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scribes the apprentice system of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co. of Pittsburg.
DOOLEY, W. H. German and American methods of production. Atlantic, May, 1911.
Gives a general comparison of German and American workshops with a fairly full account of the German system of industrial schools. DUNCAN, J. Efficiency. Journ. of Accountancy, May, 1911.
The author, who is first vice-president of the American Federation of Labor charges that scientific management is a plan to speed up workmen, wear them out, reduce wages, and break up the unions. It does not offer a solution for the workman's greatest problem, uncertain employment. This address was also published in the American Federationist for May.
EMERSON, H. The fundamental truths of scientific management. Journ. of Accountancy, May, 1911.
Argues against four fallacies used by labor leaders who oppose scientific management, namely: that a partisan has the right not only to plead but to decide a cause, that the laws of evolution can be stayed, that more result necessarily means more work, and that increased efficiency will throw men out of work.
FAGAN, J. O. The dream of scientific management. Journ. of Accountancy, May, 1911.
The soundness of the principles of scientific management may be taken for granted but their reception by organized labor is the great problem. The unions have brought about conditions on American railroads such that the financial attractions offered them by scientific management are overshadowed. Mr. Fagan intimates that the reply of organized labor will be that scientific management should be applied to Wall Street promoters, capitalists, and to railway officials rather than to labor. This is borne out by the article of James Duncan, First Vice-President of the American Federation of Labor, in the same issue. FRANKLIN, B. A. Quality piece-work: an interesting plan for improving output. Engg. Mag., May, 1911.
The effect of bonus plans depending upon the quantity of work done is detrimental to quality. The author explains some piece-rates which involve a sliding scale of remuneration depending on the percentages of waste and of seconds produced.
HUDSON, F. C. The machinist's side of Taylorism. Am. Mach., Apr. 27, 1911. The removal of planning to a separate department and the control of workmen by detailed instructions removes from the latter ambition and responsibility.
PARKHURST, F. A. Applied methods of scientific management. Indust. Engg., June, 1911.
A series of articles is being published in Industrial Engineering on scientific management, of which this is the third. In this article the functions of a superintendent and of a planning department are briefly described.
TAYLOR, F. W. Principles of scientific management. Am. Mag., Mar., Apr., May, 1911.
A series of articles in which Mr. Taylor presents some portions of his book The Principles of Scientific Management.
Corporations and Trusts
(Abstracts by M. H. Robinson)
COLLA, G. I sindaci delle anonime. Rif. Soc., June, 1911.
Directors who do not direct, in Italian stock companies.
FIELDS, F. W. The trust problem in Canada. Bankers' Mag. (London), Aug., 1911.
Calls attention to the remarkable development of industrial consolidations in Canada during the years 1909-10, a period which in Canada is comparable with that in the United States during the years 1899-1901. Contains description of the Canadian method of dealing with the problem through investigations under the Combines Investigation Act, under the direction of, and at the expense of, the government. The committee of investigation is made up of a representative of the parties making the complaint, one representing the parties against whom the complaint is made, and a judge of some Canadian court selected as chairman by the representatives of the interested parties. It is expected that appropriate legislation will follow the investigation of the various complaints.
GELDART, W. N. Legal personality. Law Quart. Rev., Jan., 1911.
Discusses the various theories of group personality in corporations and labor unions.
GROSSCUP, P. S. and others. The supreme court decisions. N. Am. Rev., July, 1911.
A symposium upon the supreme court decisions in the Standard Oil and Tobacco cases. Judge Grosscup discusses the judgment; W. J. Bryan, the reason; Mr. Larkin, the effect; Frederick R. Coudert, the record; J. M. Beck, the quandary; and Samuel Untermeyer, the remedy. The contribution of Mr. Coudert is an able presentation of the historical evolution of the idea of monopoly in English law. HECKSCHER, E. F. En möjlig verkan af den nya bolagsbeskattningen. Ek. Tidskr., May, 1911.
Believes that a possible effect of the new corporation tax in Sweden will be to accelerate the movement toward combination.
KAMENSKY, P. W. Die Bedeutung der handelsgewerblichen Trusts im Westen und in Russland. Kartell-Rundschau, May-June, 1911.
So far as American trusts are concerned, the work is of little value; extravagant in statement and lacking judicial poise. The author is a strong advocate of state control.
LEIGH, J. G. The inside of a "combine." Econ. Rev., July, 1911.
Combines and trusts have been used by tricky politicians as a scapegoat for their own deficiencies. Such organizations are necessary to
prevent waste of competition. In America, however, there seems to be no hope for their nationalization; consequently they must continue to be operated under the control of private parties. Contrary to the general opinion, the parties in control are just and considerate to their employes, fair to their customers, and honest in their dealings with the stockholders and other owners. Mr. Leigh writes from his own experiences.
MACHEN, A. W., JR. Corporate personality. Harvard Law Rev., Feb., Mar.,
Treats of the development of Roman ideas and the European doctrines regarding corporate personality, gives a comparison of the theories, and states conclusions in regard to the status of the idea as illustrated in modern corporations.
MACLAURIN, R. C. The Sherman Act. Rollins Mag., Oct., 1911.
Author states that "the march of science" has forced the world to do business on a large scale. The Sherman Act is capable of two different meanings: First, a literal one; and second, a reasonable one. Under the first interpretation, which the courts have followed until the decision in the Standard Oil case, the law was in direct opposition to the tendencies of the times; and under the second interpretation a large amount of discretion is necessarily left to the judical and executive authorities at Washington. The existing law is, then, radically bad, and on account of its uncertainty the author believes that few fair-minded men would approve of the enforcement of its criminal features, when even the Supreme Court itself has been unable to agree upon a permanent policy in regard to its meaning.
NEcco, A. Le società per azioni in Italia. Rif. Soc., June, 1911.
A collection of statistics on Italian stock companies for recent years. PINNER, F. Erdöltrust. Die Bank, June, 1911.
Describes the petroleum business in Germany and states that only two of the larger companies successfully passed through the recent crisis. It is impossible to carry on the petroleum business on a small scale successfully, and consequently the German petroleum industry, as in the United States, has naturally grown into a trust, and in addition an international union has been entered into between the German trust and the chief Austrian competitors. He believes that the latter engagements will prove disastrous to the German petroleum trust. POHLE, L. Das Problem der Entstehung des kapitalischen Geistes. Zeits. f. Socialw., June, 1911.
SCHIESS-ESSEN, E. Ein Missstand für die Kartelle im Submissionswesen. Kartell-Rundschau, June, 1911.
Writes from the legal standpoint and gives a brief, but clear statement of the German statutes and the decisions of the courts governing combinations for the purpose of bidding for work in common in the German Empire. He concludes that laws for the purposes of preventing combinations of the above character may be dispensed with without injury to the public welfare.
WALKER, A. H. A review of the opinions of the Chief Justice of the United States in the Standard Oil and Tobacco cases. Am. Law Rev., Sept.Oct., 1911. The unreasonable obiter dicta of Chief Justice White in the Standard Oil Case. Central Law Journ., June 19, 1911. "Unreasonableness" as applied to Trusts. Moody's Mag., June, 1911.
The middle 5,000 words in the decision, Mr. Walker affirms, are obiter dicta on the ground that "the decision in the Standard Oil case did not depend in the slightest degree upon the presence of any such limitation upon the statutory word 'restraint' or the statutory word 'monopolize' as Chief Justice White sought to place upon these words." Of these articles that in the American Law Review is the most extensive and is most completely supported by judicial decisions.
WILGUS, H. L. Standard Oil decision and the rule of reason. Mich. Law Rev., June, 1911.
A valuable article in a series devoted to "The rule of reason," as laid down in the Standard Oil case. Fortifies conclusions with a wealth of cases illustrating the judicial principles which he discusses. Concludes that there is not much encouragement to be found in the decisions for corporations operating along doubtful lines.
The corporation and its organization. Electric Ry. Journ., Oct. 7, 1911.
A comprehensive description of the Public Service Railway of New Jersey. The article describes its corporate organization, and gives several statistical tables illustrating the growth and development of its business. Some attention is given to the causes which led to its formation.
Konzentrationstendenzen im russischen Bankwesen. Zeitschr. f.
Socialw., Mar., 1911.
Konzentrationem im Bankgewerbe und Industrie. Berliner Jahrb. f. Industrie, 1911.
Labor and Labor Organizations
(Abstracts by George E. Barnett)
AMERICAN ACADEMY OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SCIENCE. Risks in Modern Industry. Ann. Am. Acad., July, 1911.
A series of articles on various aspects of the problem of industrial accidents, read at the annual meeting of the Academy, April 7, 1911. ANDREWS, I. O. Tendencies of the labor legislation of 1910. Am. Pol. Sci. Rev., May, 1911.
A brief review of the more important acts, classified by subjects. BEAUCHAMP, M. Insurance against unemployment. Westminster Rev., May,
BOWEN, S. The new labor spirit in England. Independent, Sept. 14, 1911.
The English unions are entering on a new phase of development. The old trade unionism is dead and has given place to syndicalism.
BOYD, E. S. The great seamen's strike. Int. Soc. Rev., Aug., 1911.
An account from the socialist point of view of the strike of the English seamen and dockers which began on June 13, 1911.
BRAUN, A. Organisierbarkeit der Arbeiter. Ann. f. Soz. Pol. u. Gesetz., No. 1,
A discussion of the differences in the attitudes of various classes of laborers toward trade unions. Laborers are classified according to race, sex, age, occupation, skill, education, the form of industry, and the wage system.
CEASE, D. L. Disability and death compensation for railroad employees. Ann. Am. Acad., July, 1911.
The writer is editor of the Railroad Trainman, the official organ of the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen. He asserts that the men
in the train service are not allowed time to follow the rules promulgated by the railroads, with the result that the accident rate is higher than it otherwise would be.
CLARK, L. D. Workmen's compensation and insurance: laws and bills, 1911. Bull. Bur. Lab., Jan., 1911.
Contains brief statements of the reports of commissions in seven states, a comparative digest of the laws enacted and of those proposed by commissions but not enacted, a discussion of the questions of constitutionality involved in the laws, and the text of all laws passed and of bills prepared by commissions, which did not become laws, as well as the text of the bills prepared by the American Federation of Labor and the National Civic Federation.
CLARK, V. S. The labor party and the constitution in Australia. Journ. Pol. Econ., June, 1911.
An account of the reasons which have led the Labor Party to favor such changes in the Australian federal constitution as will permit the government to fix the remuneration of labor in protected industries, and to acquire and carry on any industry declared by Parliament to be a monopoly.
COMMISSIONER OF LABOR. Fourth Report of the Commissioner of Labor on Hawaii. Bul. Bur. Lab., May, 1911.
Follows the plan of the previous reports in dealing primarily with wages and other conditions of employment. The completion of the second decennial census of Hawaii (1910) has made possible for the first time "a comparison of social and industrial conditions for two dates from data obtained by uniform methods and containing identical items."
COMMONS, J. R. Zur Geschichte der Internationalen Arbeiterassoziation in
den Vereinigten Staaten. Archiv f. Geschichte Social., No. 1, 3, 1911. The first part of the article describes the relations between the International and the National Labor Union; the second part covers the founding of American sections and the conflict between the German and American elements in the movement.
Cox, H. The despotism of the labour party, Nineteenth Cent., July, 1911.