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education which will train young people to greater efficiency. The basic evil of present-day society is seen to be an educational system which bears little relation to the life of the individual after he leaves school. The working classes are exploited because they are not properly trained either to produce or to use wealth, and a rational education with proper vocational guidance would automatically turn a larger share of the world's wealth into the hands of the workers. An outline of the author's conception of an ideal school course is presented. Study should be combined with actual work for wages, gradually increasing the time spent in wage work until graduation into active industrial life. GEORGE LOUIS ARNER.

BECKWITH, H. German industrial education and its lessons for the United States. (Washington: Bureau of Education. 1918. Bull. 19. Pp. 154.)

CAHEN, G. Le logement dans les villes; la crise parisienne. (Paris: Alcan. 1913. 3.50 fr.)

Contends that housing is only slightly determined by the laws of supply and demand for homes and that many social and administrative factors enter in. The efforts of local governments and the state to relieve the situation have been conservative and paternalistic, rather than statesmanlike and constructive. Better land taxation, restrictions upon land use to meet local needs, and a broad financial policy, would serve to increase the supply of homes and encourage home building far beyond the possibilities under the present régime. The most important part of the book is the section dealing with a constructive program of housing reform; and much that is said here would apply with equal force to the United States.

C. A. CANNON, I. M. Social work in hospitals. A contribution to progressive medicine. (New York: Survey Associates. 1913. Pp. xii, 257. $1.50.)

CHAMBONNAUD, L. L'éducation industrielle et commerciale en Angleterre et en Ecosse. (Paris: Dunod & Pinat. 1918. Pp. 240. 4.50 fr.)

DRYSDALE, C. V. The small family system. Is it injurious or immoral? (London: Fifield. 1913. 1s.)

GEMUEND, W. Die Grundlagen zur Besserung der städtischen Wohnungsverhältnisse. (Berlin: Springer. 1913. Pp. viii, 321. 10 M.) GIBBS, P. First notions on social service. (London: King. 1913. 6d.) GORDON, E. The anti-alcohol movement in Europe.. (New York: Revell. 1918. $1.50.)

HENDERSON, C. R. Social programmes in the West. Lectures delivered in the Far East. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1913. Pp. xxviii, 184.


The Barrows lectures of 1912-1913, are here presented together with a short statement, by Professor E. Fuster of Paris, of the

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aims of the International Association on Social Legislation. fessor Henderson outlines the "great movement in the Western world which the Germans call 'social politics'." The first lecture is general and introductory, the second deals with the relief of dependants and abnormals, the third with the treatment of the anti-social, the fourth with public health, education and morality, the fifth with movements to improve the condition of wage workers, and the final lecture is entitled, "Providing for Progress." It is unnecessary to state that the author writes clearly and with intimate knowledge of his subjects. The point of view is that of the optimistic social reformer. It may appear to some readers that Professor Henderson greatly overemphasizes the importance of Christianity and the Church as agents in bringing about improvement in social conditions. GEORGE LOUIS ARNER.

HERMANNS, H. Beiträge zur volkswirtschaftlichen Würdigung der Reklame. (Leipzig: Poeschel. 1913. Pp. 52. 2 M.)

JOLY, H. La Hollande sociale. (Paris: Bloud. 1913. Pp. 65.) LAPAGE, C. P. Feeblemindedness in children of school-age. With an appendix on treatment and training. By M. DENDY. (Manchester: The University Press. 1913. 5s.)

LEHR, A. Wohnungsgeschichte und Wohnungsbau. (Munich: Reinhardt. 1918. Pp. vii, 59. 1 M.)

LEWIS, E. E. Arguments for vocational guidance. (Charleston, Ill.: Eastern Illinois State Normal School. 1913. Pp. 36. Gratis.) LOWELL, A. L. Public opinion and popular government. (New York: Longmans. 1913. Pp. xiv, 415.)

The substance of this volume was presented in lectures at Johns Hopkins University in 1909. The titles of the several parts are: Nature of Public Opinion; The Function of Parties; Methods of Expressing Public Opinion; and The Regulation of Matters to which Public Opinion Cannot Directly Apply. Appendices occupy about a quarter of the volume. The student of economics will be more particularly interested in the tabulation of the results of the referendum and initiative in America, in which the subject of voting is listed with figures showing the number of voters and results.

MACDONALD, J. R. The social unrest, its cause and solution. (London: Foulis. 1913. Pp. 119. 1s.)

MACMURDO, A. H. Pressing questions; profit sharing, women's suffrage, electoral reform. (New York: Lane. 1913. Pp. 21, 324. $1.25.)

MAURICE, C. E. The life of Octavia Hill. (New York: Macmillan. 1918. $5.)

MAUTHE, H. Die Lebenseinkommen verschiedener Berufsklassen. (Schwenningen a. M.; Bader & Co, 1913. Pp. 95.)

MOLL-WEISS, A. Les écoles de servantes en Belgique et en Hollande, Le Musée Social, Mém. & Doc., Oct., 1913. (Paris: Rousseau. 1913. Pp. 8.)

MORGAN, J. The life work of Edward A. Moseley in the service of humanity. (New York: Macmillan. 1913. Pp. 9, 378. $2.) NEARING, S. Social sanity, a preface to the book of social progress. (New York: Moffat, Yard. 1918. Pp. 260. $1.25.)

Dr. Nearing puts into his work an enthusiasm and freshness of style which in this book are more noteworthy than is its profundity or originality. Social sanity is conceived as involving equality of opportunity, social justice, and the conservation of life and health. It is clearly shown that our present-day society does not conform to this ideal, but that amid the chaos of social theories and movements society is evolving toward sanity. While the use of the word socialism is studiously avoided, the point of view both in social criticism and social ideals is generally in accord with the best modern socialist thought, except that the socialist prefers to look on the shortcomings of capitalist society as evidences of the immaturity of society, rather than as pathological conditions in an adult organism.

G. L.A. NITZE, P. Die Entwicklung des Wohnungswesens von Gross-Berlin. (Berlin: Heymann. 1913. Pp. vi, 131. 3 M.)

PURDOM, C. B. The garden city, an English experiment in the development of a modern town. (New York: Dutton. 1913. $3.50.) RICHTER, K. E. Commercial colleges in Germany. (Lancaster, Pa.: New Era Prtg. Co. 1913. Pp. 38. 50c.)

SKALWEIT, A. Die Wohnungszustände in den deutschen Grossstädten und die Möglichkeit ihrer Reform. (Berlin: Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn. 1913. Pp. 23. 1.20 M.)

TAYLOR, G. Religion in social action. (New York: Dodd, Mead. 1918. $1.25.)

A model housing code. (New York:
Foundation. 1913.)

WARNER, H. S. Social welfare and the liquor problem.
tion. (Chicago: Intercollegiate Prohibition Assoc.
298. $1.)

Russell Sage

Revised edi1913. Pp.

WEAVER, E. W., editor. Vocations for girls. (New York: A. S. Barnes Co. 1913. Pp. 200. 75c.)

Prepared by a committee of teachers.

WHITEHOUSE, J. H. Essays on social and political questions. (Cambridge: University Press. 1913. Pp. 106. 3s.)

WOODS, R. A. and KENNEDY, A. J., editors. Young working girls. A summary of evidence from two thousand social workers. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. 1913. Pp. xiii, 185. $1.)

The caged man. (New York: Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science. 1913. Pp. iv, 136.)

Catholic studies in social reform. I. Destitution and suggested remedies, by T. G. KING and others. II. Sweated labour and the trade boards act, by THOMAS WRIGHT and others. III. The housing problem, by J. B. MCLAUGHLIN and others. IV. The church and eugenics, by T. J. GERRARD. (London: King. 1913. 7d. each.) Ireland's hope: a call to service. (London: The Student Christian Movement, 93 Chancery Lane. 1913. Pp. 232.)

Proceedings of second national conference on housing, held in Philadelphia, Dec., 1912. (New York: National Housing Assoc. 1913.) Questions of public policy. (New Haven: Yale University Press. 1913. Pp. 134. $1.25.)

Addresses delivered in the Page lecture series, 1913, before the senior class of Sheffield Scientific School, Yale University. The four lectures are: "The character and influence of recent immigration," by J. W. Jenks; "The essential and unessential in currency legislation," by A. Piatt Andrew; "The value of the Panama Canal to this country," by E. R. Johnson; "Benefits and evils of the stock exchange," by W. V. King.

Report of the Chicago Vice Commission, 1911. Second edition. (Chicago: American Vigilance Assoc. 1918. 50c.)

Selected list of municipal and civic books. (New York: American Civic Bureau. 1918.)

Encouragements à la petite propriété. (Paris: Berger-Levrault. 1913. Pp. 52. 0.60 fr.)

Die Praxis der kommunalen und sozialen Verwaltung. I. Die soziale Fürsorge der kommunalen Verwaltung in Stadt und Land. (Tübingen: Mohr. 1913. 7.25 M.)

Insurance and Pensions

Insurance and the State. By W. F. GEPHART. (New York: The Macmillan Company. 1913. Pp. xiii, 228. $1.25.)

Professor Gephart's book is a discussion of the question whether the state should undertake the business of insurance. Three years ago we were twenty-five years behind Europe in the development of social insurance and at that time the probability of state insurance looked no bigger on the horizon than a man's hand. Today four states have monopolistic state workmen's compensation insurance, and several other states have competitive state compensation funds. We are certainly making up for lost time, and it is to be feared we are going into state insurance with too little thought of how serious the problems are.

While Professor Gephart devotes one chapter to a short resumé

of what has been done in state insurance in Europe and the United States, there is no serious attempt made to assess the value of state insurance by its accomplished results. The book is rather an analysis of the nature of insurance with regard especially to its adaptability to state management.

Because of its social quality, insurance requires the coöperation of the many; the individual discovers his own good in the good of the mass; and the presence of this strong social and ethical quality raises the presumption that insurance will be a proper subject for management by the state. It turns out in practice that in direct proportion as insurance is impressed with social import so far has it become a matter of state concern. So-called social insurance comes first; then, somewhat more doubtfully, comes life insurance; and then, full of serious doubt, fire insurance and other forms of property insurance. This order is hardly accidental, although the reason for fire insurance being last on the list is largely due to the presence of the conflagration hazard which makes fire insurance peculiarly a field for private enterprise. Professor Gephart treats these three forms of insurance separately and while he does not try to strike the balance for or against state insurance in any case, the way the scales tip is fairly obvious.

The compelling thought in men's minds seems to be that while the state may leave the protection of property to private enterprise, when the loss brings acute suffering the state should assume the burden of supplying protection. Again, when the need for protection is so urgent that it is compelled by the state, as for instance in the case of compulsory compensation, the state feels it peculiarly necessary to provide insurance protection, lest private supply prove inadequate.

As an alternative to state management of insurance is state control. Control as to solvency has been long admitted; we are now entering the field of control of rates and expense. Here there are peculiar technical questions which make the matter even more involved than the question of the control of railroad rates. Professor Gephart alludes to this, but does not enter into a discussion, which would require far more space than the limits of his book.

Professor Gephart's book is an adequate presentation of the subject; but it is to be feared that few of the legislators who are committing the state to insurance schemes, with little understanding of the serious technical questions involved, will take the pains to study the matter so thoughtfully.


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