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by, he was encouraged by Sir Humphrey to devote himself to science. By his advice, Murchison attended the lectures at the Royal Institution, between 1822 and 1824; and he afterwards received private instructions in practical chemistry from the late Richard Phillips, F.R.S. In 1825 he was elected a Fellow of the Geological and in 1826 of the Royal Society. Having selected geology, for the effective prosecution of which, in the field and on the large scale, his previous military and other active habits had peculiarly fitted him, he applied himself with great energy to his new pursuit. His first contribution to the science was read before the Geological Society on the 16th of December afterwards gave the appellation of the in the former year, under the title of "Geo-"Silurian System." He finally discovered logical Sketch of the Northwestern Ex- the entire succession of the upper and tremity of Sussex, and the adjoining parts lower Silurian rocks in the sea-cliffs to the of Hants and Surrey." It was published west of Milford Haven, "the only place in the Society's Transactions, second se- in the British Isles where the whole series, ries, vol. ii. down to an unfossiliferous base, is to be seen regularly surmounted by the old red sandstone," belonging to the superincumbent "Devonian system. The views consequent upon these researches were announced in 1831, at the first meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, and they were first published in the Proceedings of the Geological Society, and in the Philosophical Magazine, from 1832 to 1835.
He next examined the Brora coal-field in Sutherlandshire, and demonstrated its claim to be considered of the Oolite series, in the same manner as the coal of the Scarborough and Whitby beds. Subsequently, in company with Professor Sedgwick, he showed the identity of MacCulloch's primary sandstone with the true old red sandstone.
After these explorations of the Alps, Mr. Murchison redirected his attention to the geology of Great Britain. He was induced by his friend and instructor, the late Dr. Buckland, to explore the banks of the Wye between Hay and Builth, in the hope of discovering evidences of order among those masses of rock, to which the unmeaning term of "grauwacke" had so long been, and still continued to be, applied. He was thus led to study those vast and regular deposits of a remote age, which are most clearly displayed in that part of Wales and England which was occupied by a tribe of Britons, called by the Romans "Silures," and to which he
Prepared by his geological investigations at home, he set out in 1828, accompanied by Mrs. Murchison and Mr. (now Sir C.) Lyell, to study the extinct volcanoes of Auvergne, and the geology of the north of Italy, visiting Paris, Auvergne, the south of France, Nice, and Turin. A portion of the results of this journey was made public in three memoirs, the joint production of the two geologists. The subjects of these memoirs are the exca vation of valleys, as illustrated by the volcanic rocks of Central France, the tertiary strata of the Cantal, and the tertiary fresh-water strata of Aix, in Normandy.
On parting with Mr. Lyell, who proceeded on his own journey southwards, Mr. Murchison crossed the Alps, and succeeded in discovering a key to the order of sequence of the Jurassic and incumbent cretaceous rocks, and the tertiary strata overlapping them.
He subsequently examined the same mountain chains along with Professor Sedgwick. A memoir on "The Eastern Alps" embodies the valuable results of these observations.
In 1839 appeared Mr. Murchison's great work, being a large volume of eight hundred pages, of which we cite the entire title, as indicating the extent of the researches on which it was founded-The Silurian System, founded on geological researches in the counties of Salop, Hereford, Radnor, Montgomery, Caermarthen, Brecon, Pembroke, Monmouth, Gloucester, Worcester, and Stafford ; with descriptions of the coal fields and overlying formations.
In 1835 and 1839 two journeys into the Rhenish provinces were undertaken by Messrs. Murchison and Sedgwick. While thus engaged, Mr. Murchison was invited to join M. de Verneuil in exploring the geological structure of Russia, of which at that period very little was known. The explorers visited the banks of the rivers Volkoff and Siass, and the shores of Lake Onega; then proceeded to Archangel and the borders of the White Sea, and followed the Dwina into the gov ernment of Vologda. After traversing Ito the Volga, they returned by Moscow
to St. Petersburg, examining the hills, | 1842 and 1843. When the British Association assembled at York for the first time in 1831, he was one of the few geologists that responded to the invitation of its founder, Sir David Brewster; and, fully appreciating the value of such an institution, he discharged the arduous duties of general secretary for several years, and was president of the Southampton meet
lakes, and rivers which they passed. Mr. Murchison returned to England in 1840; but on the invitation of the Emperor Nicholas the explorers went back to St. Petersburg in the following year to su perintend a geological survey of Russia. Joined by Count Keyserling and Lieutenant Kotsharof, they proceeded to explore the Ural Mountains, the southern proving in 1846. In the important discussions which took place in the geological section he took an active part; he communicated many papers to its different meetings; and at Ipswich, in 1851, he succeeded in establishing the new section of physical geography, ethnology, and philology, thus removing geography from the geological section, in which it was overborne by more popular topics of discussion.
inces of the empire, and the coal districts between the Dneiper and the Don. Next year Mr. Murchison travelled alone through several parts of Germany, Poland, and the Carpathian Mountains. With the same object-that of rendering his great work on the geology of Eastern Europe as perfect as possible-he explored in the summer of 1844 the palæozoic formations of Sweden and Norway. On his return to England in 1845, Mr. Murchison, in conjunction with M. de Verneuil and Count Keyserling, published his magnificent work on the Geology of Russia and the Ural Mountains, consisting of two quarto volumes of seven and six hundred pages respectively. The Emperor Nicholas, by way of thanks for the great work Mr. Murchison had conducted, presented him with the Grand Cross of the Order of St. Stanislaus and the com mandership of St. Anne in diamonds. In 1846, not long after the publication of his great work on the geology of Russia, he was knighted by his own sovereign. To Sir Roderick's Russian journey, and his researches among the Ural Mountains, are due those observations on the physical phenomena of gold-producing countries, that led him by theoretical induction to anticipate for the Australian Cordilleras a place in this class of countries.
In 1844, Sir Roderick was elected president of the Royal Geographical Society, and was reëlected in the following year. He again became president in 1852, and succeeded in obtaining from the government a grant of £500 annually in aid of its maintenance and public objects. In 1856, he was elected president for the third time. That distinguished honor he holds at the present moment. The African discoveries of Speke and Grant are, perhaps, after the travellers themselves, chiefly due to Sir Roderick Murchison.
The actual discovery of the precious metal in Victoria was made by Count Strzelecki; but to Sir Roderick belongs the merit of having first in England predicted its existence. As sometimes happens in science, two men of science, unknown to each other, were pursuing the same study and arriving at the same conclusion. The theoretical discovery of gold by Sir Roderick Murchison in England seems to have been contemporaneous with the indications of the Rev. W. B. Clarke in Australia.
After having for five years discharged the arduous duties of secretary to the Geological Society, he filled the office of president in the years 1831 and 1832, and
In addition to the numerous honors to which we have already referred, Sir Roderick has received the honorary de grees of M.A. from the Universities of Cambridge and Dublin, and D.C.L. from that of Oxford. He is a member of all the principal scientific academies of Europe; a trustee also of the British Museum, the Hunterian Museum, and the British Association. Besides the Copley Medal of the Royal Society of London, he has received the Brisbane Gold Medal of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, which was presented to him at the Aberdeen meeting of the British Association. On the death of Sir H. De la Beche, in 1855, a memorial signed by the leading geologists and men of science in every department was presented to the government, and Sir Roderick Murchison was appointed Director-General of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, including the direction of the Government School of Mines. Sir Roderick Murchison has published upwards of a hundred memoirs in the journals and transactions of the learned societies, some of them of great
length and elaboration. His memoir On the | a sixth visit to the Alps, occupies more Geological Structure of the Alps, Apen- than three hundred pages of the Quarnines, and Carpathians, published after terly Journal of the Geological Society.
[THE poem which I have here attempted to trans-lessly over the sea of sin, sharing the calm serene late has, at any rate, the undisputed merit of antiquity. It comes before us as beyond all doubt the earliest of all extant hymns. Fragments of still earlier date may perhaps meet us in the older liturgies; and when the worshippers join, in the Communion Service of the Church of England, "with angels and archangels and all the company of heaven" in their great hymn, "Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of hosts," or raise their jubilant thanksgiving, "Glory be to God on high, and on earth peace, good-will toward men," they are probably echoing words which were heard from the beginning, in the upper chambers where the disciples of the first century met together to break bread. But the Ter-Sanctus and the Gloria in Excelsis, in their present form, are of later date, and the hymn of Clement of Alexandria is the one complete relic of the worship of the second century, the one witness, in this form, of the manner in which the Christians of that age and that city sang the praises of their Lord.
A few words are needed, it may be, to enable us to enter into what is, in many ways, so unlike our modern forms of thought. The hymn stands in close relation to a treatise bearing the title Pedagogus, the Guide of Children, the Instructor, that is, according to the full meaning of the word, whose function it was less to impart knowledge than to train character, to guard from the contamination of evil, to guide the daily life. The central thought of the treatise is, that the true Guide is none other than the Divine Word, the Son of God, the man Christ Jesus. Entering with a simplicity and minuteness which might almost cause a smile, if it did not also awaken our love and reverence, into all the commonest details of daily life, the good old man passes in review the temptations of luxury, self-indulgence, vanity, licentiousness, to which the young Christians of Alexandria were exposed. As throwing light on the habits and modes of thinking of the time, the contrast between the new Christian Society and the old dying Heathenism of the Empire, these details, however trivial, are often full of interest, and if I should see reason to believe that any who read this hymn would like to know more of the man who wrote it, and of the time in which it had its birth, I will make the attempt to meet the demand with a supply. At the end of the discourse, however, Clement passes from rules and precepts to a higher strain, and pours out, still in the same prose as before, a prayer to this Divine Instructor, that he "would be gracious to his children, grant them by following his precepts to fill up the image of his likeness, to think of God with all their strength as being not an austere but a perfectly gracious Judge. as citizens living in his peace, translated into his city, passing storm
of the Holy Spirit, and his ineffable wisdom, by night, and by day, even unto the perfect day, to praise and give thanks always to the Father and the Son, to the Son and the Father, the Son who guides and teaches, with the Holy Spirit; all to the ONE, in whom are all things, for whom all things are One, for whom is the Everlasting Now, of whom all we are members, whose is the glory, whose are the ages, all for Him the Good, all for Him the Beauteous, all for Him the Wise, all for Him the Just." Such a prayer, full even to bursting of the very soul of adoration, could not but pass into a hymn of like character. Every thought, image, parable, similitude, which in the course of the book had suggested itself as setting forth the work of the Divine Teacher, pours as in "a rushing mighty wind" through all his soul, and he speaks, as those may have spoken, who told of the great deeds of God, the Spirit giving them utterance. In the half-wild abruptness, and short incisive rhythm, and passionate exclamations, rather than continuous trains of thought and feeling, such as later hymns abound in, we may see, it is believed, no remote likeness to those "spiritual songs," songs in very deed coming from the Spirit who taught men to cry Abba, Father, which were at once the expression and the food of the ecstatic love and adoration of the new-born Church of Christ.
That outward character I have endeavored, though with some inevitable dilution, to reproduce. I should not have ventured on a task so difficult had I anywhere found the work ready to my hands, But I am not aware that there is any accessible translation of this hymn into any form of English verse.* If, among the many thousands into whose hands this may fall, any have come across such a version of it, I shall be thankful if they will inform me.]
CURB for the stubborn steed,
*A portion of the hymn, ending with the line which speaks of the Divine Guide as the "Fisher of men," may be found English Poets, p. 18. She assumed, somewhat, I think, too in Mrs. E. Barrett Browning's Greek Christian Poets and hastily, that her readers would not wish for more.
Mighty, all-conquering Word;
Shepherd and Sower thou,
Lead us, O Shepherd true,
O Milk of Heaven, that prest
Our holy tribute this,
Lord of our Peace.
—E. H. Plumptre.
THE BRIDGE OF CLOUDS.
Ah, no longer wizard fancy
Up the never-ending stair!
But, instead, it builds me bridges
In lustrous halos round their hallowed leaves,
Will count more birth-days in Heaven's register
Unto himself alone. Now is the seed-time,
WHEN in thy wearied ear sad voices mourn,