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and otherwise of no great consequence. He might have modified the affirmation which the spirit of Thaddeus Stevens is alleged to have rapped out to Mr. Dickey, the Member of Congress who had in charge the memorial service, and who was troubled because more senators and representatives wanted to speak than could be crowded into the program. Having inquired their names, and learned that the list included many of his old time opponents as well as his friends and those who had been closely associated with him, the spirit of the doughty old fighter is alleged to have said:

"Since I don't have to listen to the speeches, I don't care a rap who delivers them."

Lincoln did not have to read all these books. The literature which followed the death of Lincoln was not wholly biographical. The Sunday following the death of Lincoln was devoted in hundreds of pulpits to discourses upon his character and the lessons of his life and death. In many cities special services were held, then, and on May 20, the day of his burial. The discourses delivered at these services, hastily prepared, were nevertheless earnest and timely, and in many cases were printed. These have become rare items for the collector, who has an

endless task before him if he attempts to secure anything like a complete list. Beside the lesser addresses were formal orations by George Bancroft, Charles Sumner, Schuyler Colfax and others, orations which have a permanent place in literature.

Then came collections of his writings, collections of poems about him, one of the latter published by Lippincott as early as 1865, and others following in reasonably swift succession. The number of Lincoln anthologies is not small, and some of the more recent ones have been of the best.

Books of Lincoln stories began in time to issue. Many stories were told while Lincoln was alive which claimed him as their author. I have Judge Arnold's own copy of one of the earlier collections of alleged Lincoln Stories. It bears upon its fly-leaf the penciled comment of that competent biographer and friend of Lincoln to the effect that "About half of these stories are authentic, and most of them badly told." But books of Lincoln jokes continue to escape the press; though it would appear that there could be no large source of unexplored material for works of this character.

Soon after Lincoln's death, biographies began

to appear which were not revamped campaign documents, but which undertook in the light of such knowledge as was then available to trace the career of Abraham Lincoln from the cradle to the grave. Mrs. Phoebe A. Hanaford produced such a book, the first biography of Lincoln to be written by a woman. Frank A. Crosby of the Philadelphia bar wrote one. J. H. Barrett and H. J. Raymond rewrote their campaign biographies; and the latter appended to his work the first really valuable collection of Lincoln's state papers. Dr. L. P. Brockett, a physician, wrote another, which contains some evidence of original investigation. But the most notable, and by far the most valuable, of the 1865 biographies, was that by Josiah G. Holland, who also began life as a physician, but whose career was in literature, as historian and novelist, and who was for many years editor of the Springfield Republican and afterward of Scribner's Magazine.

Meantime, there was in preparation a body of material which emerged in two notable books. William H. Herndon of Springfield was for many years and until the death of Lincoln, law-partner of Abraham Lincoln. The sign "Lincoln and Herndon" was not taken down even when

Lincoln went to Washington; and the partnership was not formally dissolved until death ended it. Herndon had taken notes of Lincoln, his personal appearance, his habits, his dress, his moods, his domestic and political affairs, and much beside. After Lincoln's death he visited Lincoln's step-mother and surviving relatives, and procured from them statements about Lincoln. He also visited Kentucky, and collected a large and valuable body of material. But his plan to make a book of this was postponed for reasons which are sufficiently known and need not here be repeated, till Herndon lost heart; and, being in financial distress, sold for $2,000, copies of his Lincoln manuscripts to Col. Ward Hill Lamon. Lamon was a Virginian, who had lived at Danville, Illinois, where he was Lincoln's associate, and was often spoken of as his local partner, in the trial of cases in court. Lincoln appointed him Marshal of the District of Columbia. After Lincoln's death he formed a partnership with Jeremiah S. Black, who had been Attorney General in the Cabinet of Buchanan, and counsel for Andrew Johnson on his trial on impeachment. Black's son, Chauncey F. Black, who in 1885 edited his father's writings and wrote a biographical

preface to them, had considerable literary skill, and no love for Lincoln. He assisted Lamon, and, as Herndon later affirmed, wrote "quite every word" of Lamon's Life of Lincoln, which was published in 1872, and brought the narrative down to the time of his first inauguration.

The result was a surprise and shock. Lamon's book evoked the most vehement denunciations against Lamon, Black and Herndon. The publishers lost money; Lamon lost both money and prestige; and there was a three-cornered quarrel over material which Black had insisted on publishing and which Lamon and the publishers rejected, relative to the close of Buchanan's administration and other matters. The book did not sell; and the bulk of the edition disappeared so mysteriously that it is charged that friends and perhaps relatives of Lincoln bought and destroyed such copies as they were able to procure.

Unfrightened by the reception of Lamon's book, Herndon himself essayed the task of writing a biography of Lincoln. Assisted by Jesse W. Weik, of Greencastle, Indiana, he published in three volumes his Life of Lincoln, which appeared in 1889. The storm that had beat upon the head of Lamon was a mere sum

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