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gained experience, and will never again advance by the difficult route of the Danube and the Balkan, though even in that direction her progress has not been slight, and there is truth in what was said by one of her diplomatists:* "We are repaid for all our losses in the Crimea and in Bessarabia by what we have gained in the Principalities. From enemies we have made them friends." But Russia has an efficient fleet of merchant steamers in the Black Sea, and before defensive measures could be adopted, might land thirty thousand men in the neighborhood of Constantinople, where they would find thousands of Greeks and other sympathizers to assist them.

to expect more forbearance from Russia now than formerly appears to be simply an absurdity, and the same reasoning applies, though in a less degree, to other European nations.

The second fallacy, which seems to pervade the arguments of almost all those who maintain that the integrity of the Turkish empire can be preserved is, the supposition that the Turks are willing to be assisted in the way their European allies think best. This is to take from the Turk all that distinguishes him from other sects and races, and to suppose him wholly uninfluenced by the religion which makes of him at one moment a moody bigot, at another a fanatical zealot. It is to ignore the testimony of all the most reliable witnesses, who assure us that the Turk is still "what he was four centuries ago," that he retains "the characteristics of his savage intractable ancestors," that "he is utterly unimprovable, that he hates change, and therefore hates civilization, hates Europeans, and hates and fears all that they propose.' It is to deny the saying which is now in the mouths of even those Turks who have been most in contact with European ideas, and who reply to suggestions for the improvement of the races under their sway with the pithy saying, "We came into Europe with the sword, and we will go out of it with the knife."

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But the great step which Russia has made, and it is one that more than compensates for the fall of Sebastopol, is the overthrow and expulsion of the Circassian tribes. As long as the almost impenetrable defiles of the Caucasus were occupied and defended by a hundred thousand such soldiers as the Circassians, the Russians never could have advanced in great force into the Turkish provinces. The giant of the north was chained like Prometheus to a rock, where the eagle of war fed on his vitals, but his fetters are now broken, and the way is clear. Into the localities deserted by the Circassians will pour a stream of Cossacks, and the great army of two hundred thousand men, which has been hitherto engaged in Caucasia, will Let those who expect improvement unnow be able to detach two thirds of its der the Turkish rule, or such modification number to invade Turkey or Persia. In of the rule as will render its continuance the mean time, Turkey is likely to derive over millions of Christians possible in little benefit from the immigration of these days, examine well the character of hordes of turbulent and semi-barbarous the Mohammedan religion, and see whethmountaineers. The author of the Ram- er it be reasonable to expect the desired bles in Syria thus speaks of those who changes while Islam continues the religion had immigrated into Turkey in 1860:† of the State, supported by a priesthood "Robbery seems to be their present pur- constituted as is that of Turkey. A very suit, while preparing to form agricultural slight investigation of the principles of settlements. It would surely have been Islam will show that though they may, as wise to reflect whether or not the author- Mohammedans boast, breathe freedom to ities under whose rule they are intended the true believer, they absolutely enjoin to establish themselves, are in a position restraint and degradation as the lot of all to preserve order, before thus adding to others. Were it not logically demonstrathe number of a disorderly population." ble, it is at least practically proved by the On the whole, therefore, Russia is now in history of eleven hundred years, that Moa better position for an attack on Turkey, hammedanism and civilization are incomand Turkey in a worse for resisting that patible. The utmost that can be achieved attack than before the Crimean war; and with Islam as the religion of the State, is

*A Journal kept in Turkey and Greece in 1857 and 1858, p. 96.

+ Rambles in the Deserts of Syria, p. 285.

*Rambles in the Deserts of Syria, pp. 44, 98. A Journal kept in Turkey and Greece in 1857 and 1858, p. 28.

a strong government under an absolute | no doubt, ever continue such as they have monarch. With such a government there been from the first, such as they recently may be considerable development of na- showed themselves in the Indian mutiny; tional resources, a magnificent court, and after years of intercourse with Englishmuch splendor of living in the families of men, unchangeable in their bigotry and the chiefs or nobles, but the state of the hatred and contempt of other sects. But people will be such as it was under Mo- a creed, the essential part of which is to hammed Ali, Pasha of Egypt. The se- trample on all other creeds, if it came to curity of the subject under such a ruler is be despised in its turn, could not survive well illustrated by the story of the jaded-it would die out. There is a foreshadcourier who had brought a letter of im- owing of this in Persia and in Baghdad, portance to the pasha. As this unfortu- where the aspirations after freedom of nate had been told that the errand was some ardent spirits have led to the develurgent he had exerted himself to the ut-opment of a new sect, the Bábís, who most to arrive in time, and, sinking with fatigue, expected his reward. The pasha, on the other hand, was anxious that the communication should remain a secret, and as one means to this end, the courier, half an hour after his arrival, was at the bottom of the Nile with a heavy stone round his neck. A simple tale this, and but one example of myriads of how the life of a subject is valued by a Moham

medan ruler.

In point of fact, the ablest rulers in all Mohammedan dynasties have shown their impatience of Islam by becoming heretics. They have felt it impossible to inaugurate those reforms, which their genius or their good feeling prompted, without breaking through the shackles of their religion. So early as the first centuries of Islam the most renowned Khalifs, as Vathek and Mamún, had become heretics and had adopted the principles of the Motazelah, among whom were sects inclining to Christianity. The greatest of the Mogul emperors, Akbar, did his best to found a new religion, as did Hallun, the most remarkable of the Egyptian sultans. The present state of the Turkish government, based on the miserable doctrines of the Koran, and yet coqueting with European improvements, is altogether forced and unnatural. To be strong, Mohammedanism must go back to what it was at its commencement, stern, uncompromising, and aggressive, such as it has become again among the Wahabis, or it will lose its vitality and succumb to a more enlightened faith. It is not, indeed, to be expected that Mohammedans would be converted in great numbers if the scepter departed from among them, but the Turks, at least, with their peculiar habits, would melt away and disappear among the increasing masses of Greeks, Armenians, and other Christians. The disciples of Islam would,

show "no antipathy to Christians, or to the followers of any other creed except the Mohammedans."* The Bábís are converted Mohammedans, and if their numbers should increase they would extirpate Islam.

On the whole, then, it would appear that the Turks are "an unimprovable race," and that no efforts can bolster up their government long. What policy is to be adopted, then, in lieu of that struggle to avoid the inevitable which has already cost us such sacrifices? We can not here accept the counsels of the author of the Rambles in Syria, who, after vivid sketches of the decadence of Turkey, still returns to that impossible scheme of interested physicians treating disinterestedly a patient that rejects all medicine. Common sense, on the other hand, would say, "If the dying must die, let care be taken of those who are to survive." As the Turkish power decays, life begins to reanimate the nationalities that have lain so long in a deathlike trance beneath it. Greece, for example, begins to revive, and though the new State of the Hellenes may have to pass through a long season of troublous energy, it can not be doubted that a prosperous future is in store for it. Why should there be less hope for the Principalities, the Servians, the Bulgarians, the Armenians, Syrians, Egyptians, and Arabs? As the ship founders, let raft after raft be cut adrift, and by the success of these several ventures all will be saved. This seems to be the view adopted by the author of Chaos, though his thoughts are somewhat indistinctly shadowed forth, and his suggestions are rather for being prepared to act than for action. speaks of "England that preserves Turk

*Life and Manners in Persia, p. 179.

The Eastern Shores of the Adriatic in 1863.


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ish rule not for the sake of Turkish rule, | ambassador, the best attachés, the best but for the sake of sheltering the imma- consuls, the best Englishmen not Levantture growth of future free nations against ines, are, as Lord Strangford justly says, the destroying blight of despotisms_far required to do England's work in Turmore dangerous, if not worse, than Tur- key. key." Further on he refers to the policy Thus far as regards the "dual policy' of England toward Turkey as dual, "Lib- and its adroit manipulation by the ablest eral in one sense and direction"-that is, men that can be selected. Something we suppose, as regards the nationalities; more, however, is required, something and "Conservative in another "-that is practical, to meet the sharp practice of in supporting the Turkish government. physicians not so unselfish as England in Again he says, "But we must also look their attendance on the sick man. On to see that, after putting the sick man in three different sides of the Turkish emhis coffin when much breath is still in his pire three great powers are preparing body, we may have something better to vantage-ground to spring forward when take his place than a nursery full of frac- the last scene of all arrives. France adtious and rickety children." Viewing it vances by the line of Africa and Egypt, in this light, many will be disposed to re- where the completion of the Lesseps canal gard our imperial policy as "both expe- would give her overwhelming influence. dient for all parties and right in itself." But, Russia is peopling Circassia with Cosis it quite the case that protection of "the sacks, and sits now in terrible strength immature growth" of the nationalities before the open portal which leads into under Turkish rule is recognized by us as the center of Asiatic Turkey. Austrian of such paramount importance? If so, troops are being massed upon the fronteir what becomes of the guarantee that the of the Principalities, and in that direction, Turkish territories shall remain as they and toward Bosnia, the German power are ? It must be explained to mean-is pre-potent. The strength of England Turkey to the Turks, in reversion to their lies in linking herself with India by the subject nationalities when ripe for self nearest bridge across Turkish territory. government. But who is to decide when As England acted on India in putting "the immature growth of these future down its mutinies, so might she draw free nations" reaches maturity? For this support from India in a great struggle in "we want our country," says Lord Strang- Syria, Mesopotamia, or Egypt. For every ford, "to be served in Turkey by the most Sepoy regiment that landed with Baird perfect and highest type of English man- in Egypt, ten regiments of Sikhs, little, if hood;" we must have Englishmen, not at all, inferior to Russian or French_regiLevantines; and the best Englishmen we ments, could now be drawn from India. can get, instructed by "travel in Turkey But the way must be prepared. It will and intercourse with the people," and not do to alienate Persia by coldness and comprehending the rising nationalities. indifference, and to leave her to be bribed by France with offers of the coveted shrines of Kerbela and Najuf and Kázimain. It is but a shallow policy that surrenders the shah's army to be officered by Frenchmen and Germans, that would let Persian ships of war, manned or at least officered by Frenchmen, make their appearance in the Persian Gulf. It would be little creditable were a French company to get the start of English enterprise, not only with a Suez canal, but also with a Syrian, Mesopotamian, and Persian railroad.

But it may be asked, Is even this limited and temporary support of the Turkish power, this trusteeship for immature nations, possible? Are there not too many suitors for these tender wards, not to make us fear they may be wedded to undeserving strangers under our very eyes? Perhaps not, for there is a potent influence at work, which might fight on our side"nationality is taking its place as a new power, among us ;" and it may be added, that the liberal party throughout Europe would support it, while one great despotism at least could hardly now disown it. The danger is that we chill and alienate this power, these budding nationalities, by joining hands too long with the effete government of the Turk. For guidance in so difficult a policy, the best

To sum up in few words, safe and rapid communication with India, implying and including a commanding influence throughout the line, is what will give England strength to resist her rivals when he Turkish empire breaks up. India, in

fact, is at once a beacon and a support. | English company, is the next great want. The past history of India shows the em- We must have an iron bridge from sea to pire of the Moguls, resembling in many sea between England and India. Iron respects that of the Turks, dissolving at links must rivet the communication. It is length from internal weakness, and leav- calculated that the new overland route ing a few Mohammedan states, the Nizam's from Ostend to Brindisi will be quicker kingdom for example, as the only traces by two days than that by Paris and Marof its existence. The present history of seilles. It will be, too, on safer ground. India displays to us a development of re- From Brindisi to Alexandretta, and sources, and an increasing revenue, that thence by rail to Baghdad, and so by the would give England surprising strength Persian Gulf to Bombay, would be a in any new contest. To obtain para- gain of five days on the route by Egypt. mount influence in Persia, the English A railroad from Baghdad to the Meditergovernment has only to will the acquisi- ranean would carry off from the present tion. English instructors would be readily route by Egypt all the passengers and received for the shah's army, and would much of the traffic between India and be what Lindsay, Hart, Sheil, and Raw- England. It would enrich the country it linson were before. The Persian Gulf is passed through. The Arab tribes, unstill completely under our control. We manageable by the Turks, would be have treaties with all the petty states peaceable with us, and in return would be there, and it will be our own fault if we enriched and civilized. Above all, Engsuffer the French to supersede us. A land and India would be brought by this double line of telegraph will soon be railroad en rapport, and their weight as complete to India. A railway from Jo- regards Turkey would be, if not irresistikenderna to Mepps and Baghdad, and ble, at least many times greater than it from Baghdad to Jehran, worked by an now is.

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THE appearance of Dr. Buchanan's volume is most timely; but we fear its value and intention will be greatly defeated by its bulk-even students will scarcely be able to spare the time for upward of six hundred pages. It is in truth a most comprehensive document upon the subject it proposes to investigate. Its method is encyclopedical and critical rather than original. It places the reader in possession of a vast amount of most interesting material; nothing upon the subject of the volume seems to have escaped the eye of the author; but he seems to spread his material out upon a table

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rather than to grasp it in his hand. He discourses upon the value of analogy; this no one doubts; but he has not done so much toward the extension of the empire and the power of analogy, as an aid to Theistic and Christian Evidences. The distinctive excellence of the volume is that it marshals and puts in marching order a vast variety of particulars. We only fear that as the volume is likely to be of most use to younger students, they may be perplexed by the very wealth of reference and quotations. The literature of divine analogy is of rare and great interest. The fame of the work of Butler has too much put out of sight what had been done before; we have often thought again of directing our readers' attention to the Divine Analogy of Bishop Brown (1733), and the remarks upon the same subject in the Minute Philosopher of


Bishop Berkeley.

turing his own views, these works and others were emanating from the minds of authors, whose words and thoughts are still worthy of pondering, although the more famous work has so suggested shall we say exhausted ?-the depths of the subject.

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While Butler was ma-, mentions how anxious he was to have the
bishop's opinion upon some points in his
treatise on Human Nature, before its
publication, and says in one of his letters:
"I am at present cutting off its nobler
parts, that is, endeavoring it shall give
as little offense as possible, before which
could not pretend to put it into the
This is a piece of
Doctor's hands.
cowardice for which I blame myself,
Hume called on Butler, but
though I believe none of my friends will
blame me.'
did not see him; and some persons have
speculated on what might have been, had
Butler been within when Hume called-
the skeptic might have been a believer.
Miss Hennell has attempted to invalidate
the argument of Butler also on personal
grounds; but the character of Butler
every way shines forth as the clearest.
The great
This profoundest of theologians was also
the simplest of believers.
sentiment of the analogy seems to have
been ever present with him, giving anima-
tion to all its thought. "He looked to
Christ as a poor sinner," he said, "for
salvation." And one of the most inter-
esting anecdotes is of his walking in the
garden with his chaplain, Dr. Forster,
stopping short and turning round-a way
he appears to have had-and with great
earnestness saying: "I was thinking,
Doctor, what an awful thing it is for a
human being to stand before the great
Moral Governor of the world, and to give
an account of all his actions in this life."

But does the well-known argument of
Butler satisfy? James Martineau has,
we know, ventured to express himself
thus: "You have led me in your quest
after analogies through the great infirm-
ary of God's creation, and so haunted am
I by the sights and sounds of the lazar-
house, that scarce can I believe in any
thing but pestilence; so sick of soul have
I become, that the mountain-breeze has
lost its scent of health; and you say, it is
all the same in the other world, and
wherever the same rule extends: then I
know my fate, that in this world justice
has no throne. And thus, my friends, it
comes to pass, that these reasoners often
gain indeed their victory; but it is known
only to the Searcher of Hearts, whether
it is a victory against natural religion or
in favor of revealed. For this reason I
consider the “Analogy" of Bishop Butler
(one of the profoundest of thinkers, and
on purely moral subjects, one of the just-
est, too), as containing with a design di-
rectly contrary, the most terrible persua-
sives to atheism that have ever been pro-
duced. The essential error consists in se-
lecting the difficulties, which are the rare
exceptional phenomena of nature, as the
basis of analogy and argument." There
is a remarkable conversation recorded by
Wilberforce with William Pitt, in which
Pitt declared to Wilberforce, "that But-
ler's work raised more doubts in his mind
than it answered." And Sir James Mac-
intosh is reported to have said of the
Analogy, "This can only be an answer
to deists; atheists might make use of
his objections, and have done so." By
another writer, Dr. Schedel, the argu-
ment of Butler has been characterized as
"the analogy of uncertainty," and "the
analogy of mystery;" while Miss Hen-
nell, a well-known extreme skeptical
writer, has claimed the Analogy as an ally
to skepticism. Yet this is not the im-
pression Butler produced upon the skep-
tics of his own day. David Hume, the
great king of skeptics of almost any age
or nation, but especially of the later days,
'looked upon him with something of awe;

We may well, however, as this is the state of the argument, desire to see the argument of analogy fairly expounded, and its extent and limitations defined; for there is a tendency to undue extension. of analogy, as when Hegel affirms, "that as in the doctrine of the Trinity, the Father and the Son, and the Holy Ghost, represent the infinite and the finite, and the union of the two, their identity first, then their distinction, and their return to identity; so the doctrine of the Incarnation has a meaning no less philosophical," etc., etc., etc. We may well be jealous of any attempts to establish the doctrine of the Trinity upon a rational basis, chiefly by means of certain natural analogies supplied by the consciousness of the human mind; there are casuistical, jesuitical, and refining skeptics, as well as believers and theologists, and we believe it is from such hands, perhaps on both sides, the argument of analogy, and Butler's

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