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ets, in the Pyrenees, was selected. Queen Hortense was, it is said, afterward joined here by the king, and she made long excursions in the mountains on horseback and on foot. She has left cences behind her of this visit to the many reminisPyrenees. The house in which she dwelt, No. 2, Place St. Martin, is well known. One evening, caught in a storm, she had to be sheltered all night in a barn, still called "Grange de la Reine Hortense." On the bridge over the Gave, near Pierrefitte, is a little pyramid, on which is engraved, "La Vallée de Baréges a la Reine Hortense, 1807."

After a month's residence at Cauterets, the Queen of Holland returned to St. Cloud. The king had at the same time gone back to his states, which we have seen it was his wish to govern in the sense of their true interests. The said interests being essentially commercial, they were unfortunately totally opposed to the policy of the emperor. Hence arose misunderstandings between Louis and Napoleon, as well as between Louis and Hortense. It was in vain that he went from the Hague to Utrecht, and from Utrecht to Amsterdam; King Louis was in every sense of the word a miserable man.

As to Hortense, she had remained in France. She had returned from Cauterets enceinte, and on the 20th of April, 1808, she gave birth to Prince Charles Louis Napoleon, the present Emperor of the French, who was baptized in the chapel of the palace of Fontainebleau, the 10th of November, 1810, and was held over the font by the emperor and by the Empress Marie-Louise.

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It is curious to think of what different versions have been given to the world of this epoch in the history of Hortense. J. A. St. John, in his biography of Louis Napoleon, says: Louis, on arriving in Holland, determined, as far as possible, to conciliate the Dutch, but had unfortunately taken along with him a number of French courtiers, male and female, who, selecting the queen for their center, revolved about her incessantly in a circle of vanity and frivolity, ridiculing the Dutch and their manners, and seeking to reproduce among the Dykes a second Paris. At length, under pretense of ill health, Hortense quitted the Hague, in search of better air, and proceeded to the château of St. Loo, situated at some distance from


the capital; but very soon acquiring greater courage, effected her escape from Holland, and fled to be near the emperor in Paris."

there hangs an extraordinary degree of The same writer also intimates that mystery about the age of the eldest son, and the epoch of Hortense's marriage. But, with regard to the latter, the errors of French writers have evidently arisen from the civil marriage having preceded the nuptial benediction by Cardinal Caprera, the churches being still closed at that epoch. Caroline Bonaparte, who day, had been a much longer time wedded received the nuptial benediction the same to Murat. As to De Bausset saying that the child died at the age of seven, it was manifestly through inadvertence. It has also been said, that it was on the occasion of the death of Hortense's eldest son that the idea of a divorce from Josephine first presented itself to Napoleon's mind. But it is scarcely credible that such should have been the case, for, although Napoleon undoubtedly looked up to Hortense's children as his successors, Napoleon Louis was alive, and Charles Louis Napoleon was born before the divorce.

In the year 1809, Napoleon appointed imperial Houses of Education. The same Hortense princess protectrice of all the year the grand duchy of Berg, vacated by Murat, in exchange for the throne of Naples, was made over to Nopoleon Louis, who had become prince-royal of Holland by the decease of his brother. This done, he summoned a congress of sovereigns at Paris, among whom was the King of Holland. To the latter the emperor dewith his troops, if he did not uphold the clared his intention of occupying Holland' continental blockade. that, in accepting the throne, he had also Louis declared accepted the interests of the country, and these interests were opposed to the blockade. usual, inflexible, and Louis made up his The emperor was, however, as mind to abdicate in favor of his son-the newly-elected Grand Duke of Berg.

brought about by a separation from her A still heavier blow than even that husband awaited Hortense at this epoch, in the repudiation of Josephine. Hortense and Eugène, her own children, were, indeed, strangely enough, selected by the emperor to convey the sad intelligence to the empress, but he knew that he could rely upon their boundless devo

tion. The scenes that followed have been | sisted; it was great and noble when he described by M. Bausset, prefect of the abdicated." palace, in his Memoirs. The same children were also summoned to be present at the nuptials of the emperor and Marie Louise, and the Queen of Holland was one of four to bear a corner of the mantle of the empress, who usurped the place of her own mother!

When King Louis came to Paris, he never met the queen save in public; but when his states were in danger, he thought that her presence might be useful in affirming the allegiance of his subjects, and so he once more entreated her to go to Amsterdam. The king, however, treated her with such manifest indifference, that it was then that occurred what is related as having happened before the birth of Charles Louis Napoleon-her evasion from Loo-Saint-Leu of the French-to Malmaison.

It is evident, however, even from the letters of Madame Campan, that Hortense did not escape the scandal of her cotemporaries. In In one of these the writer quotes words put into the mouth of some modern queen of tragedy, who, unjustly accused, says to her cowardly


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We have before seen that Napoleon never credited or did not choose to give credit to these calumnies, but he did not approve of Hortense's conduct; and in the Memorial of Saint Helena he is made to say that Louis loved her, but she not only could not reciprocate his affection, but could not tolerate his presence. "Had she remained in Holland, Louis would not have quitted Amsterdam; she would have been spared many trials and afflic tions, and I should not have been obliged to unite Holland to the French empirean act which contributed to my ruin in Europe."

M. E. Fourmestraux has the courage to remark"that in the present day, when the great figure of Napoleon soars over the whole world in the aureola of glory by which it is surrounded, we must recognize over and above that immense luminous circle that there are a few shadows which truthful history has not brushed


"Now, the conduct of Louis as king was logical and courageous when he re

The French had invaded Holland. For a moment Louis had a thought of resist ing; but, making a sacrifice of his person, he abdicated in favor of his son. Queen Hortense had no time, however, to assume the government in the name of her son, for, six days after Louis's abdication, Napoleon issued a decree uniting Holland to France. Louis himself withdrew to Gratz, in Styria, under the name of the Count of Saint-Leu.

Such a great change in her position in no ways shook the courage or resignation of Hortense. She had resources in the education of her children, in consoling her mother, in her friendships, and her devotion to the arts. The emperor had, after his divorce, given up Malmaison to Josephine. Napoleon's rooms were kept sacred-not a book or a map was allowed to be touched; Josephine reserved to herself the duty even of dusting them when they needed it. Navarre, a country seat near Evreux, had also been erected into a duchy for the benefit of Josephine and her descendants. It was at Navarre that Josephine received by the hand of Napoleon himself the news of the birth of the son for whom so much had been sacri

ficed, and from whom so much was expected. The son is dead, and the descendant of Josephine-the repudiatedrules in France!

Hortense, we have seen, devoted herself to the education of her boys. The eldest had a remarkable memory; Charles Louis Napoleon was also very quick and intelligent, and was admitted to take after his mother. In 1813 the emperor ordered a succession of balls and festivals to counteract the gloom occasioned by the retreat from Russia, and Hortense was called upon to aid in the movement. She so far sacrificed herself as even to ask Marie Louise to Saint-Leu. The same year, going to Aix, in Savoy, for the benefit of the waters, she lost her most attached friend, Madame de Broc, who fell into the cascade of Crésy. The lady was only twenty-five years of age when this terrible accident occurred. Hortense commemorated her sad loss by a monument, as also by founding a hospital for the town.

When Paris was captured by the allies in 1814, Hortense was one of the last to leave it. Louis Bonaparte, it is to be ob

tiptoe, slipped it into his hand, and then ran away. When Alexander heard from the blushing boy that it was the only present he had to make to him, he attached the ring to his watch-chain, and said he would never part with it.

Eugène had been insured by the treaty of Fontainebleau an establishment suitable to his rank as ex-Viceroy of Italy, and he was well received by Louis XVIII., who appreciated his loyal character. He returned to France just in time to be present with Hortense at the death of their mother. Josephine expired on the 29th of May, and was buried in the church of Rueil. The grief of the ex-Queen of Holland was, if possible, assuaged by the reception shortly afterward of letters patent conferring upon her the duchy of Saint-Leu, by which the future of her children was, at all events, to a certain extent secured. Malmaison and Navarre fell to the lot of Prince Eugène, but M. Fourmestraux declares that they were of the nature of charges to maintain, instead of properties productive of a revenue. The woods of Navarre, for example, the only productive part of the estate, belonged to government. Eugène and Hortense had, indeed, to raise money conjointly to pay off the household of the late ex-Empress Josephine.

served, had left Gratz, although a con- | took a ring given to him by his uncle firmed invalid, upon the news reaching Eugène, and, approaching the czar on him that the empire was in danger-an act of patriotism for which Hortense did not fail to give him full credit, and to him was intrusted the care of Marie Louise, who was to be removed to Blois. But Hortense had such implicit faith in the star of Napoleon that she could not be brought to believe that Paris would really fall into the hands of the allies. It was only on the very eve of the capture that she was at length induced to move with her children to Versailles, and no sooner were they in bed, sleeping the sleep of youth, than they were awaked by the sound of great guns, and were obliged for safety to seek refuge in the Petit Trianon, from whence they took their departure as soon as possible for Rambouillet. Here Hortense received orders from Louis to join the empress at Blois, but she paid no attention to his instructions, and went to her mother at Navarre, where together they heard of the capitulation of Paris, the demonstrations of the royalist party, and the abdication of Fontainebleau. The last acts of a grand drama in which they had played so prominent a part were now being nearly played out. Josephine differed in this respect from Marie Louise, that nothing would have given her greater pleasure than to have shared the exile of her husband. The one looked merely to the emperor, the other to the man. Grief for his misfortunes and those of the whole family hastened indeed Josephine's end; after the fall of Napoleon she had nothing to live for. Very different was it with Marie Louise; Hortense met her shortly afterward at Rambouillet. "I expect my father every moment," she said; "your presence may annoy him." It was virtually dismissing her from her presence as readily as she dismissed the thoughts of the great man who had associated her with his destinies from her mind.

The Emperor Alexander and the King of Prussia made, however, frequent visits to Josephine and to Hortense at Malmaison. Louis Napoleon asked how it was that they, the sovereigns, should embrace him when they were his uncle's enemies. "Because," he was told, "the emperor is a generous enemy, who wishes to be useful to you in your misfortunes." The prince, who even at that early age spoke little, but observed a great deal,


A visit made by Madame de Staël at this epoch to Hortense set the court of Louis XVIII. against her. Young Prince Napoleon said, when she had gone, "That lady asks many questions. that what they call being clever?" Hortense had been too long accustomed to look up to Napoleon not to hail his return from Elba with enthusiasm, not unalloyed by dread. Had Josephine been alive she would have done the same thing. Marie Louise, it is well known, decided upon remaining Austrian. Napoleon found one out of the one hundred days of his restoration to visit Malmaison. He expressed to Hortense a wish to see Josephine's room, but alone, and he returned from it his eyes bathed in tears. The conduct of Marie Louise made him, prob. ably, feel all the more keenly how differently Josephine would have acted.

Hortense and her boys were present at the ceremony of the Champ de Mai when the eagles were blessed. A few days afterward, Napoleon left to join the army.

The victory of Ligny came to excite those momentary hopes and joys, which were destined to be for ever overthrown by the disaster of Waterloo. Hortense dined with the emperor the day of his return. The next day she sent her boys to the house of a Madame Tessier, while she herself went to Malmaison to prepare for the reception of Napoleon there. She had no hesitation in compromising herself; all she thought about was the welfare of the great man to whom she and her mother had been through life devoted. When Napoleon quitted France for the last time, Hortense also took her departure with her boys, her heart torn with grief, from her native land. She sought refuge at first in Switzerland, but the republic signified to her that she could not be permitted to reside in their territory. She accordingly went to Aix in Savoy, where she was well known and much respected. She had, we have before seen, in her happier days, founded a hospital there. To add to her misfortunes, Louis sent for his son Napoleon Louis to join him at Rome. To one so devoted to her children as Hortense was, this was a terrible blow, far worse than the orders she received soon afterward to make Constance, in the grand duchy of Baden, her place of residence. Hence, however, she was enabled to visit her brother Eugène at Berg; she had never seen his children, and Louis Napoleon here first made acquaintance with his cousins, four girls and a boy. Wherever Hortense went, however, during her long exile, her footsteps were tracked, and her every movement was noted and put on paper. Many were the annoyances and inconveniences to which this close system of continental espionage subjected her at times. The education of the young prince, Charles Louis Napoleon, had been hitherto intrusted to M. Lebas, a man of learning and merit, but as he was growing up, and required more advanced studies, Hortense determined on removing to Augsburg, where he was placed for four years at college.

Napoleon had perished on the rock of St. Helena on the 5th of May, 1821; and Hortense, left after that event to move about with greater freedom, visited her relatives at Rome, passing the summer season at Arenenberg, a little property she had purchased for herself near Constance, and the winter at Augsburg, near her son. Her brother Eugène had a country house

also built near Arenenberg. The happiness brought about by this proximity was not, however, destined to be of long duration. Eugène died of apoplexy on the 21st of February, 1824. His son, Prince Max of Leuchtenberg, married the Grand Duchess Maria of Russia. One of his daughters married the Prince Royal of Sweden.

Charles Louis Napoleon had an especial establishment at Arenenberg, and many relics of that pleasant home on Lake Constance now adorn the Tuileries-among them especially a full-length figure of Josephine in an attitude of repose, by Proud'hon. A marble statue of the empress, by Bosio, is also now on the grand stair-case at St. Cloud. Hortense could read English with facility, and she had a bust of Byron, as well as his works. Among the especial visitors at Arenenberg were the widow of Marshal Ney, Casimir Delavigne, and M. Mocquard, now private secretary to the emperor.

The revolution of July found Hortense at Arenenberg, and Charles Louis Napoleon at the military school of Thünn. His elder brother had married his cousin Charlotte, daughter of ex-King Joseph, and resided at Florence. Associating himself with an insurrectionary movement in Romagna in 1831, Napoleon Louis perished of inflammation on the chest. Charles Louis Napoleon now alone remained to comfort the oft-tried mother. Together they went incognito to Paris. Louis Philippe received the ex-Queen of Holland with every outward mark of respect and kindness. He had been himself an exile, he said, and he could feel for others. But the government of July not the less insisted upon her departure for England; and if Charles Louis Napoleon, it was intimated, had a commission granted him in the French army, which was one of the objects of their solicitations, it must be under another name!

During her sojourn in England, Queen Hortense was the object of the most delicate attentions on the part of the ministers and of the élite of society-every one rivaled with the other, indeed, in making her sojourn agreeable.

On the 1st of August, 1831, passports arrived granting her permission to pass through France to Switzerland. Hortense and her son visited on this occasion Chantilly, Ermenonville, Morfontaine, Saint Denis, Rueil, Malmaison, and other places,

endeared to the first, at least, by the most | Count de Tascher de la Pagerie, her cousin poignant reminiscences of fallen greatness. (Josephine was a De Tascher de la PageArenenberg alone remained to her of all rie), and were deposited in a catacomb her former splendor. It was from Aren- opposite to that of the Empress Josephine enberg that Louis Napoleon, who appears in the ancient church of the lords of Buat the same epoch to have dropped the zenval. A mausoleum was raised over Charles, as he has since dropped the the vault in 1845 by Bartolini, of FlorLouis, made his first attempt to regain an ence; but one of the first melancholy ancestral empire, by entering into the duties of Louis Napoleon, when he becountry at Strasburg in 1836. But, dis- came emperor, was to save the church of mayed for the time being by the utter Rueil from the ruin by which it was failure which attended upon this demon- threatened. The work of restoration of stration, he withdrew for a brief time to this interesting old church, the first stone the United States, hastening back, how- of which had been laid in 1584 by Anever, when he heard of his mother's last thony I., King of Portugal, at that time illness, prepared to brave all dangers in an exile in France, was intrusted to Mesthe attempt to see her once more. His sieurs Eugène Lacroix and Manguin. filial piety was rewarded by his mother Josephine and Hortense have now each dying, on the 5th of October, 1837, in the their separate chapel, and a monumental arms of a much-beloved son, thanking statue adorns the latter, on the pedestal of God who had reserved for her that last which is the simple but pregnant inscripsupreme comfort. tion:

The remains of Queen Hortense were transferred from Switzerland to Rueil by

"A la Reine Hortense,
Son fils Napoléon III."

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