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positive misstatements. Altogether one can not but wish that the author had applied his talent and his rich collection of material to some more modest task than the explanation, in terms of all the factors involved, of the localization of all industries.
Little need be said concerning Mr. Morris' book. It belongs to the old type of texts on the subject and illustrates all their faults. Almost wholly descriptive, giving bare facts concerning industries, products, and countries, it makes practically no attempt to set elementary pupils to thinking, as to the causes which have led to the present distribution of man's activities. Its only merit as compared with earlier books of its class lies in the fact that some of its data are of more recent date. Even its style is of the barest and most uninspiring kind.
University of California.
ARMINJON, P. La situation économique et financière de l'Egypte. Le Soudan égyptien. (Paris: F. Pichon et Durand-Auzias.
ASHLEY, W. J., editor. British dominions: their present commercial and industrial condition. (London: Longmans, Green & Co. 1911. 6s. 6d.)
To be reviewed.
BACHTOLD, H. Der norddeutsche Handel im 12. und beginnenden 13. Jahrhundert. (Berlin: Rothschild. 1910. 2 m.)
CALVERT, A. F. Nigeria and its tin-fields. (London: Stanford. 1910. Pp. xvi, 188. 3s. 3d.)
CHISHOLM, G. Handbook of commercial geography. 8th ed. (New York: Longmans. 1911. Pp. 66, 666. $4.80.)
COMMONS, J. R., editor. A documentary history of American industrial society. Vol. 10, Labor movement. (Cleveland, O.: Arthur H.
Clark Co. 1911. Pp. 370. $5.00.)
To be reviewed.
ECKERT, M. Leitfaden der Handelsgeographie.
3d ed., enlarged.
(Leipzig: G. F. Göschen. 1911. Pp. 296, 53 maps, 211 diagrams. 3.60 m.)
Treats particularly of Germany and its colonies.
FRENCH, G., editor. New England, what it is and what it is to be. (Boston: Chamber of Commerce. 1911. Pp. 12, 431. $2.00.) To be reviewed.
FRIEDRICH, E. Geographie des Welthandels und Weltverkehrs. (Jena: G. Fischer. 1911. Pp. viii, 429. 11 m.)
GALLI, G. Die finanzielle und wirtschaftliche Lage Japans. (Freiburg: J. Bielefeld. 1911. 0.75 m.)
GERARD, A. Notes sur l'industrie, américaine. (Paris: Ch. Béranger2 fr.)
GERLACH, G. Die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung des Eisenshüttenwesens an der Lahn und Dill im XIX. Jahrhundert. Ein Beitrag zur deutschen Wirtschaftsgeschichte. (Stuttgart: F. Enke. 1911. Pp. x, 108. 8.80 m.)
HAPGOOD, N. Industry and progress. (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. Pp. 123. $1.25.)
To be reviewed.
JAMES, J. A. B. The agricultural and other industrial possibilities of the gold coast. (London: St. Bride's Press. 1911. Pp. 109. 2s. 6d.)
Observations on the methods necessary for the development of agricultural and other industries on the west coast of Africa. LAWSON, W. R. Canada and the Empire. (Edinburgh: Blackwood & Sons. 1911. Pp. viii, 420.)
Author advocates imperial federation.
ing, and commerce.
Treats of finance, bank
MEYER, H. Zum Ursprung der Vermögenschaftung im deutschen Recht. (Weimar: H. Böhlau Nachf. 1.20 m.)
MITSCHERLICH, W. Der Einfluss der wirtschaftlichen Entwickelung auf den ostmärkischen Nationalitätenkampf. (Leipzig: C. L. Hirschfeld. 1910.)
MORISON, T. The economic transition in India. (London: Murray. 1911. 5s.)
Compares the recent condition of India with that of Europe before the industrial revolution. Discusses customary and competitive rents, decay of old handicrafts and other features in isolated communal life.
MULLER, W. Zur Frage des Ursprungs der mittelalterlichen Zünfte. (Leipzig: Quelle und Meyer. 1910. 3.20 m.)
NIRRNHEIM, H. Das hamburgische Pfundzollbuch von 1369. (Hamburg: Leopold. 1910. Pp. 197.)
QUARCK, M. Soziale Kämpfe in Frankfurt am Main vom Mittelalter bis an die Schwelle der grossen Revolution. (Frankfurt, Main: Buchhandlung Volksstimme. 1911. Pp. viii, 38. 40 pf.)
THERY, E. L'Europe économique. (Paris: E. Rey. 3.50 fr.) TUCKER, M. L. Handbook of conservation. (Boston: 1911. Pp. viii, 91. 25c.)
Author is chairman of the Conservation Department, Massachusetts State Federation of Women's Clubs. Contains a list of topics, brief comments, and three pages of bibliography.
TURNER, J. K. Barbarous Mexico. (Chicago: Charles H. Kerr & Co. 1911. Pp. 340.)
Devoted to a description of chattel slavery through which some 100,000 Yaqui Indians and native Mayas of the working class are oppressed. Claims that American capitalists are in league with the Mexican government.
VIALAY, A.. Les cahiers de doléances du tiers état aux états genéraux de 1789. Etude historique, économique et sociale. Preface by RENE STOURM. (Paris: Perrin et Cie. 1911. Pp. xv, 368.) WISE, J. C. The early history of the eastern shore of Virginia; an exhaustive history of the institutions and social and economic conditions of the eastern shore of Virginia from its earliest settlement by the whites down through the seventeenth century. (Richmond, Va.: Bell Book & Stationery Co. 1911. Pp. 875. $2.00.)
Agriculture, Mining, Forestry, and Fisheries Report of the Commission on Country Life. Introduction, by THEODORE ROOSEVELT. (New York: Sturgis and Walton Company. 1911. Pp. 150. $0.75.)
This report needs to be judged with due consideration to what its authors declare it to be, namely "a summary of what is already known, a statement of the problem, and a recommendation of measures looking towards its solution." This field is defined as "the general social, economic, sanitary, educational and labor conditions of the open country." The work of this commission was necessarily hurried, and was in no sense a scientific investigation. The evidence received was popular and for the most part the result of personal observation and opinion. The plans to add statistical data were dropped when Congress failed to provide for the printing of the complete report of the commission. The report probably will secure wider attention due to the interesting and readable form in which it is presented, since it is in marked contrast to the bulky, statistical reports issued by many commissions in the past.
The substance of the report is divided into three main divisions: first, a general statement of the situation; second, the main deficiencies; and third, the general corrective forces, which should be set in motion. Many press reviews and public comments on the report have given the impression that the commission assumed that there were certain deficiencies in country life and that its work was
to discover and recommend remedies. Such an assumption appears in the letter of appointment by President Roosevelt, but there is no evidence that the members of the commission held such opinions before they met in this body. The report specifically states "the Commission has not assumed that country life conditions are either good or bad." The testimony upon which the report was based was collected by holding thirty public hearings in widely separated localities supplemented by over 100,000 question blanks returned by persons in all vocations related to country life. Through personal correspondence and inquiry by members of the commission and a few special school house meetings held at the suggestion of the President, further testimony was collected. The main special deficiencies in country life, which were chosen for special discussion because they were considered most significant and called for immediate action, were six in number. These did not include the main single deficiency, the lack of proper education, which was so general as to require discussion only under the head of recommendations. Particular emphasis was given to the widespread disregard of the rights of land workers as expressed in the speculative holdings of land, the monopolistic control of streams, the wastage and control of forests, the restraint of trade, etc. Education and good roads were the two needs most frequently mentioned in hearings. Soil depletion and its effects was duly emphasized and the presence of a soil exhausting system of farming was mentioned in the hearings in nearly every section. The scarcity and unsatisfactory character of farm labor with the allied problems of intemperance and social barrenness were mentioned as an acute problem. Health conditions in many parts of the open country were found to be an urgent need of betterment. In the division of the report presenting the corrective forces that should be set in motion the need of the development of community effort and social resources is urged. Perhaps no sentence in the report sounds the keynote of the feeling of the commission better than "country life must be made thoroughly attractive and satisfying as well as remunerative and able to hold the center of interest through one's lifetime.” As a beginning, the commission recommends agricultural or country life surveys, a redirected education, coöperation for social and business purposes. The report presents a summary of the position and importance of the country church and notes the advantages of church federations in certain communities.
The publication of this report in permanent form will aid in making it more accessible as a part of the literature of the country life movement. The limited edition published as Senate Document, No. 705, 60th Congress, 2nd Session, was soon exhausted and the only general distribution was made in the Pacific Northwest when the Spokane Chamber of Commerce reprinted the report to promote the country life movement in that region.
University of Wisconsin.
J. CLYDE MARQUIS.
Land Problems and National Welfare: By CHRISTOPHER TURNOR. (London and New York: John Lane Company. 1911. Pp. xvii, 344.)
This volume contains chapters treating of the landowner, the farmer and the rural laborer; followed by discussions of agricultural education, the question of land ownership, small holdings, agricultural organizations and the relation of land to the political questions of the Empire. It makes no pretense of being an historical, scientific or philosophical treatment but is the presentation of the views of an English landlord based upon his own experience and his observations in England and on the continent. Immediate causes are discussed but the trend of the economic forces which have made these problems is, apparently, not fully in the mind of the author. The book is valuable because of the descriptive material it contains. The author is familiar with the present system of land tenure in England and is able to describe its strength and weaknesses. He advises landlords to reform the land system on their own motion rather than wait until reform is forced upon them, and to study agriculture in order to be leaders in agricultural progress in the regions in which their estates lie. "The test of true patriotism for the agriculturist is the amount of food stuff that he can produce."
Much emphasis is given throughout the book to the great need of more intensive culture. The author regrets that during the last twenty-five years there has been a movement in the direction of a more extensive culture. This, of course, was occasioned by the falling price of wheat due to foreign competition.
"The English farmer met this competition and the resulting depression by reducing his expenditure on the land, by cutting down his labor bills, by largely diminishing the tillage, by plowing four inches deep instead of six inches, by working the soil less, and by putting less into it in the way of manure; also,