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two years ago, and his body left to rot by the roadside. So deplorable a state of anarchy and conflict exists in a province, the chief town of which contains three hundred regular and three hundred and eighty irregular troops: of the former none have been ordered out of Lattakia, and of the latter none ever reached the scene of action, although they left the town for the purpose of restoring tranquillity. The very presence of irregulars in the town is an evil, for their frequent excesses prevent the industrious and peaceful portion of the Ansairi population in the immediate vicinity from bringing provi

sions and other commodities to market."

by speculators, who purchase from the government the right of collection, hoping to receive from cultivators a greater amount than the price paid." In general it is the provincial council that thus buys up the tithes of a district, and so unlimited is their power of extortion, that instances are by no means rare of their exacting from the unhappy cultivator thirty-five per cent. instead of ten. In addition to this a variety of presents, in the shape of lambs, fruit, and forage, are wrung from the villagers, who are exposed as much to the violence and licenAs regards police, then, and in the tious passions of the tax-gatherer and his matters of civil and criminal justice, the satellites as to their cupidity. One of the subjects of the Turkish government are boons held out to the non-Moslem subtruly unfortunate. The large reforms jects of the Porte in the Háti-Humáyún so much vaunted as the offspring of the was the abrogation of the capitation-tax, Crimean war, are proved to be mere and to this was added a right of admischeats, which have already served their sion into military service. But this aptime, and are no longer alluded to even parent concession has been changed into as pretexts. The next question is: What a fresh source of oppression. The capiprogress has been made in the matter of tation tax reäppears as the bedelieh astaxation, and in the. removal of class dis- kerieh, or tax in lieu of military service, abilities? Viewed with reference to the which is a permanent impost levied population, the revenue of Turkey is so whether a conscription is going on or not, small that the public burdens would not and is at least double the amount of the seem to press heavily on individuals. sum formerly exacted under the name of Aussuming thirty millions* to be the capitation. At the same time none but a number of the inhabitants of the Turk- Mohammedan could really enter the Turkish dominions, and taking the revenue in ish army, for, to say nothing of insults, round numbers at fifteen millions, the his life would not be safe from the fanatpressure would be no more than ten shil-ical violence of his fellow-soldiers. In. lings per head. But this would give a very erroneous idea of the actual condition of the laboring classes. The tithe of agricultural produce, which forms the back-bone of the revenue, "is collected

According to the census of 1844, the population of European and Asiatic Turkey, together with that of Tripoli, Fez, and Tunis, amounts to 000 in Asia, and 3,800,000 in Africa (The Resources of Turkey, by J. L. Farley, p. 3), and many of the Arab tribes, the Anezi, for example (Rambles in Syria, p. 29), pay no taxes to government. The revenue for 1862 is calculated by Fuad Pasha at £15,118,640. (See Resources of Turkey, p. 29.)

33,350,000. But of these the Arabs number 885,

Mr. Farley says (Resources of Turkey, p. 18): "It is not the fiscal dues imposed by the State which are burdensome to the the people; on the contrary, taxation in Turkey is much lighter than

in most other countries. It is the abuses of collection, the extortion of the revenue farmers or their agents, and the numerous rates of interest charged by the saraffs, that oppress the agriculturist, and by retarding the development of the vast natural resources of the empire, prevent her from taking that position among the commercial nations of Europe to which by nature she is eminently


this respect the army of the shah contrasts very favorably with that of the sultan, for instances have occurred in which Mohammedan regiments in Persia have combined to save the lives of Nestorian Christians serving in their ranks.

While on the subject of taxation, it is only fair to say that the author of Rambles in Syria, after speaking of the extortion to which the agricultural classes, and all, whatever their avocation, who are not Mohammedans, are subjected, nevertheless asserts that the taxation is not severe.

"I believe," he writes, " "that in comparison with other countries, the population of Turkey is on the whole lightly taxed." But it is quite evident that he is here looking rather at the amount of revenue raised, and of taxation per head, than at the ability of the population to pay. The best proof of the miserable condition of the people is the food on which they are obliged to supOf the whole Arab port themselves. population, amounting to several millions,

the same author writes, "they never taste | bles in Syria, "seen on the plain, are still animal food, except when a sheep is very primitive, and the science of husslaughtered for a guest. Their ordinary bandry remains in a stunted infancy; but food is bread dipped in melted butter, the soil is so marvelously productive that but they are often reduced to camel's heavy crops are obtained by merely throwmilk, either alone or with a few dates." ing seed into shallow furrows scraped by The irregulars under Háji Batrán were the most wretched of plows, without harglad to feast on the flesh of a hyena. The rowing, rolling, or weeding. As for the Turkumans, who number about two hun- Turks themselves, they are naturally dred thousand, still live as in the time of averse to husbandry, and if they had not Burckhardt," they taste flesh only upon Christians and others for their farm-serfs, extraordinary occasions." Yet these are would scarcely be induced to till the professional robbers; and partly by plun- earth's surface at all. Look,' said one of dering, partly by legitimate traffic, are in them, at these hills of El Himr, here a a position of luxury compared with the man can subsist without labor. There Fellahs or cultivators. The condition of are sixteen kinds of roots here on which these latter has not improved one whit life can be supported, and amongst them since the days of the above-named trav- the wild onion; what more is requireler, who speaks of them thus: "The ed ?'” Fellahs live wretchedly; whenever they are able to scrape together a small pittance, their masters take it from them under the pretence of borrowing it. I was treated by several of them at dinner with the best dish they could afford-bad oil with coarse bread. They never taste meat except when they kill a cow or an ox, disabled by sickness or age; the greater part of them live literally upon bread and water." European travelers, especially if they are officials or men of rank, are purposely hindered from seeing the poverty of the land in traveling through Turkey. But let them leave the highroad, put off the name and dress of Englishmen, and take shelter in the villages at random, as Burckhardt did, and they will soon learn the truth. What is said by Mr. Senior's informant of the state of the masses in Egypt, applies generally to the people all over Asiatic Turkey. "The habits of the mass of the people are so bad, their bodies are so filthy, their dwellings are so wretched, their food is so ill prepared (and it may be added so unfit for man), that the climate must be excellent, or they could not live." To the excellence of the climate must be added also the fertility of the soil in most parts of Turkey, as the real reason why the scanty population does not dwindle even below its present number. "The agricultural improvements," says the author of Ram

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With absolute insecurity for life and property, with such preservers of the peace as Háji Batrán, with taxation carried to the utmost limits that the misery of the masses will allow; what, it may be asked, has been gained for Turkey by the Háti-Humáyún, and all the expenditure of blood and treasure in the Crimea ? There is but one reform to which the partisans of the Turks can point, and that is the security of life to converts from Islamism, or to those who lapse to their former faith after becoming Mohammedans. It is not very long since that an Armenian, who had become a Mohammedan, and reverted to Christianity, was put to death at Constantinople. It was said that application was made to the British embassy to interfere on that occasion, but that the intervention, however it was conducted, failed. A formal execution at the capital on such a charge would now, of course, be impossible, but, in spite of this, it is more than doubtful whether any step has been made in the right direction. Though a lapsed convert could not be openly put to death at Constantinople, his danger at any distant town would be extreme, and his execution certain, if the Mohammedan authorities were assured that the affair could not possibly come to the knowledge of a European cousul. If this be doubted, let reference be made to the unbiassed and unquestionable authority of the author of Rambles in Syria. His opinion on this head, which has been already quoted, is delivered in the clearest terms, and must be echoed by every one who pretends to a real acquaintance with the Turkish character, and the present state

of feeling among all classes of the Mo-1 for centuries had never been called in hammedan population in the Turkish empire.

But more impressive and convincing than the language of any writer is the testimony of events. Is it the case, that since the Crimean war the Christian population of Turkey has lived in greater security, and that the old Mohammedan rigor has been softened toward a faith whose followers have saved Mohammedan power from being torn up by the roots? What is to be said, then, of Jeddah? of the massacres in the Lebanon, at Dier-el Kamar, at Hasbeya and Rasheya, and at Zahleh ? These places were destroyed by fire, and three thousand six hundred Maronites were slain in them. The same scenes of horror that occurred at Aleppo nine years and a half before, when for three weeks the Christian quarter was given up to pillage and the sword, would doubtless have been repeated in 1860, but for the firmness of Omar Pasha, a Russian refugee. What would have occurred at Aleppo may be inferred from what did occur at Damascus, where twelve hundred and eighty Christians were barbarously murdered, and every conceivable outrage that the most fiendish cruelty could suggest, was perpetrated on an unoffending population. It is true that the authors of these atrocities were punished, that Ahmed Pasha, the governor of Damascus, the command ants of Hasbeya and Rasheya, and a colonel of irregulars, with one hundred and seventeen of his officers and soldiers, and several civilians were shot, that sixty-six other ringleaders in the massacres were hanged, and five hundred and fifty sentenced to hard labor for life or for twenty years. But these retributive acts were due to French intervention, and were in no degree ascribable to any regard for justice on the part of the Turkish gov

question; and that a violent revulsion of feeling was the inevitable result of such compulsory obedience to the wishes of a despised sect, but that the explosion once over the danger of reaction is past. This line of argument leads to the investigation of the second of the two questions with which we set out. It must, indeed, be admitted that hitherto the promised reforms in Turkey have not borne fruit, that there have been recent evidences of the continuance of the old rancorous spirit in the dominant race, that there is the same disorganization and anarchy and oppression, that for so many years have been so indignantly described by so many writers; but may not a better time be looked for, when, by the development of commerce, the immigration of Europeans, and incessant contact with Western civilization, the Turkish character itself may be altered, Mohammedan prejudices softened, and the equality of rights for all Turkish subjects, which has been now twice proclaimed by imperial edicts, be really established?

Were it indeed the case that the fanatical, unbending spirit which was formerly so characteristic of the Osmanli, was now found only in the lower order of Turks, or in those who, from residing in the interior, are less exposed to contact with European ideas, there might be some hope of improvement. But this is far from being the case. The higher classes of Turks, even those who have resided in the capitals of the European States, and who have mixed in European society, still continue quite devoid of those free and generous notions which are the true source of all real progress. The government itself, though it yields to the remonstrances of the European ambassadors, returns to its original form wherever and whenever the pressure is removed. For example, It may be said, however, that the whole retribution was exacted by the French epoch of the Crimean war was fraught for the massacres of 1860. The Porte with bitter humiliation to the Turks; that yielded to the pressure, and about seven to have required and received the aid of hundred and forty Mohammedans suffered Christians to save them from being tram- death or imprisonment, but no sooner was pled under foot by Christians, was in it- the excitement over than Namik Pasha, self inexpressibly galling to their proud who was governor of Jeddah during the spirit; that their pride was still further massacre, was appointed to the highest wounded when the sultan was compelled disposable command in the empire, the to proclaim, as the price of the interven- government of Baghdad, where he is at tion which had saved his empire, equality this moment. Namik Pasha is, besides, of rights to all his subjects, and abolish an excellent illustration in his own person the preeminence of the Osmanli, which of the unchangeable character of the



Turk, under continual contact with Euro- | a work of time, and that whether the pean civilization. He has resided in both change that has commenced will reach a England and France; he speaks French fortunate issue or not, is still an unsolved almost as well as a native of France; he problem. It is fair to quote his opinions affects a great regard and admiration for at length in his own words, before comLord Palmerston. Yet it is notorious menting on them: that there is not a more bigoted and re"Police is not what is most wanted in Turlentless Turk in the whole empire. Not to speak of Jeddah, it is well-known that ment creates here lawless classes, not individukey; it is government. The want of governhis constant aim is to resist European in- al criminals. Lord Macaulay says that no orfluence, and to mortify and harass those dinary misgovernment will do as much to make who are under consular protection. It is a nation wretched as the constant effort of said, that having by an effort of this kind every man to better himself will do to make a brought down on himself a sharp repri- nation prosperous. The constant effort of most mand from the Porte, he was ordered to Turks to better themselves belongs to one of apologize to some European functionary, two descriptions: plunder and bribed connivwho, the better to insure the amende be- rich and poor, all follow the tortuous groove High and low, official and unofficial, ing made, was supplied with a copy of of peculation, corruption, and extortion, on the the dispatch. Armed with this paper the one hand, or are addicted, on the other, to European proceeded to an interview with armed depredations. I allude, of course, only the pasha, who received him as usual, and to the provinces of Turkey, as I have already said nothing about the instructions. At more than once specified in remarking on the last the visitor, growing impatient, in-state of the country. Were the astonishing quired if such a dispatch had been re-pursuit of illicit gain, and the great courage perseverance and ingenuity employed in the ceived. "Yes!" said the pasha, "the and skill displayed in acts of violence, turned order has arrived. The sultan can take into the wide and legitimate channel referred my head, but I will never apologize to an to by our distinguished historian, they would, infidel." It may easily be imagined how by a parity of reasoning, make the nation very little respect is shown under such a vice- prosperous. But to effect any thing of the roy to the regulations of the Háti-Humá- kind, a new social order must be inaugurated, yún. Thus, in that edict it is said: "All which would admit of both classes earning their livelihood honestly, and some moral disforeigners may possess landed property, tinction must be established between what is obeying the laws and paying the taxes; right and what is wrong, that crime should be for this purpose arrangements shall be stigmatized. For the usual isolated disturbmade with foreign powers." As a matter ances, remedial measures, more or less prompt of fact, there are foreigners possessing and efficacious, may be expected from the land in the pashalik of Baghdad, but an Turks, but, when a people is thus perverted, inquiry into their grievances would dis- as well as misgoverned, all practical improvecover many curious circumstances. At a ment to be looked for from the Porte can, I fear, be of little avail. The evil is deep-seated station, for instance, not very far from in a country where labor is not allowed to be Baghdad, there is a most commodious productive, and plunder in all its varities is encaravanserah built by a foreigner. It is couraged by sharing its profits. Lord Macauvery much needed where it stands, and lay's ordinary misgovernment theory has no would be a great convenience to the pub- application here. This is a stupendous mislic, but for some reason or other no one government, and the nation is very wretched." has ever entered it, or is likely to do so under the present régime.

The author of the Rambles in Syria admits most fully the wretched state of Turkey, and distinctly avows his disbelief in any improvement proceeding from the government itself. At the same time he does not altogether despair of a change for the better under certain circumstances. His panacea is "a steady but not violent pressure from without," coupled with the influence of European settlers." But under the most favorable circumstances, he thinks that progress in Turkey must be


"By putting a check upon the abuse of powsulmans and Christians, by effecting a more er through its equal distribution between Musequitable arrangement of the respective and relative rights of conflicting sects, and by opening the country to foreign colonists, along with an absolute prohibition of foreign protection and local interference, these ends might be attained in so far as legislative means can avail. Interests now antagonistic would thus be bound together. The laborer or artisan, no longer forced to work for another, might then work for that other while working for himself. A middle class would spring up from such a regulation of social rights in proportion as

prosperity might enable the cultivator and tradesman to extend their operations, and according as necessity might oblige the great proprietor of land and looms to become himself industrious. Trade would then be indigenous, and wealth would cease to be monopolized by local magnates and foreign speculators, while money, instead of filling the coffers of a favored few, leaving the provinces to purchase influence, or being sent abroad by strangers, would circulate at home, begetting affluence, producing what is now imported, and remaining in the country as the stock of future generations. The missing links in the social chain once supplied, the equilibrium essential to productive harmony established, the different wheels of the machine so adjusted as to work well alone, and the population brought to the normal state of well-regulated society, prosperity would become possible, and good government certain. The hour of redemption from starving pride on the one hand, and from debasing servitude on the other, sounded for millions of human beings at the close of the Crimean war. The lapse of a certain interval between the shock of a great conflict, and the realization of its stipulated and proclaimed results, naturally took place. The shaken supremacy of the dominant race oscillated for a time, and Europe looked on in expectation of the final practical abolition of all class privileges. Matters have

settled down, however, on their former basis. The decree, comprising the germs of such important social and political changes, has remained a dead letter, in so far as regards all practical results. The warning conveyed to the tottering throne of Turkey has hitherto been disregarded. Unaided and unwatched, one can have but little confidence in the administrative abilities and political morality of any man or set of men in Turkey. With the exception of Fuad Pasha, Ahmed Wefik Ef fendi, and a select few-too few to achieve the rapid transformation of so vast and so corrupt an empire-the best-intentioned sultan has not instruments at his disposal for such an undertaking. Hence arises the grievous evil of foreign local interference in the details of government, to which it may not be unfair to attribute in a great measure the failure of Turkey to keep her promises. She is not left time nor temper to do it under the constant teasing of embassies about trifles. Every one knows that our own ambassador has never followed that course, and that Sir Henry Bulwer has, on the contrary, contributed very efficaciously toward the realization of every good purpose of the Porte, while his not having always succeeded either in effecting progress or preventing evil is

not to be wondered at in presence of other influences, less disinterested and beneficent, but equally entitled by position to claim the sultan's careful consideration. I can not doubt, however, that by a moderate and justifiable insistance on the adoption of obvious principles and practice, emanating directly from a friendly

power, so as to escape the Scylla and Charybdis besetting the local approaches to the Porte, Turkey might be placed and kept in a train of improvement advantageous to herself and satisfactory to Europe. It must, certainly, be a work of time; for I imagine that a people can not at once be raised, as was expected, from the actual state of the sultan's subjects by international stipulations and imperial enactments, however beneficial and comprehensive they may appear, without passing through a period of transition. That period has commenced; whether or not it will ever arrive at a favorable issue, is still an unsolved problem, involving the peace of Europe."

There are, it seems to us, two fallacies involved in these theories for the resuscitation of Turkey, as in similar views propounded by those whose opinions have been reported by Mr. Senior. The first of these fallacies is in speaking of "the steady but not violent pressure from without," as if the welfare of Turkey was the prime object of all the European States, whereas there is nothing so certain as that, except England, Turkey has not a single real friend or disinterested ally. It is true that France, Sardinia, and, to a certain extent, Austria, combined with England to save Turkey in the Crimean war, but jealousy of Russia was the moving principle in that struggle, and not regard for the Porte. France has since then shown a strong disposition to join in the dismemberment of the country she protected; and were Austria assured of the impossibility of resisting Russian aggrandizement she would certainly, as the next best course, unite in plundering the fallen. There are not wanting politicians who would willingly assign the Principalities and perhaps Bosnia to Austria, and who would say, as was said to Mr. Senior:


Austria could hold them against Russia. Her interests are naturally the same as those of England. She is, as respects Western Europe, a pacific, unaggressive power. We can not strengthen her too much." By an extraordinary combination of circumstances, France and England were able and willing to unite against Russia to preserve Turkey, but it is very improbable that such an alliance could be formed again for a similar purpose. In the mean time Russia has more than recovered the vantage-ground she lost by the Crimean war. In the first place, she has

* A Journal kept in Turkey and Greece in 1857 and 1858, p. 86.

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