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a study of conditions in a segregated industrial community, but a community which nevertheless resembles other foreign communities in Chicago and in other large cities of the country. What is said of the lack of preparation for industrial life, of the effects of too early employment on the health, morals, and industrial future of the girl workers, and of the attitude of the immigrant parents to child labor is in large measure true in our large foreign colonies wherever they are found. It is encouraging that some of the remedies proposed by Miss Montgomery, such as the establishment of pre-vocational classes in the elementary schools. and of a vocational supervision and employment office in the central offices of the board of education, are already in progress in Chicago.

In preparing an account of trade unionism among women in the largest city of the Pacific coast while the early organizers are still living and fugitive historical materials are still available, Dr. Matthews has set an admirable example for other students. Her study is a comprehensive one that deals with the methods and circumstances of the women's organizations in fifteen different trades, and presents an analysis of the relation of women's work to men's work in the various trades discussed, together with an account of the social and industrial benefits that have come as direct or indirect results of organization. Various types of trade union structure are presented: independent women's organizations, women's unions affiliated with local men's unions, mixed unions dominated by men, and at least one example of a mixed union dominated by women-that of the United Garment Workers, in which "the men are few and the affairs of the union are entirely in the hands of the women." A few points of special local interest should be noted, such as the rehabilitation of the trade unions after the earthquake and fire, the question of competition with Oriental labor, and the attitude of the different groups of trade union women toward California's eight-hour and womansuffrage laws.

Artificial Flower Makers is the report of an elaborate investigation in a relatively unimportant but interesting trade in New York City. During this investigation, 114 firms, all that could be found, were visited. The maximum number of women employed in the busy season is only 4,470 and dwindles down during the

slack season to a force of 873 women, 385 of whom are employed in feather making, an alternative industry. Flower making is a low-grade industry so demoralized by the vagaries of fashion that "in more than one half of the shops the workers must expect a dull period of three or four months in every year." It is an industry requiring almost no investment in buildings or machinery, and is carried on in small insanitary shops, in factory "lofts," and by home workers in tenements, for it readily lends itself to the home-work system and the number of home workers employed is greater than the number of workers employed in shops. It necessarily follows that the industry is characterized by low wages, long hours, short seasons, cheap work, haphazard methods of training.

We scarcely need to be told that "the demand in the trade is for cheap labor and, therefore, young girls are needed; and that the wages ahead for experienced workers are too low to make it worth while to train them in a school." Of special interest are the chapters that deal with home work and with the contrast between the French and the American industry. In conclusion one wonders whether progress does not lie in the abolition rather than in the rehabilitation of this trade in New York. So long as it remains a hand trade, it is probably better suited to French than to American conditions.

Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy.



BERNSTEIN, E. Die Schneiderbewegung in Deutschland. Vol. I. Geschichte des Gewerbes und seiner Arbeiter bis zur Gründung des deutschen Schneiderverbandes. (Berlin: Buchh. Vorwärts. 1913. Pp. viii, 309. 6 M.)

BRUPBACHER, F. Marx und Bakunin. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der internationalen Arbeiterassoziation. (Munich: G. Birk & Co. 1913. Pp. 202. 3 M.)

CAPITANT, H. Les accidents du travail survenus aux enfants âgés de moins de treize ans. (Paris: Alcan. 1913.)

COLE, G. D. H. The world of labour. A discussion of the present and future of trade unionism. (London: Bell. 1918. Pp. vi, 443. 5s.) To be reviewed.

COMMONS, J. R. Labor and administration. (New York: Macmillan. 1918. Pp. vii, 431. $1.60.)

This book is a collection of twenty-two articles previously pub

lished by the author. Among them are several already familiar to followers of literature on American labor, as, for example, the chapters on American Shoemakers, 1648-1895, and An Idealistic Interpretation of History. These are the articles which were reproduced substantially from the journals in which they originally appeared in the Documentary History of American Industrial Society, as introductions in volumes III and VII respectively. Several of the articles deal with the problems and policies of trade unions; a few with state agencies for investigation, for the enforcement of labor laws, and for the handling of other labor problems; and a few with the activities, attitudes, and interests of labor in such matters as municipal politics and administration and the tariff There are included also subjects not peculiarly bound up with the labor problem, as, for example, Standardizing the Home, and the Utilitarian Idealism of the University of Wisconsin. The chain of connection between the articles is stated in the preface to be the inquiry as to "how to draft and enforce the laws, how to keep the winnings of strikes— in short, how to connect ideals with efficiency." D. A. McC.

DEFOYERE, G. La révolution syndicaliste convoyée par les catholiques sociaux. Réponse à l'abbé Desbuquois. (Paris: Victorion. 1918. Pp. 163. 2 fr.)

FAGNOT, F. La réglementation du travail dans les usines à marche continué. (Paris: Alcan. 1913. 1.50 fr.)

GERLACH, K. A. Die Bedeutung des Arbeiterinnenschutzes. (Jena: Fischer. 1918. Pp. viii, 121. 8 M.)

GOLDMARK, J. C. Handbook of laws regulating women's hours of labor, and a standard law embodying the best provisions of the most effective statutes now in force. (New York: Nat. Consumers' League. 1913. Pp. 56. 15c.)

HICKS, F. C. Aids to the study and use of law books. (New York: Baker, Voorhis. 1918. Pp. 129. $1.)

JANNEAU, G. L'apprentissage dans les métiers d'art. (Paris: Dunod & Pinat. 1913. Pp. 156. 3 fr.)


Blätter aus der Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung Oesterreichs 1867-1894. (Klosterneuburg: R. Grossmann. 1913. Pp. xvi, 87. 0.60 M.)

LAIDLER, H. W. Boycotts and the labor struggle. (New York: Lane. 1918. Pp. 488. $2.)

To be reviewed.

LAUGHLIN, C. E. The work-a-day girl. (New York: Revell. 1918. Pp. 320. $1.50.)

LINDENBERG, G. Reichsgewerbeordnung mit dem Hausarbeit- Kinderschutz- und Stellenvermittlergesetze. (Berlin: Lienmann. 1918. 12.50 M.)

NEARING, S. Financing the wage-earner's family. (New York: Huebsch. 1918. $1.25.)

To be reviewed.

POUGET, E. L'organisation du surmenage (le système Taylor). Bibliothèque du mouvement prolétarien, XV. (Paris: Rivière. 1918. Pp. 70. 0.60 fr.)

The Taylor system through French syndicalist spectacles appears as the old speeding-up system of the sweat shop reduced to a science and put into practice on a large scale. Pouget disclaims any desire to hinder real progress in industrial methods and quotes with approval Gilbreth's famous experiment in scientific bricklaying. The elimination of useless motions is approved, but the author shows that Taylor is chiefly interested in the elimination of all but the strongest, the prevention of "soldiering," the crushing of unionism, and the speeding up of the worker to the limit of his strength. The author points out that in the examples given by Taylor himself the product of the worker is often tripled or quadrupled, while his wages are never increased more than 60 per cent, thus giving to capital a larger share of the product of labor. Furthermore, it is shown that the natural result of speeding up is the lowering of the wage rate, and Pouget asserts that wages have been actually lowered where the system has been adopted in France. The most serious charge against the system is that it deprives the worker of initiative and individuality, making him simply a part of a machine, and that it breaks his health through overstrain, unfits him for parenthood, and sends him to the scrap heap while he is still comparatively young. GEORGE LOUIS ARNER.

REELY, M. K., compiler. Selected articles on minimum wage. (White
Plains, N. Y.: H. W. Wilson Co. 1913. Pp. 48. 25c.)
ROUGE, C. Les syndicats professionnels et l'assurance contre le
chômage. (Paris: Rivière. 1913.)

SCHLOESSER, H. H. and CLARK, W. S. The legal position of trade unions. Second edition. (London: King. 1913. 10s. 6d.)

Contains the Trade Union Act of 1913 which has substantially altered the position of trade unions.

SINZHEIMER, H. Rechtsfragen des Arbeitstarifvertrags. Vol. 5, part 3: Brauchen wir ein Arbeitstarifgesetz? Schriften der Gesellschaft für soziale Reform, 44. (Jena: Fischer. 1913. 0.40 M.) SUMIEN, P. and GROUSSIER, A. Code du travail et de la prévoyance sociale. Vol. II. De la réglementation du travail. (Paris: PlonNourrit. 1913. 5 fr.)

TOLMAN, W. H. and KENDALL, L. B. Safety. Methods for preventing occupational and other accidents and disease. (New York: Harper. 1913. Pp. xii, 433, illus. $3.)

A valuable handbook of practical information in regard to safety devices and shop hygiene by the director of the American Museum of Safety. The work is divided into four parts entitled respectively: General Conditions, Danger Zones, Industrial Hygiene, and Social Welfare. In part II the various groups of industries are taken up

in detail and numerous examples are given of the work of accident elimination through safety devices and organization. Part IV gives examples of welfare work by various concerns and plans for industrial education. The book is profusely illustrated. G. L. A. TRACY, G. A. History of the Typographical Union. (Indianapolis: Internat. Typographical Union. 1913.)

WAGNER, O. Die Frau im Dienste der Reichs- Post- und Telegraphenverwaltung unter besonderer Berücksichtigung Bayerns, Württembergs und des Auslandes. (Leipzig: Teubner. 1913. Pp. vi, 247. 5.40 M.)

WATNEY, C. and LITTLE, J. A. Industrial warfare: The aims and claims of capital and labour. (New York: Dutton. 1913. Pp. x, 353. $2.)

To be reviewed.

ZIMMERMANN, W. Rechtsfragen des Arbeitstarifvertrages. Vol. 5, parts 1-2: Haftung und Abdingbarkeit. Schriften der Gesellschaft für soziale Reform, 42. (Jena: Fischer. 1913. 0.90 M.) Accident prevention. Safety first. (Philadelphia: United Gas Improvement Co. 1913. Pp. 111, illus. 75c.)

Child labor and poverty; the papers and addresses and discussions of the ninth national conference on child labor, held at Jacksonville, Fla., March 13-17, 1913. (New York: Nat. Child Labor Com. 1913. Pp. 174. $1.)

Factory sanitation. (Pittsburgh: Standard Sanitary Mfg. Co. 1918. Pp. xxxix, 135, illus.)

Report of proceedings at the forty-sixth annual trades union congress held in Milton Hall, Manchester, on September 1-6, 1913. (London: C. W. Bowerman, secretary, London Society of Compositors. 1913. Pp. 368.)

Rapports annuels de l'inspection du travail en Belgique. (Brussels: Société Belge du Librairie. 1913. Pp. 550. 4 fr.) Lohnstatistik des Personals der österreichischen Staatseisenbahnverwaltung nach dem Stande vom 31. Dezember 1912. (Vienna: Hofund Staatsdruckerei. 1913. Pp. iii, 251; 927; 842; 293. 16 K.)

Money, Prices, Credit, and Banking

El Papel Moneda. By GUILLERMO SUBERCASEAUX. (Santiago: Imprenta Cervantes Delicias. 1912. Pp. 406.)

The people of Chile are suffering, as we did thirty years ago, from an unsound monetary system, which has for a long time been a disturbing factor in business and has contributed not a little to the establishment of foreign control of the industries of the country. Professor Subercaseaux is one of a group of dis

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