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from the hypotheses. The first volume is now translated into English,* and by corrections and additions, furnished by the author, has been brought up to date.

The tone is cautious and inspires confidence. After the deluge of writing on the Homeric question, it is refreshing to read the clear and concise account here given. Scholars will rejoice in the wealth of bibliographical and critical notes. In fact, at least one-fourth of the present volume consists of useful apparatus, largely bibliographical in content and carefully revised, as is shown by the mention of books published as late as 1893.

The translation is accurate but lacks life. In this, however, it resembles its German original. This lack of life and the almost excessive caution in statements detract somewhat from the pleasure of the reader. But the work is of great value and answers a real need.

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IN A RECENT WORK on Antisemitismus und Strafrechtspflege" † many examples are cited from the Prussian judicial decisions to show that the criminal law is not enforced in the same way against all political parties; that, for example, indictments, which are punished in social-democrats to the full extent of the law, in the anti-semitics are not regarded as culpable. The author does a service in the interests of justice in pointing out and putting together these facts. As to the cause of this unequal administration of the law, the author supposes it to be an erroneous understanding of the statutes. To the credit of the Prussian judges one may assent to this opinion of the author, and avoid the temptation to follow up the not remote thought as to whether the anti-semitic feeling has not perhaps penetrated a little into the ranks of the judges. At any rate, such inequalities in the application of the law are greatly to be regretted, and, as the author very truly points out, they undermine "confidence in an impartial administration of justice," whereby "the way is made easy for lawlessness and anarchy." In point of fact, it is possible to prove in Germany a connection between anti-semitism and anarchistic tendencies, for the former has in many cases profoundly shaken the authority of the state.

AS A CONTRIBUTION to the Columbian Exhibition the Imperial German Government sent two volumes on the German universities.

The History of Greece. From its commencement to the close of the independence of the Greek Nation. By ADOLPH HOLM. In four volumes. Vol. I. Up to the end of the Sixth Century B. C. Pp. xvii, 432. Price, $2.50. New York. Macmillan & Co., 1894. Zweite Auflage.

† Antisemitismus und Strafrechtspflege. By MAX PARMOD. Berlin Cronbach, 1894.

For these Professor Paulsen, of Berlin, furnished a concise and able introduction. The latter has now been translated* by Professor Perry, of Columbia, and is an important addition to English works dealing with the subject. The chapter on the historical development of the German universities is the longest (72 pp.) and most satisfactory. The other chapters treat of the general character; relations to the state, to the Church, and to the community; teachers and teaching; students and the pursuit of study; and the unity of the university.

Many of the problems confronting the German universities are stated, and some of these furnish matter for earnest thought to American students. The defence of the much-abused lecture-system will command attention. The value of the book is enhanced by an introduction on "The Relation of the German Universities to the Problems of Higher Education in the United States," written by Professor Nicholas Murray Butler. In the appendices the latest statistics and a carefully selected bibliography are given. The volume is adequately indexed.

THE THIRD SESSION of the Summer Meeting organized by the American Society for the Extension of University Teaching will take place in the buildings of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, July 1-26. A very attractive series of lectures in the field of political science has been arranged, and a remarkable corps of eminent specialists secured to conduct the work. The lectures will occupy from three to five hours daily for four weeks, and after each lecture an opportunity will be given for general discussion. The following is the program of the Politics Department:

Professor Woodrow Wilson, of Princeton, besides the inaugural address on "Democracy" will give a series upon The Constitutional Government of the United States. (1) "What is Constitutional Government?" (2) "Political Liberty." (3) "Written Constitutions; The Nature, Origin, and Significance of Our Own." (4) "The Organization and Powers of Congress." (5) "The Function of the Courts Under a Constitutional Government."

Professor J. W. Jenks, of Cornell, will lecture upon Politics in the Modern Democracy. (1) "The Essentials of Citizenship." (2) “The Principles of Representation." (3) "The Function of the Legislature." (4) "Direct Legislation" (Referendum and Initiative). (5) "The Guidance of Public Opinion."

Professor Macy, of Iowa College, upon Political Parties and Political Leadership. (1) "Party Organization, a Fact to be Reckoned with. *The German Universities: Their Character and Historical Development. By FRIEDRICH PAULSEN. Pp. xxxi, 254. Price, $2.00. New York and London: Macmillan & Co., 1895.

The Relation of Parties to Mobs." (2) "Party Leadership Under the English Cabinet System and Under the American Federal System.” (3) "The Effect of the Slavery Question and the Civil War upon Political Parties." (4) "Political Issues since the Civil War." (5) "The Relation of the School and the Church to Political Leadership." Professor H. C. Adams, of the University of Michigan, upon Relation of the State to Industrial Society. (1) "Doctrine of Restricted Governmental Functions Regarded as an Historical Product." (2) "Analysis of the Theory of Restricted Governmental Functions." (3) "Classification of Industries from the Point of View of Governmental Functions." (4) "The Functions of Government in the Presence of Modern Monopolistic Tendency." (5) "The Function of Government in the Presence of Modern Labor Controversies."

Professor A. B. Hart, of Harvard, upon Special Topics. (1) "American Political Inventions." (2) "The New England Town Meeting." (3) "Puritan Politics."

Professor E. J. James, of the University of Pennsylvania, upon The American Citizen: His Privileges and Immunities. (1) "Who are Citizens." (2) "Civil Rights." (3) "Political Privileges." (4) "Civil and Political Obligations." (5) "Means of Enforcing the Rights and Obligations of Citizens."

Professor W. G. Sumner, of Yale, upon (1) "Militarism." (2)

"Industrialism."

Dr. Albert Shaw, editor of the Review of Reviews, upon Government of European Cities. (1) "Introductory." (2) "The English System of Municipal Government." (3) "The German System of Municipal Government." (4) "French and Italian Systems of Municipal Government." (5) "Lessons for America from the Experience of European Cities."

Dr. Albert A. Bird, Staff Lecturer of the Extension Society, upon The Municipal Government of Philadelphia. (1) "Elections and Election Laws." (2) "The Machinery of the City Government." (3) "The City and its Franchises." (4) "Public Works." (5) "Taxation and Finance.”

Professor E. R. L. Gould, of the University of Chicago, upon Social Problems of Cities. (1) "Relation of Civil Reform to Social Progress." (2) "Housing of the Poor." (3) "Public Recreation."

Rev. W. B. Hale, of Middleboro, Mass., upon Social Ideas and Social Realities. (1) "The Family." (2) "The Mob." (3) "The Political Party." (4) "The Nation." (5) "The Church."

Rev. Edward E. Hale, Boston, upon Social Reform. (1) "The Abolition of Pauperism." (2) "The Relief of Poverty." (3) "The Battle of Intemperance." (4) "The Ideal City."

NOTES ON MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT.

[This department of the ANNALS will endeavor to place before the members of the Academy all items of interest which will serve to indicate the municipal activity of the large cities of Europe and America. Among the contributors are: James W. Pryor, Esq., Secretary City Club, New York City; Sylvester Baxter, Esq., Boston Herald, Boston; Samuel B. Capen, Esq., President Municipal League, Boston; Mr. A. L. Crocker, Minneapolis; Victor Rosewater, Ph. D., Omaha Bee, Omaha; Professor John Henry Gray, Chairman Committee on Municipal Affairs, Civic Federation, Chicago.]

AMERICAN CITIES.

Philadelphia.-The Fourth Annual Message of Mayor Stuart, together with the preliminary financial and administrative reports of departments, give much interesting information concerning the progress in municipal work during the year ending December 31, 1894A résumé of municipal activity during the Mayor's four-years' term is also given. Considering the work undertaken as well as that actually accomplished, it would seem that Philadelphia is entering upon a new era of public improvements. Street-paving, re-paving and drainage have advanced at an unprecedented rate. To take, for instance, some facts illustrative of this change, we find that during the last four years, nearly one and one-quarter million square yards of street were repaved with modern and improved pavement. This represents twenty-five miles more than the entire surface repaved during the twenty years from 1870 to 1890. In addition, about one and one-half million square yards of new paving were laid during the same period. The additional privileges granted to the passenger railway companies incident to the introduction of the trolley system were made conditional upon the repaving of the streets occupied by such companies, with such material as the Director of Public Works might prescribe. During the two years, 1893 and 1894, the companies repaved, mainly with asphaltum, 181 miles of street. During the last four years, therefore, the city and the street railway companies have paved or repaved a total of over four hundred miles of street. This remarkable change in the condition of the streets of the city involved indirectly a large expenditure for such purposes as drainage; the laying of such improved pavement as asphaltum making it desirable to place the system of drainage in the very best condition. During the four years from January 1, 1891, nearly fifty-five miles of main and one hundred and ninety miles of branch sewers were constructed. The former represents a total

equal to the entire system of main sewers constructed between 1868 and 1891, whereas the latter is equivalent to the entire mileage of branch sewers constructed during the preceding fourteen years.

Comparing the condition of the streets in 1890 and 1894, we find that in the former there were 755 miles of paved streets, of which 115 were rubble, 375 cobble, 88 macadam roads, and 144 of improved paving (such as asphaltum). In 1894 there were 872.9 miles of improved highways, of which 92 were paved with rubble, 164 with cobbles, 114 of macadam, and 502 of improved pavements.

The report of the Bureau of Water shows a great increase in the facilities for the supply, although very little effort was made to improve its quality. During the four-years' term of the out-going Mayor, over $4,000,000 was expended in extensions, mainly for the increase of storage and pumping capacity. While in 1890 the pumping capacity per day was about 185,000,000 gallons, in 1894 it was 311,000,000 gallons. The storage capacity of the reservoirs in 1890 was about 869,000,000 gallons; in 1894 it was 1,400,000,000 gallons, an increase of 61 per cent. The per capita consumption of water continues to increase, as is shown by the fact that in 1894 the average daily consumption was over 164 gallons per capita daily (197,000,000 gallons). The rapidly increasing per capita consumption is becoming one of the serious problems of the Water Bureau. That 164 gallons is far beyond the real needs of the city there cannot be the slightest doubt and that quite an appreciable percentage represents willful waste is equally true. One important element is the large amount of water required by the manufacturing establishments. There is no reason, why the taxpayers of Philadelphia should be paying for water consumed by such enterprises. The only possible solution to the question seems to be the introduction of a water meter system. Between 1885 and 1895 the per capita daily consumption of water increased from 72 to 164 gallons. In New York it is at present but 90 gallons, in Boston, 89.3. The water meter system will tend to reduce the waste which these 164 gallons involve, and will at all events distribute the burden of waterrates more equitably.

The city's gas works make a very favorable financial showing in spite of the fact that the price of gas was reduced in 1894 from $1.50 to $1.00 per thousand cubic feet. In the estimate of profit, which, during the last four years, has amounted to nearly $3,000,000, no attempt is made to take into consideration the interest and liquidation of the loans contracted for the construction and extensions of the gas works; a system which would necessarily prevail if the works were under private control, and which the requirements of sound financial administration would seem to dictate. Under such a system,

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