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ciety 'owes them a living' and are, as a result, anti-social in every way. For obvious reasons, the author rejects this classification, and divides the men, for purposes of study, into several groups according to certain personal characteristics. Thus, typical chapters deal with the crippled and maimed, the insane, homeless old men, seasonal and casual laborers, chronic beggars, tramps, vagrant and runaway boys. In each of these classes, therefore, will be found men who belong to every one of the four groups mentioned.

The array of facts set forth in the chapter on "Confirmed Wanderers, or Tramps" is of special significance. As revealed by careful investigation, the principal reasons for leaving home were, in the order of their importance, as follows: (1) restlessness, or die Wanderlust, apparently responsible for about one third of the total number of habitual wanderers; (2) to seek work; (3) failure at home; (4) inefficiency; (5) breaking of home ties; (6) to escape the law; (7) mental or physical defects or illness; and finally (8) unguarded railway tracks. This last factor is regarded as the largest single contributory cause of vagrancy.

Chapter XIII, on "Homeless, Vagrant and Runaway Boys," is likewise full of human interest. Die Wanderlust seems responsible for the largest number of runaway boys; and this spirit is doubtless fostered and stimulated in many cases by difficulties with parents, step-parents, guardians or relatives. Removing the possibility of "free rides" on the railroads, however, and providing wholesome recreation as a counteracting influence, will undoubtedly prove valuable aids in the solution of the homeless boy problem.

Appendix A (pages 277-313) contains useful tables giving the conjugal condition, the physical and mental defects, the nationality, and the occupations of the various classes of homeless men under investigation. Appendix B (pages 314-329) aided by social photography, presents a vivid picture of the living conditions in cheap lodging-houses, which play such an important part in the careers of wandering men and boys. As this description clearly shows, aside from the risks of moral and physical contamination which the individual runs, there is the ever-present menace to the general health of the city, so long as the state and city authorities tolerate the unsanitary lodging-house. Appendices C, D, and E (pages 330-349) relate to homeless men in Minneapolis, and give in detail (a) the ordinances regulating lodging-houses in

Minneapolis, and (b) the regulations governing sanitary conditions in lodging-houses adopted by the Minnesota State Board of Health in January, 1910.

An additional chapter, if the author had been spared to write it, summarizing the more important general conclusions to be drawn from this intensive study of a limited field, and possibly emphasizing certain broad lines of future progress, would have been a welcome supplement to the instructive pages before us. The usefulness of the book is increased by a satisfactory index. WILLIAM KIRK.

University of Rochester.


BEAUFRETON, M. Assistance publique et charité privée. Preface by FERDINAND DREYFUS. Encyclopédie internationale d'assistance, prévoyance, hygiène sociale et démographie. (Paris: Giard et Brière. 1911. 4 fr.)

Advocates coöperation between private charities and public aid. CESBRON, M. Etude théorique et pratique sur les liberalités charitables. Du respect et de la volonté des bienfaiteurs. (Paris: Giard et Brière. Pp. 246. 1911. 6 fr.)

WEBER, A. Introduction à l'étude de la prévoyance. (Paris: Rivière et Cie. 1910. 7.50 fr.)

Dr. Chalmers and the poor laws. Preface by MRS. GEORGE KERR, and introduction by MISS GRACE CHALMERS WOOD. (London: D. Douglas. Pp. 235. 2s.)

Destitution and suggested remedies. (London: P. S. King. 1911. 6d.)

No. I of a series of manuals edited by The Catholic Social Guild. Caisse nationale des retraites pour la vieillesse. Législation et réglementation publiée par le Ministère du Travail et de la Prévoyance sociale. (Paris: Berger-Levrault. 1911.)

Socialism and Co-operative Enterprises

Die logischen Mängel des engern Marxismus. By E. UNTERMANN. (Munich: Verlag der Dietzgenischen Philosophie. 1910. Pp. xxiii, 735.)

In this rather prolix work, Untermann, in defending Josef Dietzgen, arrays himself against such socialists as Plechanow, Kautsky, and Mehring. According as the followers of Marx accept the philosophy of Dietzgen or not, they are classed by him as "broad" or "narrow" Marxists. Apparently a majority of the

leading German socialists are still in the narrow way. Bernstein and the Revisionists are so classed by the author.

What then is Dietzgenism or broad Marxism? It appears to be a sort of monistic philosophy which fuses method, philosophy, and actuality by means of a "world-dialectic." It stands opposed to several classes of metaphysicists: the dualists, who oppose nature to the historical development of man; the action-and-reaction thinkers, who reach no fundamental unity; and the dialectic idealism of Hegel. Marx and Engels, the author holds, brought the dialectics of Hegel into connection with materialism and applied it to social science, but Dietzgen went further and developed a worlddialectic, and freed philosophy and science from all metaphysical taints. Dietzgen saw that the development of nature and society is analagous to that of the individual spirit, and reached a logical law of evolution which makes possible a final solution of ethical problems. If a starving unionist asks whether he may justly save his family by becoming a strike-breaker, the author says that Kautsky has no answer. But Dietzgen would say that each question of ethics is not only one built upon the self-consciousness and relatively free will, which arise out of the necessity of race and social history, but also upon self interest. In order for the individual to exist, his will may have to decide against the ethics of mass or class. The individual will as an historical product cannot in all cases be free in the sense of class-ethics.

Several inconsistencies are found in the narrow Marxism. On the one hand its followers hold that the aggregate of the conditions of production, including nature, are decisive in social development; on the other they sometimes give economic conditions alone that place. Again, sometimes historical materialism is separated from natural science; sometimes social development, or even the whole human development, is made to rest on technical conditions.

An appended Erläuterung by Henriette Roland-Holst is also panagyrical and full of repetition. Dietzgen has correlated the spirit with the "world-all"; matter and spirit are one. The proletariat may now shake off the bonds of religious and moral tradition.


University of Texas.

Industrial Coöperation in Bristol. A Study in Democracy: Being an Account of the Rise and Progress of Industrial Coöperation in Bristol. By EDWARD JACKSON. (Manchester: Cooperative Wholesale Society's Printing Works. 1911. Pp. xiii, 606.)

The author's aim "is to give a plain unvarnished account of the coöperative movement in Bristol, setting forth all its early vicissitudes, and bearing testimony to the public spirit, the foresight, and the undaunted perserverance of its promoters." Book I, "The Persistent Principle," briefly treats of the mediaeval guilds of Bristol and of the beginnings of modern coöperation which is "the old spirit of fraternity adapting itself to the new environment." The first coöperative ventures were of Chartist origin, following a visit of Robert Owen to Bristol in 1840. In Book II, through 300 pages, is described the troubled growth of four local distributive associations, the first founded in 1382, and their amalgamation in 1905. Book III, "The Coöperative Movement of Today," weakly terminates with a composite of local information, largely extraneous, and an uninspired summary of the British coöperative movement.

The contribution to economic literature lies in Book II which is a source-book of coöperative practice in Bristol. Without originality, but with good sense, the writer describes the issues which year by year concern these four coöperative groups, treating events in the order of historical sequence. There is much detail inserted which is only of local interest, especially the frequent lists of officers and the descriptions of premises. There is, however, to be gleaned from this section a quite unbiased view of the inner workings of fairly typical local consumers' associations, especially through extensive quotations from letters, resolutions, and reports. The brief comments of the author on the more important issues are not profound but sane and practical. The whole leaves a strong impression of the necessary difficulties of successful industrial cooperation as well as of the educational value of the coöperative movement.

Harvard University.



DIEHL, K. Ueber Socialismus, Kommunismus und Anarchismus. Second edition, enlarged. (Jena: Gustav Fischer. 1911. 7 m.) Twenty lectures.

GREY, E. Sir David Hale. Inaugural address for the Dale memorial trust. With a memoir by HoWARD PEASE. (London: 1911. John Murray. 3s., 6d.)

The late Sir David Dale was the great nephew of the David Dale whose daughter married Robert Owen, and who did much to promote the famous industrial experiment at New Lanark. Sir David Dale was "a lover of conciliation and a pioneer in arbitration" so far as industrial affairs were concerned.

HAYWOOD, W. D. and ВоHN, F. Industrial socialism. (Chicago: Charles H. Kerr & Co. 1911. Pp. 64. 10c.)

HUBERT, E. Les conseils de prud'hommes. Leur origine. Leur fonctionnement. Legislation et jurisprudence. (Brussells: Imprimerie des travaux publics. 1911. Pp. 47.)

KNORTZ, K. Robert Owen und seine Weltverbesserungsversuche. (Leipzig: Edmund Demme. 1911. Pp. 45. 1 m.)

LAFONTAINE, A. Charles Fourier. (Paris: Bloud et Cie. 1911. Pp. 64. 0.60 fr.)

MUNDWILER, J. Bischof von Ketteler als Vorkämpfer der christlichen Sozialreform. Seine soziale Arbeit und sein soziales Programm. (Munich: Buchhandlung des südd. kath. Arbeitervereine. 1911. Pp. 132. 1.50 m.)

To be reviewed.

PFEIFFER, E. La société fabienne et le mouvement socialiste contemporain. (Paris: Giard et Brière. Pp. 172. 4 fr.)

A practical guide to the laws of April 1, 1898 and April 5, 1910. PROFIT, M. La mutualité nouvelle. (Paris: Giard et Brière. Pp. 390. 3.50 fr.)

ROSENBAUM, E. Ferdinand Lassalle. Studien über historischen und systematischen Zusammenhand seiner Lehr. (Jena: Gustav Fischer. 1911. Pp. viii, 218. 5.50 m.)

To be reviewed.

SCHAFFLE, A. The impossibility of social democracy. (London: G. Allen. Pp. 336. 3s., 6d.)

SLOCOMB, G. W. Something for nothing; what it is and how it may be cured; or, single tax socialism. (Los Angeles: G. W. Slocomb. 1911. Pp. 48. 25c.)

VIZETELLY, E. A. The anarchists; their record and their creed. (New York: John Lane. 1911.)

WEBB, and others. Socialism and individualism. (New York: John Lane. 1911. Pp. 102. 75c.)

Anti-social union speakers' handbook. (London: P. S. King. King. 1911. 2s.)

The Coöperative Wholesale Societies. Annual for 1911.

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