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HUBERT, L. L'effort allemand. L'Allemagne et la France au point de vue économique. (Paris: Felix Alcan. 1911. 3.50 fr.)
JACKSON, G. B. and DAVIS, D. W. The industrial history of the negro race of the United States. Revised edition. (Richmond, Va.: Negro Educational Association. 1911. Pp. 369.)
First edition published in 1908.
Joy, H. L'Italie contemporaine enquêtes sociales. (Paris: Bloud et Cie. 1911. Pp. 316. 3.50 fr.)
KOLLMAN, J. Die Grossindustrie des Saargebiets. Vol. I of Deutsche Arbeit. (Stuttgart: Frankh'sche Verlagshandlung. 1911. Pp. 80, 50 illustrations. map. 2.80 m.)
A connected account of the historic and technical development of the great coal industry in the Saar district.
LORINI, E. La Republica Argentina e i suoi maggiori problemi di economiae di finanza. Vol. III. (Rome: Loescher. 1910. Pp.
xxvii, 551. 20 1.)
MERRILL, J. A. Industrial geography of Wisconsin. (Chicago; Des Moines: The Laurel Book Co. 1911. Pp. 182, illustrations, maps, $1.00.)
MICHEL, E. Etudes statistiques, économiques sociales, financières et agricoles. Preface by M. LUCIEN MARCH. (Paris: Berger-Levrault et Cie. Pp. xx, 270, diagrams, map, illustrations. 10 fr.) NAVAIJ DE FOLDEAK, A. La Hongrie. Son rôle économique. (Paris: Fontemoing et Cie. 1911. 10 fr.)
NEUMANN, A. Die Bewegung der Löhne der ländlichen "freien" Arbeiter im Zusammenhang mit der gesamtwirtschaftlichen Entwicklung im Königreich Preussen gegenwärtigen Umfangs vom Ausgang des 18 Jahrhundert bis 1850. Supplementary Vol. III of Landwirtschaftliche Jahrbücher. (Berlin: P. Parey. 1911. Pp. x, 400. 7 m.)
PETERS, M. C. Haym Salomon, the financier of the revolution; an unwritten chapter in American history. (New York: Baker & Taylor Co. 1911. Pp. 47. 75c.)
ROBERTSON, J. A., editor. Louisiana under the rule of Spain, France, and the United States, 1785-1807; social, economic and political conditions of the territory represented in the Louisiana purchase as portrayed in hitherto unpublished contemporary accounts. (Cleveland, O.: A. H. Clark. 1911. $10.00.)
SIEGFRIED, A., and others. Les questions actuelles de politique étrangère dans l'Amérique du Nord. (Paris: Felix Alcan. 3.50 fr.)
Among the questions discussed are the economic development of Mexico, the Panama canal and Canada.
THEILHABER, F. A. Der Untergang der deutschen Juden. Eine volkswirtschaftliche Studie. (Munich: E. Reinhardt. 1911. Pp. viii, 170 2.50 m.)
Agriculture, Mining, Forestry and Fisheries
Die deutsche Seefischerie in der Gegenwart und die Mittel zu ihrer Hebung. By DR. HANS GOLDSCHMIDT. (Berlin: Carl Heymann. 1911. Pp. vii, 263. 7 m.)
In contrast with the Vienna school, which is inclined to pure theory, the Historical school of German economists prefers to preface theoretical considerations with an investigation of things as they are. Goldschmidt is a representative of this school; his book was prepared under the supervision of Schmoller, its leader.
Germany is eager to free itself from dependence on foreign countries for its supplies of meat and breadstuffs; its measures to attain this end include the fostering of agricultural technique and the levying of protective duties on this class of imports. The limitations of agricultural productiveness preclude the possibility of supporting on a land the size of Texas a population of 65 millions with a natural yearly increase of 900,000. Maritime fisheries offer the opportunity to extend the country's productive territory far beyond its political limits. Hence the significance of a study of German fisheries and of the means to develop them. Through study of fish literature, personal investigation of conditions and conferences with representatives of the fish industry and the fish trade, Goldschmidt prepared himself for the task.
The German fishing industry, with an average yearly catch of $7,500,000-in comparison with England's $50,000,000-suffers heavy disadvantage. Though most of the other lands of northwestern Europe have profitable fishing grounds in their immediate neighborhood, particularly England, Denmark and Scandinavia, the German boats have to sail the high seas for days before they come to paying grounds. The Scottish fisher can leave port in the morning and land his fish in the evening; it takes the German fisher days to get his fish home. This results in an increase of his costs of production; it requires him to have larger boats, stronger nets, more ice, etc. Other causes of the low state of the industry are minor to the one just given. Among these causes Goldschmidt mentions lack of coöperation among the fishers, the youth of the German herring fishery, the increasing lack of old, experienced fishers. The capital invested in German fisheries returns only 4 per cent on the investment and even this is due largely to the pecuniary support which the Empire gives the industry.
Excepting possibly in the case of herring, it would not be ad
visable to aid the industry by levying protective duties on imported fish. Custom-house delays would hinder the necessary expedition in getting imported fish from the boat to inland consumers. Moreover, commercial treaties with Belgium and Roumania stand in the way of duties on fresh fish. Goldschmidt recommends three classes of measures: first, the education of the German people to the cheapness and excellence of the fish diet, Germany's per capita consumption of fish being small; second, the direct support of the German fishing industry by means of preferential railroad tariffs inland and by means of imperial premiums or subsidies; third, the better organization of those engaged in the fish industry and the fish trade.
E. J. CLAPP.
New York University.
Bонм, E. F. C. The Carey act; how to acquire title to public lands under the act; a comprehensive survey of the regulations in force in the various states. Revised edition. (Chicago: National Irrigation Journal Publishing Co. 1911. Pp. 69.)
DAVID, F. Questions agricoles. (Paris: H. Dunod et E. Pinat. 3.50 fr.)
HEATH, F. G. British rural life and labour. (London: P. S. King. Pp. 318.)
To be reviewed.
HURD, R. Hurd's iron ore manual of the Lake Superior district, with values based on 1911 prices, and guarantees at Lake Erie, method of determination of prices, premiums and penalties, tables of values and statistical data. (St. Paul: F. M. Catlin, sales agent. 1911. Pp. 162, map, illustrations. $7.50.)
JOHNSON, J. P. The mineral industry of Rhodesia. (New York: Longmans, Green & Co. 1911. Pp. viii, 90. $3.00.)
Author is a member of the council of the Geological Society of South Africa.
NEUHAUS, G. Landwirtschaft und Gewerbe. Two volumes. (Munich: M. Gladbach. 1911. 4.50, 8.00 m.)
The first volume, that on farming, deals with the number and acreage of farms, proportionate yield, the personnel of farm management, live-stock, use of machinery, and vine growing and forestry. The second volume is on business, and discusses the characteristics of different callings and of those in pursuit of them. It discusses the employee, the market, use of motors and specialized machinery, and various forms of business management and enterprise. Estimates and classifications are embodied.
STANGE, A. Die Montan-Industrie Deutschlands unter Berücksichtigung ihres Bergbau und Hütten-Industrie. (Berlin: Adler-Verlag. Pp. xi, 418. 15 m.)
First report of the proceedings of the development commissioners for the period from May 12, 1910, to March 31, 1911. (London: P. S. King. 1911. Pp. 199. 3d.)
Among the topics treated are the policy in regard to agricultural development and forestry, improvement of fisheries and harbours, and inland navigation.
Die wirtschaftlichen Beziehungen zwischen der deutschen Industrie und Landwirtschaft. Verhandlungen der 39. Plenarversammlung des deutschen Landwirtschaftsrats 1911. (Berlin: P. Parey. 1911. Pp. 40. 1.20 m.)
Sugar growing in Britain: its effects on agriculture and rural life. (London: Britain Sugar Beet Council. 1911. 6d.)
National problems affecting the lumber industry: official report, ninth annual convention, National Lumber Manufacturers' Association, held in Chicago, May 24-25, 1911. (Tacoma: National Lumber Manufacturers' Association. 1911. Pp. 278. $1.00.)
The subjects discussed include chiefly the conservation of forest resources, workmen's compensation, practical forestry, scientific management as applied to the lumber industry, the Panama Canal and the railroads in relation to the lumber industry. The private view point prevails, and the papers are quite uneven in merit; but on the whole the volume is well worth attention. It is especially notable for showing, in a striking way, how absurd is the attempt to conserve the forests while maintaining competition.
Transportation and Communication
Mr. E. R. Dewsnup, in his review of my volume on American Railway Problems published in the March number of the AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW unfortunately has given members of the Association, and other readers of our official publication, a wholly misleading idea of the nature of my work. My critic has a quite extraordinary gift for mentioning some utterly inconsequential detail in such a way as almost irresistibly to suggest a vitally important inference which is the reverse of the reality.
As to his complaint that I did not devote more attention and space to the consideration of such matters as "the present state of efficiency of French Railroad companies," "the real significance of the purchase of the western company," "the Sherman Act," and
"national control of capitalization," I need only remark that I make no attempt to write an exhaustive treatise on the railroad problem, nor did I endeavor to convey the impression that I had made such an attempt. It was stated clearly in the preface that my purpose was to discuss certain of "our most important and least understood railway problems," and in the table of contents a list of these problems was given. It therefore seems fair to insist that I be judged by what I have said on the subjects which I set out to discuss, rather than what I did not say about matters I did not set out to discuss, but which I only mentioned casually as they happened to be connected with the problems which were singled out for special consideration.
As to Mr. Dewsnup's criticism of what I actually did say, I should be most happy to take them up and reply to them seriatim, and as a matter of fact, did so in a 2,500-word reply for which the editors of the AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW have been unable to find space. I therefore am compelled to confine myself to one solitary example of his critical methods.
Mr. Dewsnup attacks the position I have taken in regard to railway accidents. I am happy to be able to agree with him that the year 1905 was low-water mark for safety to passengers in American railway travel. But in no conceivable way does the recognition of this fact break the force of anything said by me in my chapters on railway accidents, as he so ingeniously infers. I stated that for a number of years travel had been getting steadily more dangerous up to 1905, with a slight improvement in 1906 and a discouraging relapse in 1907. I therefore suggested that the Federal Government ought to take vigorous steps to do away with all such accidents as are preventable at a reasonable cost. If there is any weak spot in this statement of facts or in this demand for reform, Mr. Dewsnup has failed to point it out. Having access to later statistics than were available when I wrote my chapters on railway accidents, those for 1908 and 1909, he calls attention to the fact that, "there has been an almost uninterrupted improvement since 1905," but seems to overlook the all-important fact that this improvement is very largely the result of governmental compulsion and the influence of an aroused public sentiment, rather than of railroad initiative.
Unfortunately, moreover, the improvement in the accident record for employees is not as marked as in that for passengers. The years 1908 and 1909 show no improvement over 1905 in the per