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of property, loosened it from other ties, broken down (as far as justice warranted) all great possessions; encouraged colonization and building, compelled Nature herself to submit her laws to human reason in the more useful forms of art and science, and left all future improvement to native energy and the impulse already given by his own wisdom and beneficence!"-p. 447.

These disjointed extracts give but an imperfect view of the benevolence, energy, enlightenment, and wisdom of this illustrious prince; nor have we been able to give any idea of the difficulties of every kind with which he had to contend. That he was not as entirely successful as he wished to be need not surprise us; and we shall conclude this brief sketch of his career by the apt words of his historian,

"If permanent effects on national character, comforts, and general happiness, be a criterion of excellence and greatness, the comparative state of Tuscany, now and formerly, will surely entitle him to these epithets the benevolence of Nerva, Trajan, and the Antonines died with them, but his may still be found in every Tuscan cottage."

His accession to the Imperial throne in 1790, and consequent abdication of Tuscany, was a severe check to the progress of improvement, followed as it was by his death in 1792. His son, Ferdinand III., ascended the throne as a minor, and was consequently placed under a regency, which was not animated by the spirit of Leopold. Tuscany, however, was soon drawn into the vortex of European war, and frequently changed hands until 1814, when Ferdinand was restored: that prince died in 1824, after a very popular reign of ten years, much regretted by every class of his people. He was succeeded by Leopold II.

And here we must close this brief sketch: for while we write we know not what may be taking place. We had hoped a short time since for a different conclusion to that which now appears imminent; we had thought it not impossible that the Papal States would have been incorporated with those of Tuscany under the sovereignty of the exiled Grand Duke; such would probably have been the case had Leopold the Second been a less scrupulous man, in the case which led to his exile undoubtedly over scrupulous.

In the day of their adversity and his prosperity, the Carbonari canvassed the idea of making him king of all Italy, should they ever regain the ascendant. The plan was a wise one, for alone of all the princely houses of Italy, had that of Lorraine been distinguished as governing for the good of the people, and Leopold possessed. Has his exile entirely cancelled these strong claims on

the gratitude of these men? It is well known that when the Carbonari were persecuted and driven out of every other Italian state, this excellent prince refused to take any measures against them, though urged repeatedly to do so by Austria, declaring that he felt secure in the love of his people and nobly had he earned that love by carrying out the designs of his grandfather, so as to raise Tuscany above every other portion of the peninsula. We recollect hearing, when in Italy some years since, an anecdote which well illustrates his character. A man appeared before him, and presented him with a long list of conspirators; the Grand Duke and the informer were alone; he received the roll of paper from the traitor's hand, and having put it into the fire unread, sternly looked at him from head to foot, and then said, "That will do, Sir; I shall now know what a villain is like, the next time that I see one."

Such a man deserves not only the love of his people, not only the gratitude of every Italian patriot, but the sympathy of every good and generous mind; and if, in the latter days of his life, he has shown less firmness than might have been wished, when assailed on the one hand by that storm which has swept in desolating fury from the shores of the Seine to those of the Indus, let us not press hardly on the homeless old man, let us not think unkindly of one who was always kind, or unjustly of one who was always just; and, if no costly monument, no proud inscription, mark the last resting-place of the royal exile, the Athenian historian will furnish an epitaph which, by merely changing the sex, and making a few other slight alterations, will fairly and strictly apply to "the Father of his People.”

̓Ανδρὸς ἀριστεύσαντος ἐν Ελλάδι τῶν ἐφ' ἑαυτοῦ
Ιππίου Αρχεδίκης ἥδε κέκευθε κόνις"

Η πατρός τε καὶ ἀνδρὸς ἀδελφῶν τ ̓ οὖσα τυράννων
Παίδων τ ̓ οὐκ ἤρθη νοῦν ἐς ατασθαλίην.

ART. III.-1. A Plan of Church Extension and Reform, submitted to the Right Honourable Lord John Russell, by a Deputation, in March, 1848. With Remarks by J. C. COLQUHOUN, Esq. Second Edition, with further Remarks. London: Seeleys. 2. The Tithe Redemption Trust. A Letter to the Lord Lyttelton. From WILLIAM WYNDHAM MALET, Vicar of Ardeley, and Honorary Secretary to the Trust. London: Cleaver.

3. Urgent Reasons for reviving the Synodal Functions of the Church. By the Rev. T. P. WRIGHT, M.A., &c. London: Rivingtons. IN our last number we briefly invited the reader's attention to the publication which stands at the head of these pages, and which is, in many respects, amongst the most important and interesting publications bearing on the material interests of the Church of England, that it has been our fortune to see. The importance of this publication consists in its emanating from a combined and influential body of clergy and laity, who, in the spring of 1848, drew up a Plan of Church Extension and Reform, which was laid before Lord John Russell, by a deputation of their body consisting of the Earl of Harrowby, Lord Ashley, Lord Robert Grosvenor, and Mr. Colquhoun. The latter gentleman was subsequently requested by those who had taken the chief interest in this question, to draw up and publish a statement of the plan and its reasons; and the result is, the pamphlet to which we have above referred.

In connexion with the subject of this publication, we will also refer to the interesting account which the Rev. W. W. Malet has published, of the origin and proceedings of the Tithe Redemption Trust. We have long watched with interest and sympathy the exertions which the founders of the Tithe Redemption Trust have made to promote their excellent and most unexceptionable objects. Their design of promoting the restoration of all tithes to the support of the parochial clergy, or, at least, of obtaining augmentations from appropriated and impropriate tithes for poor benefices, must command the approbation of all Churchmen. We cannot, however, quite go along with Mr. Malet in looking on the payment of tithe to bishops as, in itself, any alienation of this property from its original purposes; for Mr. Malet himself will not deny, that from the very earliest period tithes were paid to the bishops for their own support, and that of the inferior clergy; and it should be always remembered

that the bishop is, in the view of the Church, the pastor of his whole diocese, and that all parish priests are his assistants in the work of the ministry; so that there would be nothing unreasonable in the payment of tithe to him by a portion of his own flock. It seems to us, that, sound as is the doctrine which assigns the tithes of each parish to its actual incumbent, there must be some modifications and exceptions, or the result would be a very unequal distribution as compared with the amount of labour and expense; for the tithes of rural districts, in which there is least population, are usually very much more valuable than those of benefices where there is a very large population; the increase of population, in many cases, having caused the tithes to diminish in value. The restoration of the alienated tithes to their original purposes would not benefit so much the numerous poor town parishes as the better endowed country parishes; and for the former, where the chief evil lies, some other remedy must be found than a mere restoration of tithes to their original purposes, There would, we think, be no objection in principle to applying any portion which could be recovered of the impropriated tithe of a country parish already sufficiently endowed, to the endowment of a poor living in some populous place. With these remarks on the subject of the Tithe Redemption Trust, we must take our leave of that Institution, cordially wishing that it may obtain that kind of support which is essential to its efficiency; but with the conviction, that something beyond mere voluntary associations like this, depending on the alms of the charitably-disposed, is requisite to meet the exigencies of the Church.

The Plan of Church Extension and Reform, which is comprised in Mr. Colquhoun's publication, is of such a nature as to deserve the attention of all who are inclined to adopt practical views of the subject. It is eminently a practical view, pointing out the evils which are to be remedied, and the means of remedying them. We do not concur in the expediency of every one of the measures proposed; but it certainly ought to be a subject of very great satisfaction to Churchmen generally, to see laymen of so much influence and station as those who have taken a leading part in putting forth this plan, thus earnestly, and, we will hope, effectually, working in the Church's cause. This is precisely the sort of thing that is wanted. We want men who will openly avow themselves desirous of advancing the cause of religion, by extending the means of usefulness possessed by the National Church. We want men who will not be content with mere wishes or writings on the subject, but who will take measures for carrying their plans into actual operation-will push

forward their measures, and persevere in them until they are carried. We are particularly pleased to see Lord Ashley occupying a prominent position in this movement; for, although we may not wholly concur with his lordship in various points, we do concur in this plan as regards its main features; and Lord Ashley has shown before now, that when he has taken up a cause, he has perseverance and weight enough to carry it to a successful issue. Looking at Lord Ashley's general position as a politician, and as a deservedly respected advocate of all objects tending to the amelioration of his fellow-men, either physically or morally; we regard him as well suited to advance the interests of the Church of England, at the present time, in such a direction and on such points as the Plan refers to.


Of the tone of Mr. Colquhoun's pamphlet we cannot speak too highly it is the production of a man who is evidently cordially attached to the Church of England. He is no lukewarm friend, but an attached member of the Church. Whatever may have been Mr. Colquhoun's early connexions and associations, there can now, at least, be no doubt of his firm and enlightened adherence to the cause of the English Church.

We proceed now to examine the Plan in detail. It is conceived in the following terms:

"I. With a view to the more efficient government of the Church, the better apportionment of Ecclesiastical revenues, and a more adequate supply of pastors to the people, it seems desirable that the Ecclesiastical Commission should be remodelled, and its powers enlarged.

"II. Means should be taken to ascertain the full value of all lands pertaining to bishops and Ecclesiastical Corporations, and to make them available to the fullest extent for spiritual purposes.

"III. The archbishops and bishops of existing dioceses should be endowed with incomes of a definite amount, and the surplus arising from episcopal property should be paid into a general fund at the disposal of the Ecclesiastical Commission.

"IV. The fund accruing from this surplus, and from the improved management of Church lands, should be employed in making provision for the spiritual wants of the people, by the endowment of new districts to be formed on the principle of Sir Robert Peel's Act.

"V. Periodical returns should be made of the spiritual wants of each Diocese, and the results should be published, with a view of directing the contributions of the wealthy to those quarters in which the creation and endowment of churches are most required.

"VI. New sees should be formed in such numbers as to secure the vigilant oversight of dioceses, the annual holding of Visitations and Confirmations, and frequent personal intercourse with the clergy. The new bishops should not have seats in Parliament, and should receive incomes not exceeding 2000l. per annum, with a residence.

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