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him into the sacrifice of scientific accuracy to picturesqueness of statement. Here and there, also, misprints make it necessary to exercise a little caution in using the book.

LINCOLN HUTCHINSON.

University of California.

The Origin of Property, and the Formation of the Village Community. By JAN ST. LEWINSKI. (London: Constable & Company, Ltd. 1913. Pp. xi, 71. 3s. 6d.)

Despite the title, the really important discussions herein have to do rather with the growth of systems of property than with its origin. The four chief factors in the problem are thus stated: the economic principle, the principle of numerical strength, the growth of population, and the relation of nature to human wants. With special reference to property in land, the author points out that it is erroneous to speak of common property among nomadic peoples, since, while every individual has a right to the free use of the soil, the community has no right to dispose of it. In general, property will be found to be individual "where the labor unit is an individual or family; it will be common when the labor unit is a collective group." Similarly, regulations as to use of land will differ according to the labor necessary to prepare it for use. Modern reformers who are accustomed to point to primitive common ownership of land as a natural and universal condition will find little encouragement in the present book. Exactly the opposite condition is declared by the author to have been the original one.

As a matter of fact, the village community is shown to have been a relatively late development and to have been only a passing phase of economic evolution. It characterizes that period which lies between a great growth of population and the time when agriculture becomes intensive. Growth of population, indeed, is the chief dynamic agent in producing changes in the status of property in land. Contrary to the older view, the village community was a natural growth, and was not much affected by the factors of race, migration, imitation, or legislation.

The author gives most attention to Russian conditions, but he also studies the German mark and the village communities of India, Java, and early England. Brief as this book is, being the outcome of lectures delivered at the London School of Economics, it is a valuable adjunct to the older works of Maine, Maurer,

Seebohm, and Baden-Powell. To the average student who does not read Russian it is particularly useful because it presents in compact form a large amount of material from Russian sources not otherwise available.

ULYSSES G. WEATHERLY.

NEW BOOKS

ALLEN, F. and JONES, D. A. An atlas of commercial geography. (New York: Putnam. 1913.)

BAHRFELDT, E. Das Münzwesen der Mark Brandenburg unter Friedrich Wilhelm, dem grossen Kurfürsten, und Kurfürst Friedrich 3. 1640-1701. (Leipzig: Koehler's Antiquarium. 1913. Pp. xi, 174. 24 M.)

DE BRAY, A. J. L'essor industriel et commercial du peuple canadien. (Montreal: Librairie Beauchemin. 1913.)

BRIGHAM, J. The life and services of Senator James Harlan. (Iowa City: State Hist. Soc. 1913.)

CARTWRIGHT, R. Reminiscences. (Toronto: William Briggs. 1913. Pp. 408.)

Reviewed in The Economist, September 6, 1913.

CHANCELLOR, W. E. A life of Silas Wright 1795-1847, United States senator from New York 1883-1844, governor of the state of New York 1844-1846. (New York: W. C. O'Donnell, Jr. 1913. Pp. 128. $1.)

CHAPIN, F. S. An introduction to the study of social evolution; the prehistoric period. (New York: Century Co. 1913. Pp. xxii, 306, illus. $2.)

COLAJANNI, N. L'Italia di oggi. (Rome: C. A. Bontempelli. 1913. 2 vols.)

COLLINSON, W. The apostle of free labour. (London: Hurst. 1913. Pp. 332. 16s.)

Autobiography of the founder and general secretary of the National Free Labour Association. A story of strike-breaking.

CONNELLEY, W. E. The life of Preston B. Plumb, 1837-1891, United States senator from Kansas for fourteen years. (Chicago: Browne & Howell. 1913. Pp. 6, 475. $3.50.)

DUNCAN-CLARK, S. J. The Progressive movement; its principles and its programme. (Boston: Small, Maynard. 1913. 50c.)

DURKHEIM, E. L'année sociologique. Vol. XII. 1909-1912. (Paris: Alcan. 1913. Pp. 892. 15 fr.)

ENOCK, C. R. The republics of Central and South America; their resources, industries, sociology and future. South American series. (New York: Scribner. 1913. Pp. 544. $3.)

ENSGRABER, W. Die Entwicklung Darmstadts und seine Bodenpreise in den letzten 40 Jahren. (Leipzig: Deichert. 1913. 6.40 M.) FISH, C. R. The development of American nationality. (New York: American Book Co. 1913. Pp. xxxix, 535.)

This is volume 2 of the Short History of the American People, the first volume of which was prepared by Professor E. B. Greene. It includes chapters on New Economic and Social Conditions, 1830 to 1860; The Currency and the Tariff, 1880 to 1900; and Industrial and Social Changes.

GANNETT, H., GARRISON, C. L., and HOUSTON, E. J.

Commercial geography. Revised edition. (New York: American Book Co. 1913. Pp. vi, 416, illus. $1.25.)

HART, A. B., editor. Social and economic forces in American history. (New York: Harper. 1913. Pp. 523, map. $1.50.)

Compiled from the twenty-seven volumes of The American Nation.

HELFFERICH, K. Deutschlands Volkswohlstand 1888-1913. (Berlin: Stilke. 1913. Pp. viii, 127. 1 M.)

HOTCHKISS, C. W. Representative cities of the United States, a geographical and industrial reader. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1913. Pp. xi, 212, maps, illus.)

KEY, H. La vie économique de la Suède. (Paris: Plon-Nourritt. 1913.)

MALLET, M.-G. La politique financière des Jacobins. (Paris: Rousseau. 1913. Pp. 449.)

MANES, A. Der soziale Erdteil. Studienfahrt eines Nationalökonomen durch Australasien. (Berlin: Mittler. 1913. Pp. 178, illus. 3 M.)

MARTIN, A. G. Précis de sociologie nord-africaine. Part I. (Paris: E. Leroux. 1913. 2.50 fr.)

MILLER, H. H. and STORMS, C. H. Economic conditions in the Philippines. (Boston: Ginn. 1913. Pp. vi, 273. $1.75.)

The Bureau of Education ́at Manila has issued this book for use in the fourth year of Philippine secondary schools. It is distinctly elementary, much more so than would be necessary in a book designed for the last year in American high schools. The authors have digested and used with discrimination the special literature which has accumulated relating to different industries in the Philippines. They had the advantage, not only of personal knowledge of Philippine conditions, but of an economic census of the islands undertaken through the teachers in the public schools. The book betrays an intimate knowledge of local conditions which no mere library student could have attained. There are some useful maps and diagrams and an index. E. V. R.

MILLER, T. C. and MAXWELL, H. West Virginia and its people. (New York: Lewis Pub. Co. 1913. $21.)

MOLTKE, S. Was Friedrich List dem deutschen Volke war und heute
noch ist. (Leipzig: Frz. Weyland. 1913. Pp. 20. 0.40 M.)
MOORE, B. F. The Supreme Court and unconstitutional legislation.
Columbia University Studies in History, Economics, and Public
Law, LIV, 2. (New York: Longmans. 1913. Pp. 159. $1.)

A useful study of some aspects of judicial control over legislation. Dr. Moore traces briefly the early history of judicial power in the states, and then proceeds to a careful discussion of the attitude of the United States Supreme Court toward legislation, both federal and state. He finds that, in the main, the courts have not regarded their power as one to be exercised only in cases where the invalidity of legislation was clear beyond a reasonable doubt. Perhaps the most valuable part of the monograph is the third chapter, which analyzes the federal statutes held void by the United States Supreme Court. In the appendices are collected tables of all cases in which statutes have been held invalid by the United States Supreme Court. M. H. R. PARCE, L. Economic determinism; or, the economic interpretation of history. (Chicago: Kerr. 1913. Pp. 9, 155. $1.)

PERNET. Pierre le Grand. Mercantiliste. (Paris: Librairie générale de droit. 1913. 5 fr.)

RATZEL, F. Geografia dell'uomo. (Rome: Bocca. 1918. 17 1.) SAINT-LEGER. L'Argentine économique. (Paris: Roger & Chernoviz. 1913. 3 fr.)

TURNER, F. J. A list of references on the history of the West. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1913. Pp. 180. 75c.) WILLIAMSON, J. A. Maritime enterprise, 1485-1558. (London: Oxford University Press. 1913. 15 plates. 14s.)

WINTER, N. O. Poland of to-day and yesterday. (Boston: Page. 1913. Pp. 12, 349. $3.)

A general view of trade and industry in the Netherlands. (The Hague: Commercial Department of the Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce. 1913.)

A history of the salt union. A record of twenty-five years of disunion and depreciation, compiled from official reports. (London: Wilson. 1913. 5s.)

Mercantile marine atlas of the world. Fourth edition, revised and enlarged. (London: G. Philip & Son. 1918. 200 charts and maps. £3. 3s.)

Incorporates the changes made by the opening of the Panama

Canal.

Select charters of trading companies, A.D. 1530-1707. Selden Society publications, vol. 28. (London: Quaritch. 1913.) Semi-centennial history of the state of Colorado. Two volumes. (Chicago: Lewis Pub. Co. 1913. $25.)

Agriculture, Mining, Forestry, and Fisheries

The New Agrarianism. By CHARLES W. DAHLINGER. (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1913. Pp. lv, 248. $1.00.) Evil conditions which have been so much complained of in recent years are due, Mr. Dahlinger thinks, not to essential faults of government or our economic organization, but to unequal progress as between agriculture on the one hand and industry and commerce on the other.

The consolidation of manufacturing is not so harmful as people suppose; the consolidation is less general than they imagine; small-scale industry is not disappearing; opportunity is not being destroyed. "The people do not bear in mind that whenever a radical change in the manner of manufacturing takes place a readjustment must be had of the forces which produce it." The initiative and referendum, as methods of dealing with public evils, do not well serve their purpose; they have been used for vicious legislation and for measures so numerous that the people cannot understand them, as when Oregon voted on thirty-eight legislative measures at once, in 1912.

Improvement in agricultural methods and organization (described through several chapters with reference to the United States, Ireland, and Europe) is, in the author's opinion, the means of allaying the popular discontent which arises fundamentally, he thinks, from the increased cost of living.

Mr. Dahlinger is clearly in error when he speaks (p. 41) of a "Grange party" formed in 1867; it is worse than questionable to say that Gustavus Adolphus defeated "Austria" (p. 159); and at least doubtful is the proposition (p. 43) that "no greater act of beneficence was ever done by man for man than the enactment of the Interstate Commerce Law." One may be surprised also to read (p. 118) that farming cannot be profitable in the United States, since by the census of 1910 the gross product of manufacturing was much greater than that of agriculture, with a much less valuation of property employed. It may be difficult, again, to agree that the happiness of mankind would be sccured, as we are told in conclusion, by the multiplication of agricultural societies like the German Bund der Landwirthnumerous and powerful enough to secure the election in 1907 of every candidate for the Reichstag whom it approved, declaring its purpose to be legislation for the benefit of that one class, limiting its membership to Christians, and effecting the enactment

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