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BUHLE, R. Die Invalidenversicherungsflicht nach der ReichsversicheJ. B. Metzlersche Buchhandlung.

rungsordnung.

(Stuttgart:

1913. Pp. 337. 3.50 M.)

DELAITRE, J. and others. L'assistance aux vieillards, aux infirmes et aux incurables. (Paris: Rivière. 1913. Pp. 595.)

DELAUNAY. De l'intervention de la caisse nationale des retraites pour la vieillesse en matière d'accidents du travail. (Paris: Rivière. 1913. 6 fr.)

DU-LAS, P. Commentaire des polices d'assurances sur la vie. (Paris: Imprimerie des Assureurs. 1913.)

JONES, F. R. Digest of workmen's compensation and insurance laws in the United States, October, 1913. (New York: Workmen's Compensation Publicity Bureau. 1913. Pp. 24. $1.)

KRUMBIEGEL, K. Die schweizerische Sozialversicherung, insbesondere das Kranken- und Unfallversicherungsgesetz vom 13. Juni 1911. Abhandlungen des staatswissenschaftlichen Seminars zu Jena, XII, 2. (Jena: Fischer. 1913. Pp. viii, 108. 3 M.)

NEUMAN, C. Systematisches Verzeichnis der Literatur des deutschen Sprachgebiets über das private Versicherungswesen vom Anfang des 19. Jahrhunderts bis zur Gegenwart. (Berlin: Verlag der Zeitschrift für Versicherungswesen. 1913. Pp. xiii, 253. 4 M.) OTIS, S. L. Manual of liability and compensation insurance; rules and rates for New Jersey, New York, Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin. (New York: L. W. Lawrence. 1913. $2 each number.)

SCUDDER, W. R. The fallacies of life insurance. (Chicago: Barnard & Miller. 1913. Pp. 9, 314. $5.)

Appendices to the report of the committee appointed to inquire into the extension of medical benefit under the national insurance act to Ireland. Cd. 7039. (London: Wyman. 1913. 1s. 7d.)

Fire insurance laws, taxes and fees; containing a digest of the statutory requirements in the United States and Canada. Revised to Aug. 1, 1913. (New York: Spectator Co. 1913. Pp. 489. $5.) Reports of fire insurance companies for year ending December 31, 1912. Eighth annual edition. (New York: Spectator Co. 1913. Pp. 384. $5.)

Die neuen Aufgaben der Sozialversicherung in der Praxis. (Tübingen: Mohr. 1913.)

Pauperism and Charities

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DODD, J. T. Suggestions for amendment of consolidated orders for improvement in poor law administration. (London: King. Pp.

23. 3d.)

HEFFNER, W. C. History of poor relief legislation in Pennsylvania 1682-1913. (Cleona, Pa.: Holzapfel Pub. Co. 1913. Pp. 302. $1.) MANEN, C. A. Armenpflege in Amsterdam in ihrer historischen Entwicklung. (Leiden: A. W. Sijthoff. 1913.)

SANDERS, E. K. Vincent de Paul, priest and philanthropist, 1576-1660. (London: Heath, Cranton & Ouseley. 1918. Pp. xxi, 219. 16s.) SEARS, A. The charity visitor; a handbook for beginners. (Chicago: Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy. 1913.)

Forty-second annual report of the local government board, 1912-1913. Part I: Administration of the poor law, the unemployed workmen act, and the old age pensions act. Cd. 6980. (London: Wyman. 1913. 1s. 4d.)

Ein deutsches Reichsarmengesetz. Grundlagen und Richtlinien. (Munich: Duncker & Humblot. 1913. 4.40 M.)

Die soziale Fürsorge der kommunalen Verwaltung in Stadt und Land. (Tübingen: Mohr. 1913. Pp. xxxii, 358. 6 M.)

Socialism and Co-operative Enterprises

Marxism versus Socialism. By VLADIMIR G. SIMKHOVITCH. (New York: Henry Holt and Company. 1913. Pp. xvi, 298. $1.50.)

Those who read Professor Simkhovitch's articles on the breakdown of Marxism as they appeared in the Political Science Quarterly will welcome them in book form. To some it may appear that in criticising Marxian doctrine the author is slaying the slain. Yet while there have appeared many partial discussions of the extent to which Marx's forecast of economic evolution has been fulfilled, there is not available in English any summary of the facts and figures in the case so comprehensive and convenient as is here presented. There have been many admissions by eminent socialists of the untenability of this or that tenet of Marxism, but so long as the formal creed and to a less degree the actual tactics are dominated by Marxian principles, the need for a clear presentation of the case for revision is patent.

The author's familiarity with Marx and his commentators, and particularly his sympathetic attitude, make his criticism pertinent and of real value. He sets forth the historical setting and the literary forerunners of the Communist Manifesto and of Capital, while making clear the futility of the charges of plagiarism and lack of originality sometimes brought against Marx. The central thesis of scientific socialism, that economic forces now at work are making inevitably for the downfall of capitalism, is

examined in each of its aspects: the actual facts as to the concentration of wealth, the disappearance of the middle classes, the increasing misery of the working classes, the growing intensity of crises, the coming climax of class struggle, are marshalled fairly, and with as representative completeness as is easy to attain in the unsatisfactory state of first-hand investigation into many of the points touched. It would, however, have been advisable, in view of the rise in prices of the past decade, to bring down the statistics as to real wages beyond the 1902 limit here observed.

Perhaps the chief criticism which suggests itself is that the author, while recognizing in most instances the close connection between the different parts of Marx's doctrine, does not fully bring out the essential unity and logical interdependence of the whole Marxian system. The class struggle and the economic interpretation of history are treated in widely separated chapters, while the labor theory of value is treated practically as an appendix, on the ground that Marx's socialism is not based upon this theory but upon the inevitable development of economic tendencies (p. 254). Professor Simkhovitch declares elsewhere (pp. 5-6):

It is quite true that his theory of value is the central theory upon which his economic analysis of the capitalistic system rests-in short, the foundation of his economic doctrine; but this theory plays no part whatever in his socialistic doctrine, which purports to be nothing more than a demonstration that socialism is inevitable. The key to his socialist doctrine is the economic interpretation of history with the class-struggle doctrine following in its train.

This curious separation between the economic doctrines of Marx and his socialistic doctrines is surely untenable. Marx was not spinning economic theories in the air: with wonderful power of fusion and systematization, each and every part of his theory, economic or sociological, is made a link in the chain of evidence proving the coming downfall of capitalism and rise of socialism. Fundamental is the materialistic conception of history, which, with very minor exceptions, is, in Marx, identical with the class-struggle doctrine, however widely non-socialist upholders of the doctrine of the economic interpretation of history nowadays separate the two theories. Dialectic struggle is the essence of Hegelian evolution, and the materialistic conception is only Hegelianism inverted. Today class struggle is between capitalist and proletarian; the distinctive feature of capitalism is the selling of commodities for profit; a theory of value is therefore the first step

in the analysis of the working of capitalism. If we compare the two processes of creating value and of creating surplus value, Marx continues, we see that the latter is nothing but the continuation of the former beyond a certain point. Now, automatically, surplus value accumulates, capital grows, the variable portion grows less rapidly than constant capital, large numbers are unable to find employment, so that an industrial reserve army is formed, with all the consequences of increasing misery, culminating in the collapse of capitalism.

Professor Simkhovitch omits from his summary the accumulation step, and naturally finds no connection between the value theory and the industrial-reserve-army doctrine. Yet, as the most penetrating student of Marx, Dr. Veblen, has said: "The law of accumulation, with its corollary, the doctrine of the industrial reserve army, is the final term and the objective point of Marx's theory of capitalist production, just as the theory of labor-value is his point of departure." The author is quite right in denying that Marx based his doctrine on the ethical implications of the surplus-value theory; and criticism of the weakness of the proof of the necessary creation of the industrial reserve army, or of the inconsistency between the cost-of-subsistence and the reservearmy theories of wages (as on p. 276) is pertinent. Yet the fact remains that whether the links be strong or weak, Marx endeavored to weld them all in a single chain.

Queens University, Kingston, Ontario.

O. D. SKELTON.

Vol. II. Emile Edited by J. A. The Clarendon

The French Revolution of 1848 in its Economic Aspect. Vol. I.
Louis Blanc's Organisation du Travail.
Thomas's Histoire des Ateliers Nationaux.
R. MARRIOTT. (Oxford and New York:
Press. 1913. Pp. xcix, 284; 395.)

The Clarendon Press has rendered a service in making available in convenient form, in the original French, documents of such importance for the study of nineteenth century socialism as these two volumes. Louis Blanc's work is now becoming rare, while the companion volume is to be found only in the larger libraries. The glowing prospectus drawn up by the social promoter, and the chilling receiver's report, presented by the ex-manager of the National Workshops, are piquantly set side by side. The texts 1 1 Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. XX, p. 589.

are familiar to all students of socialism, so that it only remains to say a word as to the editor's services.

Professor Marriott has added a few explanatory notes to both texts and a concise, well-packed introduction of some 90 pages. The historical introduction, analyzing the weakness of the July monarchy and showing how France slowly slipped from Louis Philippe's grasp, is clear and illuminating. The discussion of Louis Blanc's place in the development of French socialism is somewhat less adequate, running in the well-worn groove of summaries of the position of Rousseau, Mably, Morelly and Baboeuf, Saint-Simon and Fourier. Nothing is said of Sismondi's disturbing pessimism, of Buonarotti's revival of the Baboeuf tradition, of Buchez's plan of coöperative workshops, of Considérant's extension of Fourier's system, of Blanc's contemporaries, Pecqueur and Vidal (who, it is worth noting, were on his Luxembourg Commission), or of any of the others who filled in what appears to the editor a wide gap.

The most spectacular of the economic aspects of the Revolution of 1848 was, of course, the National Workshop experiment, with representatives of nearly half the population of Paris at one time enrolled in this curious mixture of army and debating society. Professor Marriott recognizes that Blanc was not directly responsible for the crashing failure of this experiment, which was, in fact, utilized by his less radical colleague to discredit and oppose him; he contends, however, that Blanc was indirectly responsible, because of his insistent preaching of the right to work, and that under any auspices the experiment was doomed to failure. Next to the right to work, the organization of labor was the favorite cry of the Revolutionary party. Professor Marriott notes briefly the attempt made by Blanc and his Luxembourg Commission to advance this end. The third phase, the coöperative societies, is very lightly touched. It would have been well, both because of Blanc's more direct responsibility and because of the inherent interest of the movement, if the editor could have included some documents bearing on this point, as, for example, the very graphic account of the failure of the Hotel Clichy experiment, contributed to the Economist in 1848 by, it is understood, no less capable a critic than Walter Bagehot. But what has been done has been done well.

Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario.

O. D. SKELTON.

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