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declaration of war against Germany early last year. Prohibition of the liquor traffic and city ownership of public utilities are among impending changes.

It is for these and other reasons that the 201 legislators now in session at Albany will become of spec

cial interest in the year 1918.

Governor Charles S. Whitman begins the fourth year of his administration. He had He had been chief executive only seven months when the war in Europe burst upon the world. The great conflict added tremendously to the responsibilities of the governor of the Empire State as it has to every other executive of the other States of the union. Both Republicans and Democrats in the legislature are united in their patriotic zeal to serve the nation in the present crisis.

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Edward Schoeneck

Governor Whitman and his associates are proud of the fact that war preparedness was begun in New York State long before Germany forced the United States into the conflict. This preparation is not only a mobilization of the national guard but a systematic inventory of the resources of the State. Such a plan organizes citizens for war and, in a larger sense, organizes them for peace and progress.

There are 51 new members of assembly this year, or more than one-third of the total membership. So great a change in one year is unusual as new assemblymen from year to year have not exceeded from 25 to 35.

Most of this upheaval was in New York city, where out of a total of 62 assemblymen elected from the five counties comprising that city, 29, almost one-half, are new members. Of these 29, Bronx county sends 7 assemblymen elected to the legislature for the first time; Kings county has 9 new members in a total of 23; New York has 9 of 23; Queens 3 of 6 and Richmond one of the two.

The large proportion of new members in New York city, of course, is explained by the fact that reapportionment there has upset the usual representation in the legislature.

Only three State senators were elected this year, one to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Senator George E. Spring of the Chautauqua- Cattaraugus district. another caused by the resignation of Senator Ogden L. Mills who is now a major in the army, Senator Peter M. Daly of the second district resigned during the year, and August Farrenkop was elected

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Thaddeus E. Sweet

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in November to succeed him. His district covers all Queens county. After the next election, this year, the county will be represented by two senators under the new apportionment law.

Since election day, Senator Morris S. Halliday of Ithaca resigned to join the United States aviation corps. The vacancy probably will not be filled until the next regular election in November, 1918. Assemblyman J. Samuel Fowler of Chautauqua county was elected to succeed Senator Spring and Courtlandt Nicoll was elected to succeed Senator Mills. Mr. Nicoll is a New York lawyer and was a member of the constitutional convention in

BIG BILLS TO COME BEFORE LEGISLATURE To restore the State nominating convention.

To allow New York city to own and operate public utilities.

To ratify federal amendment to constitution for nationwide prohibition of the liquor traffic.

To provide for immediate prohibition as a war necessity. To enable women voters to register for the April local elections.

To add to the tax list millions of dollars worth of property now exempt.

Amendment to corrupt practices act forbidding expenditure of large sums of money in election campaigns. Amendment to food regulation law to enable the food commission to enforce its orders.

one-third of the assembly are members of that profession and more than one-half of the senate. The contention of farmers and others in the State is that there are far too many lawyers in the legislature and that the proportion of farmers ought to be increased.

In this legislature there appear to be 27 members who in one way or another style themselves farmers - 25 in the assembly and two in the senate. Most of these men, however, are known to be engaged in other business with agriculture only as an incident.

To compel the purchase of prison made goods by the political divisions of the State.

To require education in English of all adult foreigners in the State.

1915.

The occupations of the 201 members of the legislature is always an interesting subject. This year it is more than ordi

narily so because there is a movement among farmers of the State to elect next November at least fifty of their number to the legislature who are genuinely farmers and are in sympathy with the needs of that class at Albany.

As has been true of all the legislatures of recent years, the lawyers are largely in the ascendancy. There are 72-46 in the assembly and 26 in the senate who are recorded as lawyers. That is to say, nearly

To prohibit taking of excessive or unjust profits in business as a result of the war, otherwise known as profiteering. To amend public service commissions law making some members of the two commissions elective by the people. They are now appointed by the governor.

To authorize the State food commission to deal in food and thus regulate the price.

To repeal the law consolidating rural schools and making the town a unit in school districts.

There seem to be twenty of the 201 legislators who declare themselves merchants either by that name or by some title with the same meaning. This too is considered a small representation in the lawmaking body for so many merchants in the State, if business and occupations are to be repre

sented by men of their own class. Thus far merchants do not complain.

Real estate dealers have 17 members who are in that business and members of the present legislature. There are ten manufacturers of various kinds in the assembly and senate and the same number of insurance men. Of the miscellaneous and less numerous occupations there are twenty-eight. The teaching profession is represented by only four, all of them in the assembly.

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and Samuel J. Ramsperger of the fortyninth or Buffalo district. Senator Cullen was first a member in 1899 and has served continuously ever since, or twenty-one years. Previous to that, Senator Cullen was a member of the assembly for three years beginning in 1896 so that he has been a member of the legislature twenty-four years and is now in his twenty-fifth year. Senator Ramsperger also came to the senate in 1899 but was out for two years, 1905 and 1906.

Senator Elon R. Brown was first elected to the senate in 1898, served until the end of 1904, was reelected in 1912 and has been a member up to the present time.

Senator James A. Emerson who has been dubbed by his colleagues highway Jim" because of his wonderful ability to gridiron the Adirondacks with State roads was first elected to the senate in 1906 and has served continuously since that time. Senator Robert F. Wagner, Democratic leader in the senate and who during 1913 and 1914 was lieutenant-governor began

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his senatorial career with the session of 1909 and has therefore served nine years in that body. Prior to that time he had been an assemblyman for three years.

The foregoing are about all of the old senators in the present body. The great majority of them have been senators only from five to seven years. Senator Elon R. Brown, Republican leader and president pro tem is easily one of the ablest men in the legislature. Every two years there have been rumors to the effect that he would decline renomination. Every two years also there have been rumors that he would be a candidate for governor. Back in the days of the John Raines leadership in the senate, senate, Senator Brown and Edgar T. Brackett, then a member of that body, frequently opposed Senator Raines and were not backward in expressing their opposition to some of the big party measures. In this session, Senator Brown will lead the fight for amendment of the direct primary law so that the State convention may be restored. There is certain to

be a sharp difference of opinion among Republicans as well as Democrats on this subject during the session.

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finance. On most
legislative questions it
has been observed that
Mr. Sage was in hearty
accord with Senator
Brown. He too has
been urged by his ad-
mirers as eligible
timber for the
governorship. Upon
Senator Sage will fall
the burden in the
senate of solving the
knotty problem cf
finance. He has been
repeatedly quoted as
saying that he believes
the State should spend
more money on neces-
sities; that it is not
economy to restrict
the normal develop-
ment of the State
departments in
in the
great work which they
have undertaken for
the public. At pre-
sent he is opposed to
increasing the number
of State employees,
but is very much in
favor of advancing the
salaries of the smaller
paid members on the
payroll.

Senator J. Henry Walters of Syracuse was first elected to the assembly in 1907 where he served three years and since 1911 has been senator. Senator Walters is recognized as an able debater and parlia'mentarian. He too is usually in accord with Senator Brown and is mentioned as the

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