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assessment of the general property tax; the failure of state boards of equalization; the interesting attempt to apportion state taxes to counties on the basis of their expenditure; and the return to the old system of apportionment and equalization by force of judicial interpretation of the constitution.
HATTON, A. P. The influence of the adoption of the federal constitution on the finances of the middle states. Western Reserve Univ. Bulletin, May, 1911. Pp. 10.
The financial conditions of these states was improved, on the whole, by increased general prosperity, a sound currency, and the assumption of state debts by the national government. The surrender of customs duties to the federal government was offset by relief from quotas paid into the national treasury and the cost of state civil service lists. HERLT, G. Jungtürkische Finanzpolitik. Finanz-Archiv, 1911. Pp. 22-44. Deals with the first constitutional budget for Turkey; the public debt; the tobacco monopoly; the so-called state bank; currency problems and local finance.
JEZE, G. Les pouvoirs financiers du Sénat Belge. Rev. de Sci. et de Légis. Finan., Jan.-Feb.-Mar., 1911. Pp. 9.
The Belgian senate, though elective, is plutocratic. The Constitution of 1830, revised in 1892, gives the more popular branch the initiative in all financial legislation. Various interpretations of this constitutional provision are set forth.
KRUGER, W. Zwanzig Jahre aus Hamburgs Finanz- und Steuerwesen, 18891909. Annal. des Deutschen Reichs, Jan., 1911.
Traces growth of the city's budget and discusses relative merits of different forms of taxation for municipal purposes.
LEROY-BEAULIEU, P. Le contrôle des dépenses publiques. L'Econ. Franç., April 15, 22, 1911. Pp. 5.
The weak point in the control of public expenditures in France is not in the system of auditing, but in the lack of unified control over ministerial action, often resulting in extravagance and deficits. The author outlines a method for securing an efficient budgetary control. LEROY-BEAULIEU, P. Les nouvelles péripéties du budget de 1911. L'Econ. Franç., May 13, 1911. Pp. 3.
The editor of "L'Economiste" arraigns the Chamber of Deputies for its tardy preparation of a wasteful and extravagant budget and commends the efforts of the Senate Committee on Finance for its work in checking the Chamber, which in the last decade has become "radical socialist."
LUCK, A. Grossberliner Finanz- und Steuerpolitik. Preuss. Jahrb., Feb., 1911. Discusses the form of the budget-the backbone of self-government -and the different kinds of taxes, with special reference to their incidence. Concludes that existing taxes raise rents for the poorer classes. Nock, A. J. Canadian and American taxes. Amer. Mag., May, 1911. Pp. 12. Canadian provinces are able to use a classified property tax, while
we are condemned because of our rigid constitutions to adhere to the general property tax. Exemption of improvements and special taxation of wild land encourage thrift and industry in British Columbia. Author is a single-taxer.
NORMAND, J. L'octroi de Paris. L'Econ. Franç., May 27, 1911. Pp. 3.
Presents details of schedules, rates, and revenues. In 1910 the octroi of Paris yielded 116,602,192 francs.
ORTLOFF, H. Die Vermögensteuer in Sächsen-Weimar. Finanz-Archiv, 1911. Pp. 333-347.
A review of the discussion which led in 1910 to the enactment of an Ergänzungssteuer to avert a threatened deficit.
PLEHN, C. C. Die amerikanischen Vermögensteuer und ihre Reform. FinanzArchiv, 1911. Pp. 1-21.
A description of the property tax in American states and the various methods being proposed or adopted for its reform, such as centralized administration, heavier taxation of certain kinds of property, and the separation of sources for state and local tax revenues.
PRATO, G. Le dogane interne nel secolo XX: il mercantilismo municipale. Rif. Soc. (Supplement), Mar.-Apr., 1911.
A study of the financial results and theoretical basis of the policy of Italian cities in levying duties upon goods brought in from other parts of the country. The policy is vigorously condemned, for its consequences both to consumers and to public treasuries.
ROSSITER, W. S. Federal expenditure under modern conditions. Atlantic, May, 1911. Pp. 7.
Although increase of population is the chief cause of the growth of federal expenditure, there is much waste which could be avoided if (1) the various departments were managed by expert, well-paid, permanent under-secretaries; (2) if some non-commercial standard of efficiency, with discipline for shirks could be devised; and (3) if officials did not feel obliged to see that they leave no unexpended balances from their last appropriations.
SCHON HEYDER, K. Das Progressionsprinzip in der Besteuerung. Jahrb. f. Nat. Oek., April, 1911. Pp. 22.
An important theoretical study. States clearly the fundamental difference between taxes and other forms of public revenue and restates the case for the contributory theory, as against benefit theories of taxation. The author believes in the progressive principle, but attempts to show that Pierson's total utility basis for progression is scientifically inaccurate, while Sax was in error in basing the principle of progression on marginal utility. Professor Schönheyder expounds at length his own theoretical defense of progression, which he believes to be both scientifically correct and in harmony with popular ideas of justice in taxation.
SCHUBERT, J. Die Besteuerung des Haltens von Hunden im Deutschen Reiche. Finanz-Archiv, 1911. Pp. 281-296.
SHEPHEARD, W. P. B. Notes on land taxation in England. Journ. Soc. Comp.
TORMENBLADT, I, and D. D. Om beskattning af skog till husbehof enligt de nya skattelagarna. Ekonomisk Tidskrift, No. 3, 1911.
Discusses the Swedish income tax with reference to taxation of forest products used by the owner at home.
WATT, H. A. and HYNES, T. The present position of our national finance. Finan. Rev. of Rev., April, 1911.
WILLGREN, K. Die Anfänge der finanzwissenschaftlichen Forschung in Schweden und Finland. Finanz-Archiv., 1911. Pp. 141-166.
The science of finance began to develop in the seventeenth century, influences coming first from Holland and later from Germany and France.
-The budget of 1911. The Economist, May 20, 1911. Pp. 2. Mr. Lloyd George has been unsuccessful as a restraining influence on expenditure, though from the revenue standpoint his measures have been extremely successful.
The surplus and its interpretation. The Economist, April 8, 1911. Pp. 2.
As a result of the rejection of the budget in 1909, the accounts of two years have been presented together, making interpretation and forecast especially difficult.
Municipal tariffs in Italy. The Economist, May 13, 1911. Pp. 1. "In Italian cities there flourish a petty protection of the meanest type." The power of the local authorities to levy the octroi renders valueless any commercial treaty with the Italian government.
Tariffs and Reciprocity
(Abstracts by Henry R. Mussey)
BEVERIDGE, A. J. Canada's tariff policy. Am. Rev. Rev., June, 1911. Pp. 6. A brief historical account of Laurier's inability to redeem his pledges of free trade and reciprocity with the United States, and his present effort to accomplish the latter end. The issue in Canada will be determined by the comparative strength of the organized manufacturing and financial interests of the East and the unorganized farmers of the West.
CARNEGIE, A. A B C of the tariff question. Century, May, 1911. Pp. 3. For revenue purposes no duties on necessaries and heavy duties on luxuries; temporary protection for infant industries.
EINAUDI, L. Nuovi favori ai siderurgici? Rif. Soc., Feb., 1911.
Further governmental aid to the Italian steel industry should be discouraged because tariff protection to the steel interests already lays an excessive burden on the people.
FLOWERDEW, H. Psychology of tariff reform. Eng. Rev., May, 1911. Pp. 10.
A statement couched in psychological form of the orthodox abstract argument for free trade. The tariff reform movement rests on the assumption, accepted without examination, that the supply of labor is greater than the demand for it.
FOSTER, G. E. The reciprocity agreement. No. Am. Rev., May, 1911. Pp. 8. Reciprocity runs counter to Canadian aspirations for national independence. It means the exploitation of Canada's resources for the benefit of the United States, and opposes British imperial unity. Canada ought to reject it.
GIRETTI, E. Uno studio ufficiale del commercio estero italiano. Giorn. d. Econ., March, 1911.
An examination of recent figures of exports from Italy confirms the author's conclusion that the Italian protective tariff does not benefit the country.
HATHEWAY, W. F. Independence of what? The reciprocity treaty and Canada's future. New Eng. Mag., March, 1911. Pp. 4.
Persistent British neglect of Canada's interests has given rise to a desire for her independence; but independence would make Canada simply the backyard of the United States. She should reject reciprocity and urge on England a carefully worked out scheme of trade pref
PRICE, L. I. Canadian and American reciprocity and the future of the fiscal question. Econ. Rev., April, 1911. Pp. 22.
A slashing, indirect attack on British free trade and an appeal for imperial preference. Canada's overtures to England being refused, she has turned to the United States. Though the offer of preference is still open, if England does not change her policy and act promptly, it will be too late. The reciprocity agreement is a first step toward the disintegration of imperial trade.
REYNOLDS, S. The by-products of tariff reform. Eng. Rev., April, 1911. Pp. 11.
The tariff reform agitation has begun educating the British workmen in economics. The Lloyd George budget is one of the first results; a changed attitude towards socialism is another. When a real leader comes remarkable consequences may follow.
TARBELL, I. M. The stand-pat intellect. The tariff a moral issue. Am. Mag., May, June, 1911. Pp. 9 and 7.
The conclusion of Miss Tarbell's series on the mysteries and iniquities of the tariff.
TRIMBLE, W. J. The American farmer and Canadian reciprocity. Forum, May, 1911. Pp. 7.
The reciprocity agreement will hurt the farmer, no one knows how much. It is formed in the interest of the greedy organized manufacRatification should be delayed until we have more information. Suggests a special commission for that purpose.
WEAVER, S. R. The first negotiations for reciprocity in North America. Journ. Pol. Econ., May, 1911. Pp. 5.
A brief account of the overtures for reciprocal trade and advantages made by Massachusetts to Canada in 1647 and of Canada's overtures
WILLIS, H. P. "Costs" and tariff reform. Journ. Pol. Econ., May, 1911. Pp.
A hostile criticism of the Tariff Board plan.
Its theoretical basis
is already abandoned and its practical value is almost nil. We have facts enough. The Democrats have no such clear cut policy as is indicated by their catch word, a revenue tariff. The tariff question is primarily political and the Democrats should straightway head the popular mandate to cut down the duties.
Reciprocity between Canada and the United States. Quart. Rev., 1911. Pp. 18.
Beside the old clash between the interests of producers and consumers, the reciprocity agreement involves the prosperity of Canada's railways and the exploitation of her natural resources. Reciprocity would make imperial preference more difficult and by developing north and south trade might separate east from west Canada.
Population and Migration
(Abstracts by William B. Bailey)
BUNLE, H. Relation entre les variations des indices économiques et le mouvement des mariages. Journ. Soc. Statist., March, 1911. Pp. 12.
A study by means of coefficients of correlation in the effect upon the marriage rate in France of certain economic forces. Down to 1860 the marriage rate varied inversely with the price of wheat, but since that time the influence of the price of wheat has declined. The coefficient of correlation was computed for the movement of prices and of foreign commerce. In both of these cases there was a positive correlation. In England there was a high negative correlation between variation in the marriage rate and statistics of unemployment. March's formula is employed in determining the coefficient. The article will repay careful reading.
FILSINGER, E. B. Immigration-A Central American problem. Ann. Am. Acad., May, 1911. Pp. 8.
A short article emphasizing the importance of the problem of immigration to the five Central American republics, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Salvador, and Costa Rica. The effect upon possible international complications, and the economic development of the countries is pointed out.
GRUNSPAN, A. Hat der Mensch eine Parungszeit? Archiv für Rassen- und Gesellschaftsbiologie, Dec., 1910. Pp. 94.
The conclusion is reached that the evidence in favor of a natural pairing season for the human species is inconclusive. The births ap