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must get his greatest good in his work. But he cannot do so unless he is better trained to see and produce the beautiful and the skillful than is the ordinary apprentice. President Smart, of Purdue University, Indiana, who has been very successful in combining practical trade instruction with high school and more advanced work, presented at the annual convention of the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1888, the result of extensive inquiries as to the number of boys that had become successful workmen out of every hundred who had entered each trade mentioned. Of the carpenters, there were only eighteen; of the pattern makers, sixteen; of the blacksmiths, ten; of the moulders, seventeen; of the machinists, fourteen; or an average of fifteen to each one hundred. Evidently something must be done. What shall it be?

First should come far more of mental training through compulsory education from five to fifteen years of age, and ultimately five to sixteen. Next a thorough system of manual training properly taught by expert teachers should be a part of every school system from the kindergarten to the college. Such training develops, as experience in Toledo, Boston and scores of other cities is proving, manual skill and the development of the whole body and character. Its object has been well defined to be to add to the pupils' power of expression by verbal description the power of expression by delineation and construction. It tends to awaken a pleasure in honest work in the hard-handed as contrasted with the soft-handed occupations. It renders it possible for a boy to learn a trade more quickly after leaving school, and thus induces the parents to keep the child in school longer and thereby better equip him in other ways for life. It is beginning to be recognized that the worst enemies of workingmen are those who would confine public education, as some recent Chicago agitators would do, to "the three R's" that might fit the boy, as one of them urged to be "a clerk in O'Leary's grocery." If it be urged that the workingmen cannot afford to keep their children in

school more than three years, or that the public schools are not sufficiently equipped for better training, a sufficient reply is that the working men who have the votes, should demand such reform in taxation as will secure public revenue in proportion to ability to pay from the rich citizen as well as from the small house owner, and thereby properly equip our school and provide, where private charity may fail, such temporary aid to children at school as will guarantee to them a nearer approach than now to equality of opportunity with other social classes in the development of their manhood. Before a boy enters upon the duties of a trade or occupation, he should have such breadth of culture as will enable him to choose wisely and to be an intelligent citizen. One can never succeed thoroughly in any special occupation who has not a broad foundation, as the president of Heidelberg University recently said relative to professional training: "A specialist who is only a specialist is not a specialist at all."

Workingmen need great capacity for turning from one tool or machine to another in the same or a kindred occupation. W. T. Harris, Commissioner of Education in the United States, well put it when he said that, whereas formerly a man was obliged to spend seven years in learning a trade, he must now be able to learn a new one in seven weeks. Such are the vicissitudes of modern invention and industrial development. For all this, manual training is an excellent preparation. As Mr. Powderly said at the time. of President Smart's address just quoted: "Every schoolroom should be a workshop, a laboratory, and an art gallery. At present, a trade learned is a trade lost, for the learner does not have an opportunity to practice more than one part of his calling, and if thrown out of that one groove cannot fall into another. Under an industrial system of training, every American youth will know sufficient of all trades to step into whatever opens itself to him, and he will not be forced by circumstances to stand in the way of

another who is anxious to rise, but will be fitted to take a step forward at a moment's notice. He will always find work to do and will do it more rapidly, with better tools, and with greater reward than the artisan of the present." Both Mr. Samuel Gompers of the American Federation of Labor and Mr. George E. McNeill, of Boston, confirm my opinion that if any opposition by organized labor to public manual training schools ever existed, it has in most places yielded to hearty endorsement.

But something more is needed than manual training. This furnishes the foundation; but there should follow in some trades special trade instruction. The well-known authority upon education, Professor James Mac Alister, writes me: "I am strongly of the opinion that trade schools are needed to maintain the skilled crafts at a high standard of excellence, and that without them, labor, demanding intelligence and training, will deteriorate. Without them our productive industries and the men engaged in them cannot hold their own against the skilled labor of the most advanced European countries. We have not yet begun to realize the importance of technical education in the broadest sense of that term. The trade school is needed to bring the finer industries to perfection. It is clearly understood in Germany and France, and England is rapidly learning the lesson. Workmen in this country must learn to accept the schools in which their crafts are taught as the only means of raising the standard of their work and improving their economic and social condition. The same thing must be done for the skilled occupations of women. The courses in dressmaking and millinery in the Drexel Institute have this end in view."

It is well known that the superiority of France in works of taste and the rapid strides of Germany in dispossessing England of some of her foreign markets are partly attributable to the fine technical and trade schools which France and Germany have supported, partly through public, partly through private means. So far as can be learned, the

trade-unions in these countries have co-operated with the movement. In Paris, as I am informed by the distinguished economist, Professor Levasseur, there are twenty tradeunions that are affiliated with evening trade schools for the better instruction of those who work as apprentices during the day. The reputation of Paris in millinery and dressmaking is surely somewhat sustained by the eight fine schools for training girls in cutting, fitting and artistic designing. Belgium has also developed an excellent system of trade schools. For example, at Brussels there are trade schools in the building trades, tailoring, printing, watchmaking, etc.; at Liege, in iron mining, electrical work, etc.; at Ostend, in ship building and the fisheries; at Ghent and Verviers, in cotton weaving and dyeing. Most of these schools have night and even Sunday forenoon sessions for those that can best come then and week-day sessions for others. A large portion of the pupils are regular apprentices, and, what is most vital, they are thoroughly taught. There is no pretence, as in some American schools, to teach all of a trade in three evenings a week for six months. The evening school course for journeymen weavers at Enschede, Holland, is six school months each year for six years. In the United States Consular Report for October, 1893,* are interesting accounts of trade instruction in Europe. Our Consul at Rotterdam, Mr. William E. Gardner, thus writes: "Next to educators themselves, employers of skilled labor are the most pronounced advocates of trade schools, which do not cheapen, as these men testify, but only improve the grade of skilled labor, making it not merely profitable to the employer, but more marketable. The old adage that 'there is room at the top' is proved anew in the experience of the country thus far with its trade-school graduates. Strangely enough, as it will appear to Americans, there is not, on the part of journeymen mechanics, any serious protest against an increase of skilled * Pp. 187-287.

workers, for two reasons: (1) There is not in the Netherlands, as in England and the United States, the compact labor organization to crystallize and make public any latent objection that may exist; and (2) the older shoptrained mechanic, from whom opposition would be naturally expected, is probably also the father of a boy or girl who is having the benefit of virtually free training in the local trade school. Thus is the disadvantage of the school in its relation to him as a mechanic quite offset by its advantage in its relation to him as a father; and, on the whole, he has no fault to find." In view of the favor shown to these trade schools by such labor organizations as do exist in Paris and elsewhere, it may be safely said that the second of the above two reasons is far more important than the first.

The recent report of the United States Labor Commissioner on Industrial Education is an invaluable presentation of the great work of European trade schools. Nowhere in all the report is there a hint of trade-union opposition. In Brussels the Typographical Union took the initiative in establishing a trade school. After five years' attendance, pupils successful in the examination receive a diploma entitling them to the wages of a skilled workman. The governing committee of the school is equally composed of workmen and employers.* A similar school was started in 1886 by the Printers' Union at Paris. All of the graduates, says the report,† have entered into positions found for them by this union. The report declares that the considerable effort of the past twenty-five years to raise the standard of trade education in France has come from the side of labor organizations, industrial employers" and private and benevolent institutions. The report also declares, in speaking of. the Belgian trade schools:§ "The value of these institutions

* Eighth Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor of the United States,

p. 192.

† Page 277.

Page 277. ¿Page 199.

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