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treats of population and vital statistics, pointing out fallacies that are likely to occur in the use of such statistics and giving rules for their correction. Another chapter, on "Meteorology," explains some climatic variations and gives directions for the measurement of temperature, humidity, rainfall, atmospheric pressure and velocity of the wind. The last chapter, entitled " Legislation and Health," is a mere enumeration of the topics covered by the English Public Health Acts, but it serves to call attention to the increasing scope of sanitary laws, and the great number of phases of municipal life that require regulation in the interest of health.

Under "Health of the Man" chief attention is given to dietetics. Numerous tables show the composition and qualities of different foods, in which attention is given to the proportions usually assimilated—a matter of no less importance than the intrinsic nutritive power which alone is indicated by the ordinary tables of chemical composition. Directions are given for the preparation of foods and the detection of adulterations, and, in subsequent pages, the subjects of clothing and personal habits are discussed. "Health of the House" is a treatment

of the problems of ventilating, warming, lighting and cleaning the home. The discussion is interspersed with numerous mathematical formulæ and illustrations of modern appliances. The problems of water supply and sewage disposal engross the chapter on "Health of the City," while the chapter on "Health of the People" embraces a classification and description of specific diseases, and a special treatment of the hygiene of the school and workshop.

While the most of the principles expounded are of universal application the value of the work to American readers is somewhat lessened by the exclusively English standpoint which is apparent in every section of the book. That the author is not familiar with American affairs is indicated by the very few references to American experience, in one of which he mentions Memphis, Tenn., as being in a tropical region and formerly ravaged by cholera.

There is more truth in socialism, thinks Professor Ziegler, than the anti-socialists are willing to admit.* But, on the other hand, many of the remedies which the social democrats would apply to social ills must fail. Ethical discipline is an indispensable complement, he thinks, which is not provided for. Moreover if there were *La Question sociale est une Question morale (Die soziale Frage eine sittliche Frage), par Tн. ZIEGLER, Professor de Philosophie à l'Université de Strasbourg; traduit d'après la quatrième édition allemande par G. PALANTE, Professor de Philosophie au Lycée de Saint-Brieuc. Bibliothèque de philosophie contemporaine. Pp. 172. Price, 2 fr. 50. Paris: Félix Alcan, 1893.

such an ethical training available as he thinks it is our duty to promote, many of the present ills of society could be corrected on the basis of the present social order without recourse to the reorganization which the social democrats proclaim.

The author does not try to study the origin and constitution of ethics; he does not inquire what should be comprised in a code of ethics suitable for modern society. He assumes that the code of Christian ethics is generally accepted, shows how much more might be accomplished through it than has been accomplished, and exhorts men to practice it to the end that social disorders may be eliminated from the body social. "The individual ought not simply to wait in hope. When he inquires within himself what to-morrow shall bring forth, he is not addressing a question to destiny nor is the answer a matter of fatality. The question ought to lead to a self-examination and to the conscientious inquiry: 'what can I do, in the place which I occupy, in the rôle which I am called upon to fill, to assist in the triumph of the social spirit?'"

The author's social philosophy, so far as he unfolds it in this book, is superficial. Now superficiality is not necessarily an evil. To be superficial is, first of all, to be incomplete, to lack thoroughness in a particular way. The evil arises from treating that which is superficial as though it were thorough. The social philosophy of the social dem●crats is notoriously incomplete in some respects. Yet they treat it as though it were complete and Professor Ziegler does not challenge it further than to add ethics, a new stone, to the superstructure. Again the social philosophy of the opponents of social democracy is not yet thoroughly scientific and complete. One of several imperfections is that it is too exclusively individualistic, and this the author notes. But for the rest he simply shows how ethics, which is a part of the current philosophy, has been neglected. Not only then is his philosophy superficial, being incomplete, but it is misleading because and in so far as its incompleteness is ignored.

Thus the value of a book depends-and of how many books may the same be said-upon the ability of the reader to allow for its shortcomings.

MR. M. L. MUHLEMAN, United States Deputy Assistant Treasurer in New York, calls attention, in a recent note to the editors, to a mistake in the foot-note on page 102 of the January number, in the paper on "How to Save Bimetallism." The statement is there made that "since the Act of 1890 silver dollars, silver certificates and treasury notes are received for customs." Mr. Muhleman writes that the silver dollars and silver certificates have been so received since 1878, the

so-called Bland-Allison law providing therefor. Mr. Muhleman also says that in the paper on Money and Bank Credits," the paragraph beginning at the bottom of page 75, of the January number, contains a misleading statement. "The present legal reserve of from 15 per cent to 25 per cent" does not, as one would be led to believe by Mr. Williams, apply to the redemption of notes, but to deposits only. The provision for a bank reserve for notes was abolished by the Act of June 20, 1874, which provided for a 5 per cent redemption fund. Moreover, this fund may be counted as part of the legal reserve to be held against deposits.



The American Economic Association held its Seventh Annual Meeting at New York City, in the buildings of Columbia College, December 26-29, 1894. The official program, which was carried out with but few modifications, was as follows:

WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 26—Evening Session, 8 p. m.

I. Address of Welcome,

President SETH Low, Columbia College.

II. Response by the President of the Association.

III. President's Annual Address. "The Modern Appeal to Legal Forces in Economic Life,"

Professor JOHN B. CLARK, Amherst College.

THURSDAY, DECEMBER 27-Morning Session, 10 a. m.

I. The Chicago Strike,

Hon. CARROLL D. WRIGHT, Commissioner of Labor. II. Paris Labor Exchange,*

Dr. SAMUEL M. LINDSAY, University of Pennsylvania.
III. The Unemployed,

Professor DAVIS R. DEWEY, Mass. Inst. of Technology.
Afternoon Session, 2.30 p. m.

I. Population and Capital,

Professor ARTHUR T. HADLEY, Yale University.

II. Credit Instruments in Retail Trade,

Professor DAVID KINLEY, University of Illinois.

III. Our Trade with the East,

Hon. WORTHINGTON C. FORD, Chief of Bureau of Statistics.

IV. The Pope and the Encyclical on Labor,*

Mr. JOHN GRAHAM BROOKS, Cambridge, Mass.

5 to 7 p. m.

Reception to the Association by President SETH LOW.

FRIDAY, DECEMBER 28-Morning Session, 10 a. m.

I. Competition as a Basis of Economic Theory,

Professor FREDERICK C. HICKS, University of Missouri.

* Owing to the illness of Dr. Lindsay his paper was not presented. To complete the program Mr. Brooks' paper was changed from the afternoon to the morning session.

II. The Theory of Public Expenditure,

Professor HENRY C. ADAMS, University of Michigan.

III. An Ideally Just Distribution of the Products of Industry,

Professor THOMAS N. CARVER, Oberlin College.

IV Application of Theories of Value to the Question of the Standard of Deferred Payments,

Dr. FRANK FETTER, Cornell University.

Afternoon Session, 3 p. m.

I. Statistics as an Instrument of Investigation in Sociology,
Professor RICHMOND MAYO-SMITH, Columbia College.

II. The Relation of Sociology to Economics,

Professor ALBION W. SMALL, University of Chicago. Discussion will be participated in by Professor S. N. PATTEN, Professor F. H. GIDDINGS, Professor WALTER F. WILLCOX.

SATURDAY, DECEMBER 29—Morning Session, 10 a. m.

I. The Historical School; a Retrospect,

Professor W. J. ASHLEY, Harvard University.

II. The Teaching of Economics in Secondary Schools.

A general discussion opened by Professor S. N. PATTEN, of the University of Pennsylvania, and participated in by Professor HENRY C. ADAMS, Professor LINDLEY M. KEASBEY, Dr. EDWARD T. DEVINE.

In spite of the severity of the weather the sessions were well attended, not merely by members of the association, but also by outsiders, who were interested in the subjects under discussion. As is shown by the program, the sessions on December 27 were given up to the discussion of practical problems of present interest, while the sessions on December 28 were devoted to a consideration of more theoretical questions. This method of division proved upon the whole very satisfactory and suggests the question whether it would not be an improvement in future to devote each one of the five or six sessions of the meeting to the consideration of some particular problem. In this way the attention of those present might be concentrated on one point and the discussion would be likely to be more fruitful than it has been in the past.

The papers presented were of an unusually high standard of excellence, and those bearing upon theoretical questions showed how thoroughly the ideas and the nomenclature of the so-called newer political economy have permeated the minds of American students. In addition to the events mentioned in the formal program there was held

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