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form for the use of the elementary student and volunteer religious worker, the principles of social service which have already been worked out by the leaders in this field.


Ohio State University.


ALLEN. Housing of working class. Third edition. (London: Butterworth. 1911. 12s. 6d.)

GREENWOOD, A. Juvenile labour exchanges and after-care. Introduction by Sydney Webb. (London: P. S. King. 1911. 1s.)

MANGOLDT, K. v., editor. Jahrbuch der Wohnungsreform 1908-1910. Annual No. 5, Deutschen Verein für Wohnungsreform. (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht. 1911. Pp. 224. 2 m.)

To be reviewed.

OLIVETTI, G. Manuale di legilazione sociale. (Turin: Nazionale. 1911. Pp. vii, 215. 2 1.)

PUDOR, H. Zur Sozialpolitik des Mittelstandes. (Leipzig: Felix Dietrich. 1911. Pp. 64. 1 m.)

WOODS, R. A. and KENNEDY, A. J., editors. Handbook of settlements. (New York: Charities Publication Committee. 1911. Pp. xiii, 826.)

Insurance and Pensions

Industrial Accidents and their Compensation. GILBERT L. CAMPBELL. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Pp. 105. 1911. $1.00.)

This book was awarded a Hart Schaffner & Marx prize; when first written, "it represented undergraduate work." A few years ago the essay would have been deemed radical, since it is an argument in favor of workmen's compensation as a substitute for employers' liability; now it seems conservative in view of what has been done and is now being proposed, except that the author concludes, on page 81, "The situation is one demanding not only a thorough reformation in legal principle and procedure, but also insistence by the state upon the adequate insurance of individual workingmen."

Mr. Campbell reviews the different forms of compulsory insurance laws which are in use in various countries and also the plans which have been proposed in the United States. He also discusses accident statistics with an estimate of the social cost, the amount and character of compensation now paid, and the principles and

application of existing employers' liability laws. His own judgment is as follows:

"Efforts to compel employers to insure their men against accident would be met with active resistance in the United States, and requirements as rigid as those of Germany and Austria would be justly condemned by public opinion. But to secure its citizens in their personal rights is a proper police function of the state, and our laws should insist that employers, at their own expense, insure their men for the amount of the stipulated compensations. Such guarantee should be by insurance in private, mutual, or governmental casualty concerns, or by the deposit of approved securities."

The conclusion of the author is, in effect, that there should be compulsory insurance, with choice of companies, such as is found in Italy, and in a form which makes the state directly liable, but permits insurance in private companies, upon putting up proper bond to protect the state, as in Holland. So far as these systems do not entirely stifle private insurance, they leave the evils of the agency system untouched; and they also require the maintainance of "capitalized value" reserves; whereas under the German system only so much is annually raised by the taxation of employers as is required to meet the current outlay with a moderate provision for a reserve against financial crisis.

Pensionskassen und Arbeitsvertrag.


By PHILIP LOEWENfeld. (Munich: J. Schweitzer Verlag. 1911. Pp. vii, 104. 2.80 m.) This monograph is apparently a part of a larger work on the same general subject, although there is nothing to indicate this fact except the title page, which bears the designation of Part I. It treats of the benefit associations, their form of organization, administration, aims, and the benefits paid,-that exist in the larger German industries.

The author classifies the German associations into three main groups, using as a basis of classification the character of the management of the funds, those managed solely by the employers, those managed solely by the laborers, and those in which there is a joint management. Under each are a number of subdivisions, showing particular characteristics. Here, as throughout the monograph are given numerous examples of benefit associations in operation in various firms.

The three principal aims as set forth in the regulations governing the funds, are, to provide invalidity, widows' and orphans' pen

sions. In considering the regulations for granting the benefits, attention is directed to the attitude of employers, which is so frequently embodied in the regulations, namely the disposition to bind the workmen to the firm. The usual method is to make withdrawal from the plant, from whatever cause, the occasion for a loss of rights to benefits. The workmen complain of such regulations as an encroachment on their right to quit work, and they have come to demand legal protection of their right to benefits regardless of their place of employment. The attitude of the workmen on this point is set forth in a series of resolutions (Cf. pp. 5-10), passed by various labor bodies and submitted to the Reichstag for parliamentary action. Loewenfeld concludes that legal regulation of these funds is not only desirable but necessary for the proper protection of the laborer's rights. This part of the monograph particularly should be of interest to American students, as it seems certain that workmen here will soon demand protection of their right to benefit funds to which they have contributed, without any restriction on their right to quit work.

Northwestern University.



ALDEN, P. Sickness and invalidity pensions. (London: P. S. King. 1911. 6d.)

BUISSON, E. La nationalisation des assurances.

Les documents du

socialisme, III. (Paris: Marcel Rivière et Cie. 1911. Pp. 73. 0.75 fr.) COUTEAUX, J. Le monopole des assurances. Historique, justification, fonctionnement. (Paris: Giard & E. Brière. Pp. 448. 8 fr.) EVANS, L. W. The national insurance bill summarised. (London: National Union of Conservative Associations. Pp. 31. 1s.) GEPHART, W. F. Principles of insurance. (New York: Macmillan. 1911. Pp. xv, 313.)

To be reviewed.

HOCH, G. Die Krankenversicherungs der Reichversicherungsordnung nach den Beschlüssen der Reichstagskommission. Ein Uberlick über die wichtigsten Beschlüsse. Krankenkassen-Bibliothek, No. 9. (Frankfurt: C. Schnapper. 1911. Pp. viii, 82. 1 m.) LLOYD-GEORGE, D. The people's insurance explained. (London: Hodder & Stoughton. Pp. 161. 1s.)

A reprint of the chancellor's speeches on the insurance bill, with text of the bill.

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LOMNITZ, H. Die systematische Bearbeitung der Veröffentlichungen
von Aktiengesellschaften. (Leipzig: B. G. Teubner. 1911. Pp.
83. 3 m.)

MANES, A. Grundzüge des Versicherungswesens. (Leipzig: B. G.
Teubner. 1911. Pp. vi, 146. 1.25 m.)

SCHAEFER, W. Urkundliche Beiträge und Forschungen zur Geschichte
der Feuerversicherung in Deutschland. Two volumes. (Hanover:
C. Brandes. 1911. Pp. xi, 246; vii, 241.
12 m.)
SCHUSTER, E. J. National health insurance. The parliamentary bill
examined and compared with the German scheme. (London: P. S.
King. 1911. 6d.)

SCHWANGER, E. Beschäftigung als Grundlage der Arbeitsversicher-
ungspflicht. (Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr. 1910. Pp. viii, 59.)

VERKAUF, L. Die Sozialversicherung als Organisations problem. (Vienna: Ignaz Brand & Co. 1911. Pp. vii, 303. 5.85 m.)

WITONSHI, J. Die Arbeiterversicherung in den Kulturstaaten. (Munich: Kempten. 1910.)

WOOD, H. K. The national insurance bill and the industrial agent. (London: Insurance Publishing Co. 1911. 2d.)

WORNER, G. Lehrbeispiele zur Theorie und Praxis des Versicherungswesens. Allgemeine Versicherungslehre und Privatersicherung. No. 1. (Vienna: J. Wörner. 1 m.)

National insurance bill. (1) Report of the special committees appointed by the council of the London Chamber of Commerce. (2) Part I, Health Insurance. Replies to letters addressed to the Chancellor of the Exchequer. (3) Part II, Unemployment. (London: Wyman & Sons. 1s.; 3d.; 3d.)

Statistics of fraternal societies. 1911 edition. (Rochester, N. Y.: The Fraternal Monitor. 1911. Pp. 250. 75c.)

Includes figures covering the plans and rates of fraternal insurance societies.

Versicherungsrechnung für Nicht-Mathematiker. (Leipzig: C. E. Poeschel. 1911. Pp. viii, 157. 6 m.)

Pauperism and Charities

The Almshouse: Construction and Management. By ALEXANDER JOHNSON. (New York: Charities Publication Committee. 1911. Pp. x, 263. $1.25.)

In publishing this book, the Russell Sage Foundation gixes a good example of one of the ways which it is following for the prevention of human ills, in the spread of intensely useful and needed information. The author, now general secretary of the National

Conference of Charities and Correction, was formerly a state inpector of almshouses and a superintendent of a notable institution for defectives. The book is small, readable, inexpensive. It should be in the hands of overseers, county supervisors, and superintendents of almshouses, large or small, the country over. Many matters of technique are given, such as easy varieties in diet; forms of records which are desirable; helpful ways of purchasing; details of store-keeping. There are touches from keen observation, such as the use of large piping for bath-tubs so as to allow many baths in a short time; the economy in repairs of having only standard sizes of window frames; understandings between superintendents and the committing officials, so that only the persons who ought to be inmates should be sent. There is treatment of the larger questions, whose importance every public official should feel, notably differentiation of needy persons between the almshouse and other kinds of aid; classification of inmates; occupation. The appendix of a hundred pages gives brief articles pertinent to the text, as on English and Danish institutions for the aged and infirm, imbeciles in almshouses, plans of buildings, record forms. There are several cuts of good houses.


One Thousand Homeless Men: A Study of Original Records. By ALICE WILLARD SOLENBERGER. (New York: Charities Publication Committee. 1911. Pp. xxiv, 374. $1.25.)

For several years, the secretary of the Central District of the Chicago Bureau of Charities which happened to be located in the heart of the lodging-house section, recorded accurate information about homeless men; and this volume, as the result of her work, bears eloquent testimony to the wealth of sociological material which the intelligent student may find in the files of any wellmanaged society for organizing charity. All observers of social conditions are familiar with the four more or less distinct groups into which the population of the cheap lodging-houses may be divided: (a) able-bodied men who work all or part of the year and are self-supporting; (b) men who are periodically or temporarily dependent,—often quite accidentally and through no desire of their own; (c) men who are confirmed dependents, such as the mentally, morally and physically inefficient; (d) those belonging to the class of beggars, criminals and tramps, who take the attitude that so

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