recent convention of the National Association of Railroad Commissioners. President Ripley says that government ownership would be a blessing to the owners of railway securities but not to the American people.

ROGERS, L. The extension of federal control through the regulation of the mails. Harvard Law Rev., Nov., 1913. Pp. 18.

While a plenary power over the mails has been recognized in Congress, the attitude of the courts would seem to indicate that the power of Congress cannot be extended to arbitrary limits.

D. H. S. Is there a case for railway nationalization? Bankers Mag. (London), Oct., 1913. Pp. 10.

An adverse criticism of the proposal to nationalize English railways. STEESE, J. G. Transportation in Alaska. Rev. Rev., Jan., 1914. Pp. 7.

The importance of the development of wagon roads is emphasized. An expenditure of $7,250,000 is needed during the next ten years. TAYLOR, S. W. The Minnesota rate case. Harvard Law Rev., Nov., 1913. Pp. 13.

Failure of Congress to act leaves each state free to establish reasonable maximum intrastate rates for interstate carriers, although the existing relations between intrastate and interstate rates may be disturbed thereby.

THOMPSON, S. Railroad borrowing since 1900. Ry. World, Nov., 1913. Pp. 2.

During the last dozen years there has been a marked movement from 3 to 4 per cent bonds to those bearing 4 to 5 per cent interest. WALLACE, J. F. Proposed development of Chicago railway facilities. Ry. Age Gaz., Oct. 24, 1913. Pp. 4.

WILCOX, D. F. and others. Report of franchise committee of National Municipal League. Elec. Ry. Journ., Nov. 22, 1913. P. 1.

While municipal control of public utilities is desirable in certain matters, general jurisdiction should be exercised by the state public service commission. The time is ripe for the recognition of the amortization of capital in all franchise contracts.

WILLARD, D. Address on increase of freight rates. Greater N. Y., Nov. 3, 1913. Pp. 3.

Further investment is halted and development is at a standstill. WILSON, H. R. State purchase of railways in Great Britain. Engg. News, Dec. 4, 1913. P. 1.

A British royal commission has been appointed to inquire into the relationship between the railway companies of Great Britain and the state in respect of matters other than safety of working and conditions of employment, and to report what changes, if any, are desirable in that relationship.

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