Imagens das páginas

moderate than that of any European State which can pretend to rival her either in wealth or in power. None of those articles, therefore, seem to admit of any considerable reduction of expense. The expense of the peace establishment of the colonies was, before the commencement of the present disturbances, very considerable, and is an expense which may, and if no revenue can be drawn from them, ought certainly to be saved altogether. This constant expense in time of peace, though very great, is insignificant in comparison with what the defence of the colonies has cost us in time of war. The last war, which was undertaken altogether on account of the colonies, cost Great Britain, it has already been observed, upwards of ninety millions. The Spanish war of 1739 was principally undertaken on their account; in which, and in the French war that was the consequence of it, Great Britain spent upwards of forty millions, a great part of which ought justly to be charged to the colonies. In those two wars the colonies cost Great Britain much more than double the sum which the national debt amounted to before the commencement of the first of them. Had it not been for those wars that debt might, and probably would by this time, have been completely paid; and had it not been for the colonies, the former of those wars might not, and the latter certainly would not have been undertaken. It was because the colonies were supposed to be provinces of the British empire, that this expense was laid out upon them. But countries which contribute neither revenue nor military force towards the support of the empire, cannot be considered as provinces. They may perhaps be considered as appendages, as a sort of splendid and showy equipage of the empire. But if the empire can no longer support the expense of keeping up this equipage, it ought certainly to lay it down; and if it cannot raise its revenue in proportion to its expense, it ought, at least, to accommodate its expense to its revenue. If the colonies, notwithstanding their refusal to submit to British taxes, are still to be considered as provinces of the British empire, their defence in some future war may cost Great Britain as great an expense as it ever has done in any former war. The rulers of Great Britain have, for more than a century past, amused the people with the imagination that they possessed a great empire on the west side of the Atlantic. This empire, however, has hitherto existed in imagination only. It has hitherto been,

not an empire, but the project of an empire; not a gold mine, but the project of a gold mine; a project which has cost, which continues to cost, and which, if pursued in the same way as it has been hitherto, is likely to cost immense expense, without being likely to bring any profit; for the effects of the monopoly of the colony trade, it has been shown, are, to the great body of the people, mere loss instead of profit. It is surely now time that our rulers should either realize this golden dream, in which they have been indulging themselves, perhaps, as well as the people, or that they should awake from it themselves, and endeavour to awaken the people. If the project cannot be completed, it ought to be given up. If any of the provinces of the British empire cannot be made to contribute towards the support of the whole empire, it is surely time that Great Britain should free herself from the expense of defending those provinces in time of war, and of supporting any part of their civil or military establishments in time of peace, and endeavour to accommodate her future views and designs to the real mediocrity of her circumstances.



ABASSIDES, during reigns of, Saracens

opulent, i. 405.

Abbeville, woollen manufacture at, ii. 35.
Abilities of those who labour, a form of
fixed capital, i. 279.

Ability, improvement in labourers', ii. 261.
Absentees may derive a great income,
without contributing to expense of go-
vernment, ii. 493.

Absolute government, gives most liberty
in the capital, ii. 166.

Academy, assigned by the State to Plato,
ii. 361.

Academy of Sciences, French, publica-
tions of, i. 133.

Acapulco ships, trading to India, i. 215;
carry silver, i. 217.

Accommodation bills, nature of, i. 312

Achilles, offers of Agamemnon to,

Acts of Parliament-

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18 Elizabeth, i. 35.

5 Elizabeth, i. 126, 127.

12 Anne, cap. 12, i. 138.
12 Anne, ib.

25 Edward III, ib. note.
43 Elizabeth, i. 144.
13, 14 Charles II, ib.
I James II, ib.

3 William III, i. 145.
8, 9 William III, i. 146.
8 George III, i. 149.
31 George II, i. 150, 151.
3 George III, ib.

25 Edward III, i. 187.

51 Henry III (Assize), i. 189.

14 Henry VI, i. 190.

3 Edward IV, ib.

1, 2 Philip and Mary, ib.
I Elizabeth, ib.

5 Elizabeth, i. 191.

ii. 300.

Acts of Parliament-

51 Henry III (Assize), i. 193.
Tumbrel and Pillory, Statute of, i.


36 Edward III, cap. 11, i. 246 note.
11 Edward III, cap. 5, ib.
3 Edward IV, i. 258.

4 Henry VII, ib.
7 Anne, cap. 7, i. 319.
3 George I, cap. 8, ib.
8 George I, cap. 21,
i. 320.
4 George III, cap. 25, ib.
7 George I, cap. 21, ii. 74.
15 Charles II, cap. 7, ii. 76.
4 George III, cap. 15, ib.
23 George II, cap. 24, ii. 97.
5,6 Edward VI, cap. 14, ii. 104.
15 Charles II, cap. 7, ii. 109.
12 George III, ib.

15 Charles II, cap. 7, ii. 111.
22 Charles II, cap. 13, ii. 113.
13 George III, ib.

12 Charles II, cap. 4, ii. 114.
15 Charles II, ib.

22 Charles II, ib.

1 William and Mary, ii. 115.
11, 12 William III, cap. 20, ib.
13 George III, cap. 43, ii. 119.

George III, cap. 15, ii. 158.
6 George III, cap. 52, ii. 159.
4 George III, cap. 15, ii. 164.
3 Edward IV, ii. 226.
39 Elizabeth, ib.

24 George II, cap. 46, ii. 227.
4 George III, cap. 26, ii. 229.
5 George III, cap. 45, ib.
21 George II, cap. 30, ib.
9 George III, cap. 58, ii. 230.
II George III, cap. 50, ib.
19 George III, cap. 37, ib.

8 Elizabeth, cap. 3, ii. 231.
12 Charles II, cap. 32, ii. 232.
13, 14 Charles II, cap. 18, ib.

Acts of Parliament-

7, 8 William III, cap. 28, ii. 232.
I William III, cap. 32, ii. 234.
13, 14 Charles II, cap. 7, ii. 238.
Undated, of Edward III, Henry
VIII, Edward VI, ii. 239.

5 William and Mary, cap. 17, ii. 240.
9, 10 William III, cap. 26, ib.
8 George I, cap. 15, ib.

25 George II, ii. 241.

5 George III, cap. 37, ib.
14 George III, cap. 10, ii. 242.
7,8 William III, cap. 20, ii. 243.
14 George III, cap. 71, ib.
5 George I, cap. 27, ib.
23 George II, cap. 13. ib.
10, 11 William III, cap. 6, ii. 318.
25 Charles II, cap. 7, ib.
26 George II, cap. 18, ii. 319.
23 George II, cap. 31, ii. 322.
4 George III, cap. 20, ib.
5 George III, cap. 44, ib.
Io Anne, cap. 12, ii. 395.
William and Mary, ii. 418.
47 Edward III, ii. 476.
14 Richard II, ib.

2 Henry IV, ib.
4 Henry IV, ib.

9, 10 William III, ii. 477.

12 Charles II, ib.

8 William III, cap. 20, ii. 513.
1 George I, cap. 12, ii. 514.

3 George I, cap. 8, ib.

5 George I, cap. 7, ib.

3 George I, cap. 7, ib.

Scotch: Gulielmi (1695), i. 296.
James II (1449), i. 395.

forbad exportation of precious metals,

ii. 3.
Administration of India faulty, ii. 222;
local, not so liable to abuse as im-
perial, ii. 314.

Admiralty, Board of, their control over
African forts, ii. 323.
Adulteration of coin, an expedient for
reducing debt, ii. 534.
Advantage, of colonial trade rather rela-
tive than absolute, ii. 176.
Eolians, colonies of, ii. 135.

Æsop, fables of, their object, ii. 353.
Affectation of trading for the public good,
ii. 28.

Africa, internal, its want of rivers cause
that it is barbarous, i. 22; European
settlements on coast of, ii. 218; pos-
sessions of Great Britain in, ii. 241.
African company, obligations of, ii. 321.
Agamemnon, his offers to Achilles, ii. 300.
Age, influence and authority of, ii. 299.
Aggregate Fund, the, its origin, ii. 514.
Agio, of bank of Amsterdam, i. 330; of
banks of deposit, ii. 54.

Agrarian laws, at Rome, ii. 135-
Agricultural system, advocated by a few
French philosophers, ii. 246; capital
error of, ii. 259; nearest approxima-
tion to truth, ii. 263; why if it de-
presses manufactures, it injures its own
end, ii. 272.
Agriculture, productiveness of, i. 2 note;
depressed by policy of Europe, i. 3;
does not admit subdivisions of labour,
i. 7; few fortunes made by, i. 132; in-
numerable volumes on, i. 133; capital
of, local, i. 368; the poorer a country
is, the more its capital should be em-
ployed in, i. 370; superiority of, in
richest nations, i. 372; difficulty of
getting a fortune by, i. 380; preferred
to manufacture, i. 385; how bettered
by manufactures, i. 410; effects of,
more durable than those of commerce,
i. 423; system of, ii. 1; effects of mo-
nopoly on, ii. 32; improvements in, ii.
81 note; discouraged in Spain and
Portugal, ii. 87; proper business of
colonies, ii. 191; of France discou-
raged, ii. 247; in France, relieved by
efforts of Economists, ii. 263; more
easy in confined market, ii. 267; im
plies a settlement, ii. 277.

Agrigentum, rapid growth of, ii. 146.
Aides, a form of French excise, ii. 499.
Air, waggon way in, banking is like, i.

Alcalvala, a tax in Spain, destructive, ii.

Alehouse, trade with the, apparently
losing, ii. 66.

Alehouses, do not cause drunkenness,
but vice versa, i. 365; licences to, ii.
Alexander, taught by Aristotle, i. 141.
Alexander III, bull of, i. 393.

Almayro, voyage of, to Chili and Peru, ii.


America, discovery of mines in, i. 33;
mines in, effect on money, i. 35; popu
lation in, i. 74; colonies of, rate of
interest in, i 96; mines of, their dis-
covery, i. 203; a market for its own
silver, i. 213; mines of, not only exist
ing, 220; native grasses of, i. 234;
growth of population in, i. 418; at dis-
covery of, question put by Spaniards, ii.
2; manufactures of, flourished in their
own Civil War, ii. 18 note; real advan-
tages of its discovery, ii. 20; only two
civilised nations in, ii. 21; state of in
1775, ii. 73; peopled and cultivated by
folly and injustice of European Go-
vernments, ii. 169; discovery of, its
benefits to Europe, ii. 171; condition
of in time of Cromwell, ii. 178; leading

men in, desire to preserve their own
importance, ii. 204; material progress
of, in a century would make it equal
Great Britain, ii. 207; discovery of, one
of the greatest events, &c., ii. 208; na-
tions trading to, strive to exclude
others, ii. 213; natives of, except
Mexico and Peru, hunters, ii. 218;
war in, and effects on militia of, ii.
285; discovery of mines in, and effect
on silver, ii. 419; people of, are said
to have no gold or silver, ii. 542.
America, British, exports salt provisions,
i. 240.

America, North, colonies in, planted by
sea coast, or rivers, i. 21; paper cur-
rencies of, i. 328; progress of, due to
agriculture, i. 371; has no manufac-
tures for distant sale, i. 384; trade
with, compared with what might be
with France, ii. 71.

American war, rise in price of herring
casks since, ii. 96.

Americans, effects of their adopting a

system of monopoly, i. 371.
Amsterdam, bank of, its Agio, i. 330:

merchant of, how he would trade, ii.
26; bank money of, ii. 52; origin of
bank of, ii. 53; currency of in 1609, ii.
54; bank of, great warehouse for Eu-
ropean bullion, ii. 58; bank of, its go-
vernment, ii. 60; city of, its revenue
from the bank, ii. 61; attentive and
parsimonious burghers of, ii. 195;
English wool depreciated in, ii. 235;
administration of, vigilant and parsi-
monious, ii. 405.

Anderson, Mr., his 'Diplomata Scotia,'
i. 194; on Dobbs' statistics, ii. 329.
Angola, discovered by Portuguese, ii.
137; settlement of Portuguese, ii. 218.
Animal food, when it rises in price, and
why, i. 255.

Animals, marked difference in capacities

of, i. 17; law of their increase, i. 84.
Anne, mode of taxing in time of, ii. 513;
rate of interest in time of, ii. 515; in
time of, annuities created, ii. 516.
Annuities, perpetual, not redeemable by
debtor in France, ii. 453.
Annuities for lives, kinds of, ii. 517.
Annuities, permanent, when and why
created, ii. 517.

Anticipation, borrowing by, ii. 512.
Antigua, completely cultivated, ii. 545.
Antoninus, his gift to a philosopher, ii.

Aperea, animal of Brazil, ii. 139.
'ATоikia, meaning of, ii. 137.
Apologues, origin of, ii. 353.

Apothecaries, profit of, and why great, i.

Apples, once imported from Flanders, i.

Apprentices, laws or customs regulating,
i. 125.
Apprenticeship, effects of, i. 65; custom
of, in Europe, i. 106; duration of, why
seven years, i. 126; statute of, ib.;
no security against fraud, nor incen-
tive to industry, i. 128; unknown to
ancients, i. 129 and note; long, un-
necessary, ib.; statute of, obstructs
the circulation of labour, i. 142; in
ancient regulated companies, ii. 317.
Arabia, incursions of natives of, ii. 276.
Arabians, histories of, full of genealogies,
i. 417.

Arabs, hospitality of, i. 412; life of, ii.
274; militia of, good, ii. 284.
Arbuthnot, Dr., on ancient costume, ii.

Aristocracy, Irish, founded on the most
odious distinction; none in colonies, ii.

Aristotle, on the use of money, i. 24 note;
his rewards for teaching Alexander, i.
141; on slave labour, i. 391; his view
of political economy, ii. I note; on
Greek education, ii. 359.

Arithmetic, political, writer has no great
faith in, ii. 111; of customs, two and
two do not make four in, ii. 478.
Armada, invincible, consequence of de-
feat of, ii. 149.

Army may be maintained in three ways,
ii. 13; in colonies, amount of, ii. 197.
Army, standing, characteristics of, ii. 281;
superior to militia, ii. 283; benefits of,

ii. 289; may be diminished by general
military drill, ii. 370.

Artificer, labour of, how cheapened, i.
130; analysis of value of labour of, ii.

Artificers, held to possess skilled labour,
i. 106; necessary for cultivating land,
i. 383; in America, buy land, i. 384;
increase when no more land is to be had,
ib.; the living instrument not allowed
to emigrate, ii. 243; a barren class, ii.
250; not same as menials, ii. 259; if
they take the field in war, must be
paid, duly, ii. 278.

Artillery, modern, costliness of, ii. 291.
Artisan, addition to wealth of society by
labour of, ii. 261 note.

As, Roman, its use, i. 40.
Asceticism, formed part of modern theo-
ries of morals, ii. 356.

Asia, practice of buying silver in, i. 218;
governments of, stimulate hoarding, i.


Asinius Celer, bought a surmullet, i.

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