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alas! in many cases he neglected the hedgerows, ditches and drains. In short he so reduced the expenditure on the whole operation of cultivating the land that he has starved the soil so that now it will not even pay for the decreased amount of care and money spent upon it."
Dairying suffered less from foreign competition than did grain farming. Much land formerly cultivated was converted into pastures and meadows. This change is regretted by the author because it does not conform to his reiterated phrase, "The test of true patriotism . . is the amount of foodstuff produced." In his insistent demands for a more intensive culture the author fails to appreciate fully the operation of the law of diminishing returns. One gets the impression from the book that the author would desire to have the agriculture of England so developed that it will enable England and her colonies to be self-sustaining from the agricultural standpoint. It is doubtful if the author holds fully in mind the fact that England developed into a great manufacturing and commercial country in order to manufacture and carry the commerce for a great colonial world which was rapidly being developed, and that there is no possibility of developing the agriculture of England to the point where the agricultural population will sustain the same relation in number to those in other occupations as is sustained on the average throughout the western world.
The book is written in a pleasing style and adds one important volume to the land reform literature of England. The author's viewpoint on questions of land reform is in close sympathy with that of Mr. Jesse Collings. There are long quotations on various subjects from the report of Roosevelt's Country Life Commission, and the whole trend and spirit of the book is that of the present time. Hence, the book is of value to one who wishes to know the present state of mind of the land reform leaders of England.
University of Wisconsin.
HENRY C. Taylor.
A History of the New England Fisheries. By RAYMOND MCFARLAND. Publications of the University of Pennsylvania. Series of Political Economy and Public Law. (New York: D. Appleton and Company. 1911. Pp. 457. $2.00.) This book is a comprehensive review of the history and present condition of the New England fisheries, and as such it occupies a
field by itself. The only substantial omission is the whale fishery, which is separately treated in another volume of the same series. The author's equipment is revealed by the imposing and critical bibliography, given on pages 338 to 363, and by his references to local investigations (p. 337). Chapter I, "The fishing grounds of the North Atlantic," describes the geographical conditions. Chapters II to X, discuss the history of the fisheries in relation to general history. Here the main points are well developed, and the deep-lying importance of the question will come as a revelation to those not familiar with it. The growth of the fisheries antecedent to settlement, the part they played in the early life of the colonists, their importance as a stake in the struggle between New England and France, and as a factor in arousing discontent between old England and new, are incontrovertibly established, while at the same time the author remains aware of the other factors involved. The features in the later history are the growth of the home market, in chapter IX, and the town by town review of conditions down to 1866, in chapter X, which extends to page 197. From this point to page 337, follow a series of topical chapters on herring, etc., shell fish, methods of the inshore fisheries, mackerel, cod, decadence of the deep-sea fisheries, the evolution of the fishing schooner, and diplomacy. These subjects are treated with considerable technical detail and general thoroughness. The appendices give statistical tables and the text of the Hague decision of 1910.
The author's handling of facts is, on the whole, good, but among so many, a few errors creep in: "$300," on page 62, should be £300; "Plymouth Company," on page 66, should be "Plymouth Colony"; the Spanish trade should be treated on page. 132; while on page 155, Adams should be mentioned rather than Clay. The general arrangement of facts and topics is admirable, although the summary of present conditions is unfortunately hidden (page 292). Lack of precision in style often obscures or distorts the meaning. On page 20 "at least" should be "at most"; on page 23, the sense requires that "granting, then," be changed to "even if we grant"; on page 324, the meaning of "found no case," etc., is clear only on a careful reading of the context; in the preface, the author says that the fisheries "still continue to be of greater economic importance than at any previous period," while it is clear from the preceding clause that he means "of greater actual valuation."
On the political side the book is weak. The author is in favor of a revival of the bounty system, page 286, and of a continuance of protection, page 336, etc. These views have not prejudiced his collection of facts, as his pages abound in material that might be used by their opponents (pp. 274-275, 290, 292, 325, 335-337, etc.). It rather seems that he is naïvely unconscious that any difference of opinion has existed within the United States on the subject of protection, and that he considers the only consideration pertinent to the bounty question, is whether bounties will benefit the fisheries. In view of the wide grasp of the other problems related to the fisheries, this gives a curiously incomplete and devitalized effect. With these exceptions the book is an excellent history and description of the fisheries.
University of Wisconsin.
CARL RUSSELL FISH.
Neoiobagia. By C. DOBROGEANU-GHEREA. (Bucarest: Socec and Company. 1910. Pp. 494.)
Neoiobagia or Neoserfdom is the most important and the most scientific study of the economic-sociological problem of the peasant and land question in Romania. The author is the best known and most respected socialist leader and literary critic of the country and in this work has combined his ability as a critic with his large scholarly attainments and profound knowledge of social conditions. As a faithful disciple of Marx, he traces the history of Roumania from the revolution to the present day and points out with remarkable skill the economic basis of the political, economic and social changes that have taken place in the last half century. He looks upon the "protective" laws which have been enacted since 1866 as harmful blunders intended to hold the peasant in bondage to the land. The granting of small holding has created a sort of feudalism that has insured a stagnant condition of the rural population and has prevented the industrializing of the lower classes, thereby retarding the development of the people and the country. The small holdings have been the most potent factor in keeping the peasant in what the author calls neoiobagia or neoserfdom. In analyzing the general condition of the country as related to its political and administrative system, he characterizes it as full of "economic contradictions, social anomalies and crowded with agrarian (rural) antagonisms."
The strength of the book lies in the impartial treatment of the
material and the complete laying aside of the socialist doctrine which the writer considers as wholly too advanced for the present mental status and industrial development of the peasant class. Such a point of view coming from a socialist of Mr. Gherea's standing is worthy of the highest commendation.
It is unfortunate that the book is written in Roumanian, a language not often known by foreign readers. The similarity of conditions in Russia with those found in Roumania upon which the book is based make the conclusions reached applicable to a vastly larger agrarian problem than is involved in the small territory occupied by the Balkan country.
Bureau of Social Research, Providence, R. I..
BAILEY, L. H. The country-life movement in the United States. Rural Outlook Series. (New York: Macmillan. 1911. Pp. xi, 220. $1.25.)
Discusses decline in rural population, reclamation, labor, the middleman, and general problems.
BUCHANAN, H. B. M. To work a grass holding at a living profit, and the cheap cottage problem. (London: Constable. 1910. Pp. vi, 102. 1s.)
Author is interested in the movement to encourage town dwellers to settle in the country. Gives the result of small holdings on his own estate.
CROWELL and MURRAY. The iron ores of Lake Superior, containing some facts of interest relating to mining and shipping of the ore and Location of principal mines, with original maps of the ranges. (Cleveland, O.: The Penton Publishing Co. 1911. Pp. vii, 186, illus., maps, tables, charts. $3.50.)
FISCHER, G., and others. Die Entwicklung des landwirtschaftlichen Maschinenwesens in Deutschland. Festschrift sum 25 jährigen Bestehen der deutschen Landwirtschafts-gesellschaft. (Berlin: P. Parey. 1911. Pp. viii, 486. Illus. 12 m.)
FROLEY, J. W. and SMITH, C. B. A system of tenant farming and its results. Farmers' Bulletin 487. (Washington: Department of Agriculture. 1911. Pp. 20.)
Why tenant farms deteriorate, the advantages, disadvantages, and fundamental principles of tenant farming. Gives an example of tenant farming on a large estate in Maryland. Explains the cropping systems, terms of rental and live-stock management, with some suggestions for improvement of the system.
GILMORE, C. L. Government lands and how to obtain them; a digest of the rules and regulations governing entries. (San Francisco: Hicks-Judd Co. 1911. Pp. 21. 25c.)
HAGGARD, R. H. Rural Denmark and its lessons. (London: Longman's. 1911. $2.25.)
To be reviewed.
LEVY, H. Large and small holdings. A study of English agricultural economics. Translated by RUTH KENYON. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, imported by Putnam's. 1911. Pp. viii, 249. 10s. 6d.)
To be reviewed.
SAWARD, F. E. The coal trade. (New York: The Coal Trade Journal. Pp. 190. $1.50.)
The thirty-eighth annual edition; author is editor of The Coal
WATERIDGE, F. W. Prosperous agriculture and home life. (London:
KNAFF, A. Beiträge zur Geschichte der Eisenindustrie an der mittleren Sieg. (Düsseldorf: Verlag Stahleisen. 1910. Pp. 88. 3 m.)
LINCKE, B. Die schweizerische Maschinenindustrie und ihre Entwicklung in wirtschaftlicher Beziehung. (Frauenfeld: Huber & Co. 1911. Pp. vii, 218. 4.50 m.)
To be reviewed.
NIEFIND, W. Die Existenz grundlagen der Mittelbetriebe in der Ber-
SALZMANN, F. Die Papierindustrie. (Berlin: F. Siemenroth. 1911.
Transportation and Communication
Die Entwickelung der Grossen Berliner Strassenbahn und ihre