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upon the evening of December 28, a sociological conference to which all of those especially interested in the teaching or study of sociology were invited.*

Undoubtedly the most important numbers on the program were the two formal discussions touching the relation between sociology and economics, and the teaching of economics in secondary schools. The latter discussion was unfortunate in being set down to follow Professor Ashley's interesting paper, but nevertheless was not without important consequences.

As has always been the case, the social features of the meetings were those which made the gathering of especial value to the members present. The representatives of the faculty of Columbia College were indefatigable in their hospitable efforts to bring the members of the Association together outside of the formal sessions. Lunches and dinners were the order of the day and each one carried away with him from the congress a feeling of gratitude toward his hospitable entertainers. The meeting was voted by nearly all of those in attendance the most successful that the Association has yet held; judged either by the scientific value of the papers or by the number and quality of the members present.

During the meeting the Council of the Association held several sessions. The officers elected for the coming year are the following: President, Professor John B. Clark, Amherst College. Vice-Presidents, President J. H. Canfield, University of Nebraska; Professor A. T. Hadley, Yale University; Professor George W. Knight, University of Ohio. Secretary, Professor J. W. Jenks, Cornell University. Treasurer, Mr. F. B. Hawley, New York. Publication Committee, Professor H. H. Powers, Smith College, chairman; Professor H. C. Adams, University of Michigan; Professor H. W. Farnam, Yale University; Professor W. J. Ashley, Harvard University; Professor Davis R. Dewey, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

The following were elected members of the Council:

(1) Those whose terms expire in 1897: Professor E. W. Bemis, University of Chicago; Mr. Arthur Yager; Mr. G. B. Newcomb; Professor E. R. A. Seligman, Columbia College; Professor G. W. Knight, University of Ohio; Professor D. R. Dewey, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Professor J. W. Jenks, Cornell University; Professor W. W. Folwell, University of Minnesota; Mr. T. G. Shearman, New York; Mr. Stuart Wood, Philadelphia; Professor A. T. Hadley, Yale University; Mr. R. R. Bowker; Professor George Gunton, New York; Professor A. W. Small, University of Chicago; Dr. James

This conference is treated in the paper on "Terminology and the Sociological Conference," by Professor Powers in the current number of the ANNALS.

McLean, New York; Dr. L. S. Rowe, University of Pennsylvania; Dr. S. M. Lindsay, University of Pennsylvania; Dr. D. I. Green, Hartford; Professor T. N. Carver, Oberlin College; Mr. John M. Glenn; Professor Frank Fetter, University of Indiana; Dr. Victor Rosewater, New York; Professor J. A. Loos, University of Iowa; and Hon. Rowland Hazard. (2) Those whose terms expire in 1896: Mr. H. E. Mills, Vassar College; Dr. J. H. Hollander, Johns Hopkins University; Dr. Stephen F. Weston, New York; and Professor W. M. Daniels, Princeton College. (3) Those whose terms expire in 1895: Professor C. H. Cooley, University of Michigan; Dr. H. C. Emery, Bowdoin College; and Dr. H. R. Seager, University of Pennsylvania. It was decided to hold the next meeting of the Association west of the Alleghanies, at such place and time as the Executive Council shall appoint. Invitations have been received from Ann Arbor on behalf of the University of Michigan, from Minneapolis on behalf of the University of Minnesota, from St. Louis on behalf of the University of Missouri and Washington University, and from Indianapolis on behalf of the Universities of Indiana and Illinois.

In addition to those who took part in the program, the following members of the Association were present at the meeting*: Professor John Quincy Adams, University of Pennsylvania; Mr. H. H. Barber, New York City; Mr. Charles H. Barrows, Springfield, Mass.; Professor Edward W. Bemis, University of Chicago; Mr. A. F. Bentley, Johns Hopkins University; Professor F. W. Blackmar, Kansas State University; Mr. R. R. Bowker, New York City; Mr. Jeffrey R. Brackett, Baltimore; Mr. Arthur Cassot, New York City; Mr. George D. Chamberlain, Springfield, Mass.; Mr. James L. Cowles, Farmington, Conn.; Mr. F. M. Corse, Columbia College; Mr. J. W. Crook, Columbia College; Dr. J. F. Crowell, Columbia College; Mr. F. S. Crum, Cornell University; Mr. H. A. Cushing, Columbia College; Rev. Edward Day, Lenox, Mass.; Mr. F. S. Edmunds, Cornell University Professor Henry Crosby Emery, Bowdoin College; Professor Henry W. Farnam, Yale University; Professor W. W. Folwell, University of Minnesota; Mr. Allen R. Foote, Washington, D. C.; Rev. N. P. Gilman, Boston, Mass.; Mr. John M. Glenn, Baltimore, Md.; Dr. E. R. L. Gould, Johns Hopkins University; Dr. D. I. Green, Hartford, Conn.; Mr. Guy Gundaker, Cornell University; Professor George Gunton, School of Social Economics; Dr. Ernst L. von Halle, Berlin; Mr. M. B. Hammond, Columbia College; Mr. Frank R. Hathaway, New York City; Mr. F. B. Hawley, New York City; Mr. John Haynes, Johns Hopkins University; Hon. Rowland Hazard, Peace Dale, R. I.; Professor F. C. Hicks, University of Missouri; Mr. *This incomplete list is the only one available for publication.

F. L. Hoffman, Richmond, Va.; Dr. J. H. Hollander, Johns Hopkins University; Professor Edmund J. James, University of Pennsylvania ; Professor J. W. Jenks, Cornell University; Dr. Emory R. Johnson, University of Pennsylvania; Professor Isaac A. Loos, Iowa State University; Dr. C. W. Macfarlane, Philadelphia; Mr. J. D. Merriman, Columbia College; Professor Herbert E. Mills, Vassar College; Professor G. B. Newcomb, College of the City of New York; Mr. George A. Plimpton, New York City; Professor H. H. Powers, Smith College; Dr. William Z. Ripley, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Dr. Victor Rosewater, Omaha, Neb.; Dr. Leo S. Rowe, University of Pennsylvania; Professor J. C. Schwab, Yale University; Dr. H. R. Seager, University of Pennsylvania; Professor E. R. A. Seligman, Columbia College; Dr. Albert Shaw, New York City; Mr. Thomas G. Shearman, New York City; Professor Sidney Sherwood, Johns Hopkins University; Professor F. M. Taylor, University of Michigan; Mr. C. W. Tooke, Columbia College; Professor C. S. Walker, Massachusetts Agricultural College; President Francis A. Walker, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Professor Lester F. Ward, Smithsonian Institution; Mr. Horace White, New York City, Professor George G. Wilson, Brown University; Professor A. B. Woodford, School of Social Economics.



The American Historical Association held its Tenth Annual Meeting in the National Museum and Columbian University at Washington, D. C., December 26-28, 1894, with an attendance of fifty-five members. There were three evening sessions in the large lecture hall at Columbian University, and two morning sessions in the hall of the United States National Museum. Among the papers of political and economic interest were the following, of which only the briefest mention can be made in this report:

Professor George B. Adams, of Yale University, reviewed the series of English events from 1869 to 1870, leading to the idea of imperial federation which was sanctioned in 1875. The Imperial Federation League was organized in 1884. Rossiter Johnson, of New York City, read one of the most suggestive papers on "Turning-points in the American Civil War." His criticisms upon Lee's lack of good strategy at the Battle of Gettysburg were of peculiar interest. Professor Bernard Moses, of the University of California, submitted a paper for publication on the Spanish method of controlling commercial and economic affairs in the South American colonies. There was

a special organization entirely independent of the state government. The system was not altogether unlike that of the East India Company. Dr. W. B. Scaife, of Allegheny City, Pa., presented a valuable paper showing some European modifications of the jury system. Herbert Friedenwald, of Philadelphia, called attention to certain neglected portions of American revolutionary history, and indicated lines of research that might profitably be undertaken in connection with the history of the old Continental Congress.

There were various papers on the history of politics. Professor Wm. A. Dunning, of Columbia College, reviewed the subject of American political philosophy. He called attention to the lack of originality among colonial and revolutionary theorists. Francis Lieber was the first American to make broad and systematic speculations in politics, but even he followed German and English models. Theodore Woolsey followed Lieber, but added a theological bias. Political writing since our Civil War has not shown much independence of thought. John W. Burgess and J. A. Jameson have combined the historical and juristic methods.

Professor Hudson, of the University of Michigan, presented a good institutional study of the office of the German emperor. Professor E. Emerton, of Harvard University, discussed the problem of the origin of the German Imperial Electoral College. He suggested that the German electorate can best be studied through the analogy of the Roman College of Cardinals. Professor A. D. Morse, of Amherst College, read a valuable paper on the "Causes and Consequences of the Party Revolution of 1800." Professor J. H. Robinson, of the University of Pennsylvania, submitted a paper upon the development of the idea of a constitution in France before the Tennis Court Oath of June 20, 1789.

One of the most valuable economic papers was that of Mr. Edward Porritt, an English journalist now resident in Farmington, Conn., who described the origin and development of the labor movement in English national and municipal politics. The labor policy has been formulated since 1889. So far the labor party has principally confined itself in municipal politics to demands for the establishment of municipal workshops; for an eight hours' day for municipal work people; the abolition of the contract system in all public works; remunerative work for the unemployed, and reduction of the salaries of the legal, engineering and clerical staffs in the municipal service; and to attempts to compel school boards and town councils to usurp many of the functions and duties which Parliament has, since 1834, imposed on the boards of guardians for the relief of the poor.

Johns Hopkins University.



Among the numerous holiday meetings of learned societies and gatherings of specialists and educators was a conference held at Chicago of teachers of history, political science, political economy, and sociology. The movement for the conference originated with representatives of some of the Indiana colleges, who conceived the idea that such a conference of teachers of the middle West would be helpful to all, even if it led to nothing beyond the discussions of a few present problems in these fields on the pedagogical side. At their solicitation the instructors in these departments in the University of Chicago, through a committee of their number, issued a call for such a conference to be held at Chicago on January 2-3, and the University of Chicago extended her hospitalities for the occasion. The chief subjects suggested for the consideration of the conference were, "Methods of Teaching" and "Local Fields of Investigation." The call was sent to university and college teachers in the four lines named in the Mississippi valley, as far south as the Ohio and the State of Missouri. The invitation called out a cordial response by letter from many and a common expression of belief that a permanent association of specialists ought to result from the conference. At the conference there were present men from Michigan, Wisconsin, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, and Missouri. Two sessions were given mainly to the consideration of methods of teaching. The formal conference on this subject was opened by Professor J. Laurence Laughlin with a paper on "Method in Political Economy." This was followed by a paper on the "Teaching of Political Science," by Professor Jesse Macy, who was chosen as chairman of the conference. In the general discussion the methods of collegiate instruction and the feasibility of secondary instruction in economics and sociology received the greatest attention. While no formal expression of the ideas of the conference as a body on any phase of the subject was registered, the drift of the discussion was on the whole quite against present attempts to introduce these subjects in the "average secondary school" of the Central States.

From the beginning of the conference it was evident that the sentiment was almost unanimous in favor of organizing a new association that would bring together (1) the specialists of the four allied groups of history, politics, sociology, and economics, for the advantage of those in each group both as investigators and as teachers; (2) the workers in these fields in the Central States where on both the scientific and the educational side there are problems to be investigated and worked out that do not so directly interest other sections of the country, and (3) men whom no single existing society ever calls

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