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of Lincoln's boyhood, making him the eldest of a large family and the support and stay of his widowed mother after the death of his father, and contained other and grave errors. It sold for twenty-five cents, and it had a marked influence in making Lincoln a popular hero.

William Dean Howells made his advent into literature about this time, and he wrote a campaign biography of Lincoln; and a Boston firm published "The Wideawake Edition" of Lincoln's life. A Cincinnati firm published a campaign biography by J. H. Barrett, and a New York firm another by D. W. Bartlett. All these were cloth bound volumes, but the biographical data was meager; the books were made up largely of Lincoln's speeches, and had short sketches of Lincoln's running-mate, Hannibal Hamlin of Maine. All in all they serve to impress the modern reader with the paucity of the information available concerning Lincoln at the time when he became a candidate for the presidency.

There was little improvement in the campaign biographies of 1864. There are several of them, and they add little if any biographical information, but extend the subject matter in the 1860 books with material about the Civil War.

Immediately after Lincoln's death, the presses were at work, printing "Complete" lives of Lincoln. The first of these were made from the plates or type of the 1864 biographies, with pages added telling of his assassination, his funeral, the trial of the assassins, the pursuit of Booth, and so on. The first part of these books speaks of him as still living. I have one of these volumes in five editions, showing its evolution from an 1864 campaign biography into a "Complete Life" of Lincoln. The changes show considerable ingenuity, but no great literary merit.

There is one little book of this character which deserves special mention. Of it I have seen only a single copy, which I own. It is entitled "Beadle's Dime Life of Lincoln." It was prepared in 1864 by J. O. Victor, and after the death of Lincoln was issued in a new edition with a brief preface instead of supplement, telling of Lincoln's death. This little book was the one which Lincoln's cousins could afford, and which Dennis Hanks possessed and read and found to contain some things true and other things false. It is the only volume about Lincoln which we know any relative of Lincoln read at the time, with one single exception.

The exception is the first Boy's Life of Lincoln, entitled "The Pioneer Boy," by William M. Thayer. Robert Lincoln read this and wrote a letter of commendation, in which he virtually said that it was in essential accord with what he had heard from his father. Robert was away at school when he wrote this, and it is possible that the publishers sent some one over to Cambridge to get this testimonial from him. There they should have stopped. But they had a copy of the book specially bound and sent it to Mr. Lincoln in 1863. This copy, presented to the President, is in a private collection in Chicago, owned by Mr. Oliver R. Barrett. Across the title-page, under the name of the author, has been written in pencil, apparently by some member of the President's family, this uncomplimentary designation of the author, "The champion liar of history."

I do not think it was Mr. Lincoln who wrote this line; had he lived, he would have found other books about himself more completely worthy of this comment.

How many Lives of himself Mr. Lincoln read is not known. Apparently he regarded the campaign biographies of 1860 and 1864 as instruments, necessary to an important end,

and otherwise of no great consequence. He might have modified the affirmation which the spirit of Thaddeus Stevens is alleged to have rapped out to Mr. Dickey, the Member of Congress who had in charge the memorial service, and who was troubled because more senators and representatives wanted to speak than could be crowded into the program. Having inquired their names, and learned that the list included many of his old time opponents as well as his friends and those who had been closely associated with him, the spirit of the doughty old fighter is alleged to have said:

"Since I don't have to listen to the speeches, I don't care a rap who delivers them."

Lincoln did not have to read all these books. The literature which followed the death of Lincoln was not wholly biographical. The Sunday following the death of Lincoln was devoted in hundreds of pulpits to discourses upon his character and the lessons of his life and death. In many cities special services were held, then, and on May 20, the day of his burial. The discourses delivered at these services, hastily prepared, were nevertheless earnest and timely, and in many cases were printed. These have become rare items for the collector, who has an

endless task before him if he attempts to secure anything like a complete list. Beside the lesser addresses were formal orations by George Bancroft, Charles Sumner, Schuyler Colfax and others, orations which have a permanent place in literature.

Then came collections of his writings, collections of poems about him, one of the latter published by Lippincott as early as 1865, and others following in reasonably swift succession. The number of Lincoln anthologies is not small, and some of the more recent ones have been of the best.

Books of Lincoln stories began in time to issue. Many stories were told while Lincoln was alive which claimed him as their author. I have Judge Arnold's own copy of one of the earlier collections of alleged Lincoln Stories. It bears upon its fly-leaf the penciled comment of that competent biographer and friend of Lincoln to the effect that "About half of these stories are authentic, and most of them badly told." But books of Lincoln jokes continue to escape the press; though it would appear that there could be no large source of unexplored material for works of this character.

Soon after Lincoln's death, biographies began

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